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l^jTRI'STtEb  Ol-    THE    BRITISH    MuitUM    iNaIUKAL    Hl-NrORV)     1965 

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IT  IS  a  commonplace  that  novelty  exercises  such  an  attraction  that  it  frequently 
diverts  to  itself  a  measure  of  attention  out  of  all  proportion  to  the  true  value  of  the 
subject  or  object.  In  science  the  field  of  every  new  discovery  forthwith  becomes 
the  focal  point  round  which  attention  centres,  to  the  detriment  of  other  fields  more 
important  but  less  glamorous.  The  tide  of  geographical  exploration  in  the  nineteenth 
century  with  its  accompanying  flood  of  zoological  novelties  exercised  precisely  this 
effect  with  the  result  that,  whereas  the  vertebrate  faunas  of  the  Ethiopian,  Oriental, 
Nearctic,  and  e\'en  the  Australian  and  Neotropical  regions,  have  been  more  or  less 
comprehensively  listed  in  recent  years,  there  have  been  few  comparable  works 
relating  to  the  Palaearctic  region  where  taxonomic  zoology  was  born  and  cradled. 
The  present  work,  whose  geographical  limits  have  been  selected  to  link  up  with 
Chasen's  (1940)  list  of  Malayan  mammals  and  Allen's  (1939)  similar  list  for  the 
Ethiopian  region,  is  an  attempt  to  remedy  this  lack  of  balance  in  the  field  of 
systematic  mammalogy. 

The  authors  have  succeeded  in  producing  a  list  which  is  not  merely  one  of  the 
working  tools  that  every  systematist  must  make  for  his  own  use.  It  is,  in  fact,  a  critical 
revision,  shorn  of  all  detailed  argument,  based  on  the  unrivalled  collections  of  the 

British  Museum  (Natural  History)  H.  W.  Parker 

London  Keeper  of  ^oology 


In  the  course  of  reprinting  the  opportunity  has  been  taken  to  incorporate  the 
amendments  contained  in  the  sheet  originally  issued  with  the  work,  and  those 
published  later  \nj.  Mammal.,  1953,  34:  516-518,  as  well  as  some  which  have  since 
come  to  light.  These  amendments  have,  where  possible,  been  made  to  the  text  itself; 
but  those  which  were  too  long  to  be  dealt  with  in  this  way  have  been  printed  as 
additional  page  742d. 

A  list  of  names  which  were  overlooked  in  the  original  edition  appears  as  additional 
pages  742a-c.  Mr  J.  E.  Hill  has  been  responsible  for  this,  as  well  as  for  in- 
corporating the  amendments  referred  to  above. 

No  taxonomic  alterations  have  been  made,  and  it  has  not  been  possible  in  a 
piiotolithographic  edition  to  deal  with  forms  described  since  1946. 

June  1 96-, 

British  Museum  (Natural  Histoi"y)  T.    C.    S.    Morrison-Scott 

London  Director 

Dedicated  to  the  memory  oj 

JAMES    LAWRENCE    C  H  AW  O  RT  H  -  M  V  STE  RS 


OUR  late  friend  and  colleague,  James  Lawrence  Chaworth-Musters,  had  spent 
I  much  time  latterly  on  the  synonymies  of  the  species  of  Palaearctic  mammals, 
and  in  particular  had  devoted  much  patient  research  to  the  type  localities 
and  dates  of  publication  of  species  described  in  the  eighteenth  and  early  nineteenth 
centuries.  At  the  time  of  his  death,  in  April  1948,  he  had  nearly  completed  this  work 
for  the  Insectivora  and  done  much  of  the  Chiroptera  and  Rodentia.  His  executors 
kindly  placed  his  manuscript  cards  and  foolscap  sheets  at  our  disposal,  and  we  have 
made  free  use  of  the  data  referred  to  above.  His  death  was  a  most  untimely  and  un- 
fortunate loss  to  the  Museum  and  to  his  friends  and  colleagues.  (An  obituary  notice 
appears  in  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  1949,  30:  95.) 

Extent  .\nd  Method  of  this  \Vork 

The  area  covered  by  this  work  is  the  Palaearctic  region  and  the  Indian^  and  Indo- 
Chinese  subdivisions  of  the  Oriental  region.  Zoologists  will  be  well  aware  of  the 
difficulty  in  delimiting  these  zoogeographical  areas.  However,  for  the  purposes  of  a 
list  such  as  this,  some  arbitrary  limit  must  be  set.  In  Africa  we  have  drawn  the 
boundary  along  the  parallel  of  20°  N.  which,  owing  to  the  barrier  of  the  Sahara,  does 
correspond  reasonably  well  with  the  facts.  The  boundary  in  Malaya  has,  however, 
been  drawn  in  a  purely  arbitrary  manner  along  the  parallel  of  10°  N.  This  line  has 
been  chosen  because  it  is  the  northern  limit  of  the  area  covered  by  Chasen,  1940, 
Handlist  of  Malaysian  Mammals. 

The  hmits  in  point  of  time  are  from  1758  to  1946.  That  is  to  say,  we  have  en- 
deavoured to  include  all  forms  of  recent  mammals  named  from  the  tenth  edition  of 
Linnaeus  up  tiU  the  end  of  1946,  except  that  domestic  animals,  and  wild  mammals 
which  have  become  extinct,  have  as  a  rule  been  omitted. 

No  one  man  can,  of  course,  be  a  connoisseur  of  more  than  a  small  part  of  the  class 
Mammalia.  Nevertheless,  in  writing  this  work  we  have  thought  it  worth  while 
attempting  a  revision  rather  than  making  a  mere  nominal  compilation.  ^Ve  have 
therefore  re-examined  all  relevant  monographs  and  revisions,  in  so  far  as  they  are 
known  to  us,  together  with  the  extensive  study  collections  of  the  British  Museum,  and 
this  checklist  represents  the  results.  Whether  readers  agree  with  our  views  or  not,  we 
hope  that  the  presentation  of  such  a  survey  within  the  covers  of  one  book  will  prove 

There  has  been  a  considerable  reduction  in  the  number  of  named  forms  regarded 
as  valid,  though  we  have  only  proceeded  with  this  "lumping"  to  the  extent  that  the 
evidence  before  us  justified  it;  there  is  probably  much  more  to  be  done,  and  sub- 
species have  been  arranged  in  order  of  priority  for  the  convenience  of  subsequent 

'The  term  'India'  has  been  used  throughout  in  its  zoogeographical  sense  to  include  the  modern 
India  and  Pakistan. 


\Ve  have  recognized  809  species  of  mammals  in  the  Palaearctic  and  Indian  regions 
as  defined  above. 

^Ve  have  endeavoured  to  indicate  the  diagnostic  characters  of  each  genus  and 
species  by  reference  to  the  appropriate  works,  and  where  they  are  non-existent  we 
have  provided  keys.  The  distribution  of  each  species  has  been  approximately  shown, 
though  it  should  be  remembered  that  the  distributions  of  many  mammals  are  im- 
perfectly known  and  that  the  ranges  of  many  of  the  larger  mammals  are  shrinking 
every  year. 


There  are  workers  who  seem  to  take  a  delight  in  bedevilling  zoology  with  esoteric 
changes  of  nomenclature,  to  the  considerable  irritation  of  their  colleagues  and  the 
confusion  of  non-specialists.  In  fact,  exasperation  at  their  efforts  leads  many  to 
wonder  whether  they  have  any  scientific  work  to  attend  to. 

Perhaps  this  unhappy  circumstance  is  due  to  the  idea  that  the  only  way  to  attain 
stability  in  nomenclature  is  rigorously  to  apply  the  law  of  priority,  and  that  the 
resulting  confusion  will  in  the  end  have  been  worth  while.  It  is  o*"  course  true  that 
with  the  passage  of  time  the  likelihood  of  fresh  discoveries  of  early  names  becomes 
less.  But  the  point  is  that  the  risk  can  never  be  eliminated. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Official  List  of  Generic  Names  in  ^oology  and  the  Official  List  of 
Specific  Trivial  Names  in  ^oology  do  offer  a  chance  of  real  stability  (without  confusion), 
and  it  is  the  view  of  the  International  Commission  on  Zoological  Nomenclature  that 
this  is  the  way  to  attain  it  (Bull.  ^ool.  NomencL,  1950,  .^.-  267,  627  and  5;  147J.  It 
should  therefore  be  the  purpose  of  zoologists  to  see  that  the  names  of  as  many  genera 
and  species  as  possible  of  the  groups  in  which  they  specialize  are  placed  on  these  lists 
by  the  International  Commission,  and  thereby  protected  from  the  activities  of 
nomenclatorial  excavators. 

The  corollary  to  the  above  lists  are  the  Official  Index  of  Rejected  and  Invalid  Generic 
Names  in  ^oologv  and  the  Offcial  Index  of  Rtjected  and  Invalid  Specific  Trivial  Names  in 
Zoology  which  the  Commission  instituted  for  the  reception  of  names  which  they  have 
either  suppressed  under  their  plenary  powers,  or  declared  to  be  otherwise  un- 
available {Bull.  Zool.  NomencL,  1950,  4:  333). 

The  Commission  have  urged  that  zoologists  who  discover  a  name  which  would 
cause  confusion  or  inconvenience,  through  antedating  a  later  but  currently  adopted 
name,  should  refrain  from  publishing  their  unfortunate  find,  and  instead  should 
hurry  it  off  to  the  Commission  for  burial  in  the  appropriate  Index,  at  the  same  time 
requesting  the  Commission  to  place  on  the  appropriate  List  the  later  but  currently 
used  name  [Bull.  ^ool.  NomencL,  1950,  4:  234,  j.'  18). 

These  are  the  principles  which  we  have  endeavoured  to  follow  in  this  checklist.  So 
far  as  Palaearctic  and  Indian  genera  are  concerned,  the  following  works  have  proved 
the  most  troublesome : 

■a]  Fiiscli,  1775,  Dai  NalursTslem  der  vierfussigen  Ttiiere.^  This  work  has  generally 
been  regarded  as  unavailable  under  the  Regies  and  Sherborn  rejected  it  when  com- 
piling his  Index  Animalium.  Simpson  (1945),  however,  in  his  Classification  of  Mammals 

'  Formally  irirdcd  bv  ()|>iuii>n  258,  1954.  Ne\ii  lluUis  l)v  (  )|)iniu,i  -,8i,  igbo,  tin-  C;omniibsion 
validated  0<iina  Iristli.  lyy^,  ioi  the  European  Fallow  Deer. 


dates  some  fifteen  well-known  names  from  Frisch  (1775).  It  is  not  clear  why  he  did 
this  since,  in  any  case,  some  of  the  names  have  been  dated  from  other  authors  by 
Opinion  91  of  the  International  Commission.  The  matter  has  now  been  settled  by 
the  Commission  who,  in  Paris  in  July,  1948,  declared  this  work  of  Frisch  to  be  un- 
available [Bull.  Zool-  Momencl.,  1950,  4:  549)-  The  Commission  made  one  reservation 
They  had  previously  (Bull.  ^ool.  NomencL,  1950,  4:  547)  declared  that  Zimmermann, 
■777)  Specimen  ^oologiae  Geographicae  was  unavailable  and  that  Zimmermann,  1778- 
I  783,  Geographische  Geschichte  was  available.  The  result  of  all  this  is  that  the  name 
Dama  becomes  the  technically  valid  name  for  the  Virginian  Deer  of  America  instead 
offer  the  Fallow  Deer  of  Europe,  in  which  latter  sense  it  has  been  used  for  years.  The 
Commission,  realizing  the  confusion  which  this  would  cause,  indicated  [Bull.  Z^ol. 
NomencL,  1950,  4:  551)  that  they  would  use  their  plenary  powers  to  prevent  such  a 
transfer  if  zoologists  so  desired,  and  in  the  meantime  recommended  them  to 
make  no  change.  Apart  from  this  one  name,  the  non-availability  of  Frisch  (1775) 
appears  to  cause  no  inconvenience. 

[b]  Oken,  1815-1816,  Lehrbuch  der  Xaturgeschichte.  This  work  can  scarcely  be  held 
consistently  to  exhibit  the  principles  of  binominal  nomenclature  and  the  Commission 
are  considering  the  question  of  its  availability. ■  If  Oken  is  declared  unavailable,  then 
there  are  certain  generic  names  which  it  appears  important  to  us  to  save.  One  of  us 
(T.  C.  S.  M.-S.)  has  therefore  made  application  to  the  Commission  for  the  following 
names-  of  Oken  to  be  placed  on  the  Official  List : 

Citellus  Tayra 

Genetta  Vulpes 

Grison  Pan 


(c)  Brisson,  1762,  Regnum  Animale.  The  genera  proposed  as  new  in  this  work  have 
been  generally  accepted  by  mammalogists  and  are  now  well  estabhshed.  But  the 
technical  validity  of  the  book  under  the  Regies  is  doubtful  and  the  matter  is  now'before 
the  Commission  [Bull.  J^ool.  NomencL,  1950,  4:  314).  In  the  meantime  Hopwood, 
1947,  P.^.S.  iiy:  533,  has  rejected  Brisson  (1762)  and  would  date  his  names  from 
other  and  later  authors.  However,  his  suggestions,  if  adopted,  would  in  several  cases 
prove  unfortunate,  and  we  have  asked  the  Commission  to  validate  the  following  of 
the  generic  names''  of  Brisson : 

Cuniculus.  This  is  the  Paca.  The  ne.\t  use  o{  Cuniculus  is  of  Gronovius  (1763)  which, 
though  also  the  Paca,  seems  insecure  under  the  Regies.  The  next  use  is  Cuniculus, 
Meyer  (1790),  which  is  the  European  Rabbit.  It  seems  desirable,  therefore,  to  retain 
Cuniculus  Brisson. 

Glis.  Unless  Glis  Brisson  is  validated,  the  name  of  the  Fat  Dormouse  must  be 
Myoxus  Zimmermann  (1780).  (See  Ellerman,  1949,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  894,  who  took 
the  precaution  of  designating  Glis  zemni  as  the  type  species  oi  Glis  Erxleben,  1777,  in 
order  to  forestall  the  transference  of  Glis  to  the  marmots,  a  worse  confusion  which 
would  otherwise  ensue  from  any  suppression  oi  Glis  Brisson.) 

Meles.  It  would  be  wise  to  validate  this  name  as  of  Brisson  in  view  of  the  doubt 
which  surrounds  the  use  as  of  GeoflTroy  (1767)  and  Storr  (1780). 

1  Rejected  by  Opinion  417,  1956.  -  A  re-submission  was  requested  for  all  applications  prior  to 

October  1959  which  were  still  outstanding  {Bull.  ^ool.  Aomeml.,  1963,  20:  81.  This  has  now  been  done, 
but  in  respect  oi  Pan  and  Panthera  only  (T.C.S.\1.-S..  19651.  '.No  decision  has  yet  (1963)  been 

made.  ■•  Except  for  Odohenus  these  require  a  further  application  [fide  Secretary  to  the  Commission, 




Odubems.  After  considerable  shuffling  of  the  names  of  the  Walrus,  zoologists  have 
riiially  settled  down  with  Oilohemis.'  If  this  is  inxuilid  then  Rosmarus  Brunnich,  1771, 
will  have  to  be  used. 

Tragulus.  The  consequence  of  sinking  this  name  ot  Hrisson  would  indeed  be  un- 
fortunate. Hopwood  suggests  that  Traaulus  may  equally  well  be  dated  from  Boddaert 
'  178)).  But  Tragiihis  Boddaert  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Tragulidae.  It  is  Moschus 
moschifertti.  a  member  of  the  Cervidae.  A  change  in  the  family  name  of  the  che\T0tains 
would  then  become  necessary,  to  add  to  the  confusion. 

Tardinradiis.  The  earliest  name  for  the  Loris  seems  to  be  Tardixraihn  Boddaert,  1 785, 
which  has  hitherto  been  regarded  as  preoccupied  by  Tardigradus  Brisson,  1762,  a 
Sloth.  Hence  Loris  E.  Geoftroy,  1796,  is  in  current  use  for  the  Loris.  \i  Tardigradus 
Brisson  is  in\alid  then  Tardigradus  Boddaert  must  be  used  for  the  Loris,  which  brings 
with  it  a  secondary  confusion  in  that  the  name  "Tardigrada"  is  a  synonym  of 

Giraffa,  Hyaena,  Hydrochoerus,  Lutra,  Tapirus.  These  names  are  all  available,  with 
the  same  meaning,  from  Briinnich,  1771,  ^oologiae  Fuiidamentn,  though  the  name  of 
the  C:apybara  is  here  spelt  Hydrochaeris.  It  may  therefore  be  questioned  whether  there 
is  any  need  to  \alidate  the  use  of  these  names  from  Brisson  (1762).  However,  the 
Commission  may  well  take  the  view  that  these  names  would  be  better  protected  by 
being  \alidated  from  the  earlier  date,  apart  from  the  consideration  of  sanctioning  a 
long-established  usage. 

Pliivpus.  This  name  comes  in  the  same  category  as  the  last  five,  since  it  can  be 
dated  from  Erxleben  1  1777)  without  change  of  meaning.  There  has,  however,  been 
some  slight  doubt  about  the  type  species  and  it  is  considered  safer  to  validate  the 
name  as  of  Brisson  !I762). 

d)  Rafmesque,  1815,  Analyse  de  la  Nature.  This  book  contains  many  nomina  nuda, 
some  of  which  are  currently  used.  So  far  as  the  area  covered  by  the  present  work  is 
concei  ncd,  wc  consider  that  one  of  these  names,  Muntiacus,-  should  be  placed  on  the 
Official  Lnt.  The  Muntjak  was  known  many  years  ago  as  C.ervulus  Blainville,  181 6,  but 
Muntiacus  is  now  in  current  use  and,  although  it  cannot  really  be  pleaded  that  con- 
fusion would  result,  it  would  not  be  a  helpful  step  to  revert  now  to  Cerrulus.  We  have 
submitted  this  case  to  the  Commission. 

'Andersen,  1908,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i:  431,  discusses  the  technical  availability  of 
Rafinesque's  (1815)  genera.) 

.■\bbrevi.\tion's  and   Symbols 

The  abbreviations  of  the  titles  of  certain  periodicals  have  been  reduced  beyond 
those  shown  in  the  World  List: 

P.Z.S.  =  Proc.  Zool.  Soc,  London 

.\.H.    in  combination)  =  Xat.  Hist. 

A  question  mark  Ix-lnre  an  entry  in  a  synonymy  docs  not  mean  that  the  date  is 
d(jubtful  but  that  the  name  concerned  is  not  certainly  a  synonym. 

A  question  mark  in  parentheses  before  the  specific  trivial  name  of  a  nominal  race 

4  '  \  ahilatcd  tjv  (  )|iinMiii   (I17,  11137.  -  \'.ilidalri.l  bv  Opinion  4(10,  iij-,7. 


indicates  that  the  latter  is  probably  a  race  of  the  species  concerned  but  that  there  is 
some  doubt. 

N.V.  =^  Non  vidimus  (with  reference  to  the  original  publication). 


We  gladly  record  our  gratitude  to  many  of  our  colleagues  in  this  Museum  for  their 
generous  help  with,  and  friendly  interest  in,  this  work. 

We  should  especially  like  to  thank  the  following:  Dr.  F.  C.  Fraser,  for  his  advice 
and  assistance  in  dealing  with  the  Cetacea;  Mr.  A.  C.  Townsend,  for  helping  us  with 
difficult  textual  and  bibUographical  problems;  and  Mr.  R.  W.  Hayman,  for  much 
help  with  the  Chiroptera. 

So  far  as  possible  every  reference  in  this  book  has  been  checked  with  the  original, 
and  we  desire  to  record  the  assistance  which  has  been  given  us  by  the  following  of  our 
colleagues — in  fact  without  their  help  this  work  would  almost  certainly  have  proved 
too  much  for  us:  Mr.  R.  \V.  Hayman  and  Mr.  G.  ^V.  C.  Holt  of  the  Mammal  Room, 
who  between  them  checked  most  of  the  references;  Mr.  G.  ^V.  F.  Claxton,  Mr.  F.  C. 
Sawyer,  Mr.  W.  H.  Mabbott  and  Mr.  J.  E.  Yateman  of  the  General  and  Zoological 
Libraries,  to  whom  an  incomplete  or  distorted  reference  was  a  professional  challenge 
which  they  rarely  failed  to  meet;  and  Miss  J.  M.  Ingles  who  has  been  of  great 
personal  assistance  to  us. 

Authorship  and   New   Names 

We  take  joint  responsibility  for  this  book  except  for  the  classification  of  the 
Rodents  and  Lagomorphs,  which  is  the  work  of  J.  R.  E.,  and  the  Ungulates  for  which 
T.  C.  S.  M.-S.  is  responsible. 

The  new  names  contained  in  this  work,  a  list  of  which  appears  on  page  742,  are 
proposed  by  us  jointly  irrespectively  of  the  order  to  which  they  belong. 

J.  R.  Ellerman 

T.    C.    S.    MORRISON-SCOTT 

British  Museum  (Natural  History) 
2,1st  December,  1950 



There  are  very  few  works  dealing  extensively  with  the  class  Mammalia.  The 
following  are  the  most  important: 

Gregory,  W.  K.   19  io.  The  orders  of  mammals.  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  M.H.  sy. 
Flower,  W.  H.,  &  Lydekker,  R.   i8gi.  An  introduction  to  the  study  of  mammals,  living 

and  extinct.  London  (A.  &  C.  Black). 
Parker,  T.  J.,  &  Haswell,  \V.  A.    1940.  A  textbook  of  zoology,  2,  Chordata.  (Revised 

by  C.  Forster  Cooper.)  London  (Macmillan). 
Simpson,  G.  G.   1945.  The  principles  of  classification  and  a  classification  of  mammals. 

Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  M.H.  85. 
Weber,  M.   1927-1928.  Die  Sdugetiere  (2  vols).  Jena  (G.  Fischer). 
Winge,  H.  1923-1924.  Pattedyr-Slaegter  (3  vols).  Copenhagen  (H.  Hagerup).  (English 

translation  by  G.  M.  Allen  and  E.  Deichmann,  1941-1942.  Copenhagen  (C.  A. 


Simpson  (1945)  is  the  basic  work  on  the  classification  of  mammals.  The  mammals 
with  which  this  checklist  is  concerned  all  belong  to  the  infraclass  Eutheria,  which 
Simpson  divides  into  four  cohorts; 


Orders:  Insectivora,  Dermoptera,  Chiroptera,  Primates,  Pholidota. 


Orders:  Lagomorpha,  Rodentia. 


Order:    Cetacea. 

Superorder:   Ferae 

Order:    Carnivora  (Suborders:  Fissipedia,  Pinnipedia). 
Superorder:   Paenungulata 

Orders:  Proboscidea,  Hyracoidea,  Sirenia. 
Superorder:   Mesaxonia 

Order:    Perissodactyla. 
Superorder:   Paraxonia 

Order:    Artiodactyla. 

We  agree  with  Simpson  in  distinguishing  the  Mutica  and  the  Glires,  and  follow 
the  broad  outline  of  his  classification  except  that  we  retain  the  Pinnipedia  as  an 
order,  and  on  account  of  the  fact  that  his  Ferungulata  seem  closely  allied  to  his 
Unguiculata  we  have  listed  them  directly  after  this  cohort. 

PALAEARCTlt;  AND   INDIAN   MAMMALS   1 758-1946 

ORDERS:   i.   Inscctivora,  page  8 

2.  Dermoptcra,  page  89 

3.  Chiroptera,  page  90 

4.  Primates,  page  189 
-).   Phi  ilidota,  page  213 

6.  Clarnivora,  page  215 

7.  Pinnipedia,  page  321 

8.  Hyracoidea,  page  334 

9.  Proboscidea,  page  336 
10.  Sirenia,  page  337 

I  I .   Perissodactyla,  page  338 

12.  Artiodactyla,  page  343 

13.  Lagomorpha,  page  419 

14.  Rodentia,  page  456 

15.  Cletacea,  page  712 


Special  works  of  rel'ercnce:  Besides  works  such  as  G.  S.  Miller,  1912,  Catalogue  of 
the  Mammals  of  Western  Europe;  G.  M.  Allen,  1938  &  1940,  Mammals  oj  China  and 
Moncolia;  and  works  by  Bobrinskii  and  Ognev  on  Mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  see 
particularly  A.  Cabrera,  1925,  Genera  Mammaltum;  Insectivora,  Galeopithecia.  This  work 
gives  keys  to  all  families  and  genera  of  Insectivora  here  recognized  and  dealt  with. 
See  also  G.  E.  Dobson,  1 882-1 890,  Monograph  oJ  the  Insectivora. 

FAMILIES:   Erinaceidae,  page  16 

Macroscelididae,  page  14 
Soricidae,  page  41 
Talpidac,  page  29 
Tupaiidae,  page  9 

Simpson,  1945,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  8j:  61,  176,  182,  referred  the  Tupaiidae  (as 
type  of  a  special  superfamily),  to  the  suborder  Prosimii  of  the  order  Primates.  Most 
authors  refer  these  animals  to  the  Insectivora.  If  they  are  so  close  to  Lemuroids  that 
it  is  thought  best  to  refer  them  to  Primates,  surely  another  course  would  be  to  refer 
the  Prosimii  to  the  Insectivora,  and  restrict  Primates  to  the  Anthropoidea  (perhaps 
with  the  Tarsiidae).  Some  authors,  such  as  Gregory  and  AVeber,  separate  the 
Tupaiidae  and  Macroscelididae  from  the  Insectivora  as  a  separate  order  Menotyphla. 
This  is  strongly  supported  by  Broom  {in  litl).  However,  for  the  present  wc  preicr  to 
list  these  families  as  Insectivora.  Apart  from  Tupaiidae  Simpson  recognizxd  three 
superfamihes :  the  Erinaceoidea  for  the  Erinaceidae  and  some  extinct  allies;  the 
Macroscelidoidea  for  the  Macroscelididae  (which  only  occur  in  North-VVest  Africa  in 
the  present  region) ;  and  the  Soricoidea  for  the  Soricidae  and  Talpidae  (which  appear 
to  us  to  be  very  distinct  from  each  other  morphologically,  particularly  as  regards  the 
very  large  first  lower  incisor  in  the  Soricidae). 



Genera:  Anathana,  page  13 
Dendrogale,  page  13 
Tupaia,  page  10 

This  family  was  monographed  in  great  detail  by  Lyon,  191 3,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus. 
4§:  1-188.  Most  subsequent  classifications  have  been  based  on  this  useful  paper.  Only 
the  typical  subfamily,  the  Tupaiinae,  occurs  within  the  region  now  under  discussion, 
and  its  distribution  is  Indo- Malayan.  Lyon  gives  keys  to  generic  characters  of  the 
three  genera  listed  above  and  their  extralimital  allies.  The  main  distinctions  of  the 
four  species  here  listed  as  valid  and  which  are  certainly  known  to  occur  north  of  the 
area  treated  by  Chasen,  1 940,  Handlist  Malaysian  Mammals,  are  as  follows : 

1.  Relatively  small  animals,  with  the  tail  rounded  and  close-haired  for  its  whole 

length.  Dendrogale  munna 

Relatively  larger  animals,  with  the  tail  clothed  with  longer  hairs,  and  squirrel-like 

in  formation  2 

2.  Lower  canine  little  differentiated,  not  higher  than  adjacent  lower  I  3  and  P  2. 

Fenestrae  in  zygoma  small  and  inconspicuous;  hypocones  in  upper  molars  un- 
usually prominent.                                                                                Anathana  ellioli 
Lower  canine  clearly  differentiated,  clearly  higher  than  adjacent  lower  I  3  and 
P  2.  Fenestrae  in  zygoma  normally  large  and  conspicuous;  hypocones  in  upper 
molars  most  often  less  prominent.  3 

3.  Tail  considerably  longer  than  head  and  body.  Much  black  on  lower  part  of  back. 

Lower  canine  much  larger  than  the  incisor  in  front  of  it;  central  upper  incisors 
conspicuously  larger  than  lateral  pair.  Tupaia  mcobarica 

Tail  most  often  shorter  than,  or  not  much  longer  than,  head  and  body.  Colour  of 
back  different.  Lower  canine  and  central  upper  incisors  not  conspicuously 
enlarged.  Tupaia  glis 

(We  have  not  included  Tupaia  minor  in  the  key  as  we  are  not  sure  whether  it  is 
extralimital  or  not.  According  to  Lyon's  key,  T.  minor  should  be  dentally  as  nicobarica 
but  smaller  than  that  species  and  coloured  differently.) 

North  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  Lyon  recognized  two  species,  T.  glis  and  T.  belangeri, 
in  addition  to  the  very  distinct  T.  nicobarica.  They  were  said  to  differ  in  colour  and 
mammary  formula.  But  since  Lyon's  revision  was  published  there  have  been  many 
new  forms  described  of  the  T.  glis  group,  and  examination  of  the  types  in  the  British 
Museum  alone  shows  that  there  is  no  certain  colour  distinction  between  belangeri  and 
races  referrable  to  glis.  Chasen  (1940)  refers  several  of  Lyon's  species  to  T.  glis  as 
races,  and  it  seems  that  there  is  little  essential  difference  between  the  southern  glis 
races  and  the  northern  belangeri  and  allies,  which  are  here  considered  as  representing 
T.  glis.  It  may  be  noted  that,  with  reference  to  the  above  key,  the  hypocones  may  be 
present  in  the  upper  molars  of  some  individuals  of  T.  glis  siccata  which  in  this  character 
approaches  Anathana;  and  that  in  some  forms  of  T.  glis,  for  instance  T.  g.  lepcha,  there 
is  a  tendency  for  the  tail  to  be  longer  than  the  head  and  body.  The  retention  of  the 

palaearc:tk:  and  Indian  mammals  i7r,8-i946 

genus  Atiathana  is  here  principally  based  on  the  reduced  lower  canine.  Thomas  (191  7) 
thought  two  forms  of  the  T.  glis  group  occurred  in  Tenasserim.  These  two,  clanssa 
and  tenaster,  differ  in  the  length  of  the  rostrum,  which  is  more  lengthened  in 
However,  these  two  forms  look  so  alike  externally  that  very  tentatively  tenaster  is  here 
regarded  as  a  synonym.  To  prove  the  contrary  it  would  be  necessary  to  collect  a 
much  larger  series  in  Tenasserim  than  these  two  names  are  based  on. 

SuBF.^iMii.Y     T  u   p  a   i   i   n  a  e 

Genus  TUPAIA  Raffles,  1821 

182 1.    Tupaia  Rafiles.  Trans.   Linn.   Soc,   London,    13:   256   (May,    182 1.)    Tupaia 
fcrruguna  Raffles. 

1821.  Sorex-aih  Cuvicr  cS:  Gcotfroy,  Hist.  Nat.  Mamm.  livraison,  35:  i   (Deicmbcr, 

1821,  or  perhaps  early  in  1822.)  Snrex  ofis  Diard  &  Du\auccl. 

1822.  Glisorex  Desmarest,  Mammalogie,  footnote,  536.  Substitute  for  Sorex-glis. 
1824.   Cladobates  Cuvier,  Dents  Mamm.  251,  pi.  17.  Tupaia  ferruginea  Raffles. 
1827.  Hylogale  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  xix.  Substitute  for  Tupaia. 

1843.   Hylogalea  Miiller  &   Schlegel,   \'erh.   Nat.   Gesch.   Ned.   Overz.   Bezitt.    139. 

1855.   Glisosorex  Giche\,  Odontographie,  18.  (Emendation  of  G7;jorf.v.) 
i860.   Tapaia  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5:  71.  (?  Misprint  for  Tupaia.) 
1882.   Gliriiorex  Scudder,  Nomencl.  Zool.  2:  131.  (Emendation  of  Glisorex.) 
1888.  G///)ora  Jentink,  Cat.  Syst.  Mus.  H.N.  Pays  Bas.  12,  Mamm.:   118.  Clipora 

leucogaster  ]enX\nk  {nom.  nud.)  =  Tupaia  minor  Gunther. 
1913.    Tana  Lyon,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  4;^:  134.  Tupaia  tana  Raffles,  from  Sumatra. 
Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
3  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Tupaia  glis,  page  i  o 
Tupaia  minor,  page  1 2 
Tupaia  nicoharica,  page  12 

Tupaia  glis  Diard,   1820  Common  Tree-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Yunnan,  Kwangsi,  Hainan  in  South-West 
China;  Sikkim,  NLanipur,  Assam,  Burma,  Tenasserim;  Indo-China,  Siam,  .\Lalay 
States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and  many  small  adjacent  islands,  to  Palawan. 

(Tup.MA  GLIS  Gus  Diard,  1820.  Extralimitaj) 

1820.   Sorex  glis  Diard,  Asiat.  J.  Month.  Reg.  10:  478.  (N.V.,Jide  Lyon  cS:  Chasen.) 

Penang  Island,  Malay  Peninsula. 
1822.   .So/r.v^/w  Diard  &  Duvaucel,  Asiatick  Res.  14:  471,  pi.  o.  Penang  Island. 

Tupaia  glis  belangeri  \Vagner,  1841 

1841.  Cladobates  belangeri  Wagner,  Schreber's  Siiugeth.  Suppl.  2:  42.  Siriam,  near 

Rangoon,  Pegu,  Burma. 

1842.  Tupaia pegiianus  Lesson,  Nouv.  Tabl.  Regn.  Anim.  Mamm.  93.  ?  Pegu. 
Range:  Southern  Burma  and  certain  islands  of  Mergui  Archipelago. 


TUPAIA   GLIS   DISSIMILIS   Ellis,   i860 

i860.  Sciurus  dissimilis  Ellis  in  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  71.  Pulau  Condore,  off 
south  coast  of  Indo-China. 

TuPAiA  GLIS  CHINENSIS  Anderson,  1879 

1879.   Tupaia  chinensis  Anderson,  Zool.  Res.  West  Yunnan,  129,  pi.  7,  figs.  8  and  9. 

Ponsee,  Kakhyen  Hills,  3,185  ft.,  and  Muangla,  Sanda  Valley,  2,400  ft.. 

Western  Yunnan,  China. 

Tupaia  glis  modesta  J.  Allen,  1906 

1906.  Tupaia  modesta  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  22:  481.  Lei-mui-mon,  Island  of 

Hainan,  South  China. 
1 9 14.   Tupaia  belangeri  yunalis  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   ig:   244.   Mongtsze   (or 

Mengtsz),  Southern  Yunnan,  China.  (Status ^(/c  Osgood,  1932.) 
1925.    Tupaia  belangeri  tonquinia  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  497.  Bao-ha,  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

{Sta-tui  fide  Osgood,  1932.) 
(?)  1936.   Tupaia  belangeri  pingi  Ho,  Contr.  Biol.  Lab.  Sci.  Soc.  China,   12,  4:   78. 

Bao-peng,  Island  of  Hainan. 
Range:  Hainan,  Annam,  Laos,  Tonkin,  and  Southern  Yunnan. 

Tupaia  glis  concolor  Bonhote,  1907 

1907.  Tupaia  concolor  Bonhote,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  2;  P.Z.S.  7.  Nhatrang,  Annam,  Indo- 

China.  Ranges  to  Cambodia  and  Cochin-China. 

Tupaia  glis  siccata  Thomas,  19 14 

1914.   Tupaia  belangeri  siccata  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ij:  243.  Zibugaung,  Lower 

Chindwin,  Burma.  Range  includes  Chin  Hills,   Mt.  Popa,"Shan' States, 


Tupaia  glis  laotum  Thomas,  19 14 

19 14.   Tupaia  belangeri  laotum  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H-.  ij:  244.  Nan,  290  m.,  Siam. 

Tupaia  glis  sinus  Kloss,  1916 

1916.  Tupaia  concolor  sinus  Kloss,  P.Z.S.  36.  Koh  Chang  (Island),  South-East  Siam. 

Tupaia  glis  Clarissa  Thomas,  191 7 

1917.  Tupaia  Clarissa  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2^:  200.  Bankachon,  Victoria 

Province,  Tenasserim. 
(?)  1917.   Tupaia  belangeri  tenaster  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  25.-  201.  Tagoot, 
Great  Tenasserim  River,  Tenasserim. 

Tupaia  glis  cambodiana  Kloss,  1919 

1919.   Tupaia  glis  cambodiana  Kloss,  J.  N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  3:  357.  Klong  Yai,  South-East 

Tupaia  glis  olivacea  Kloss,  1919 

1919.   Tupaia  glis  olivacea  Kloss,  J.  N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  3:  358.  Pak  Bu,  near  Tachin, 
Central  Siam. 

TUPAIA    GLIS    ASSAMENSIS    WYoUglltOn,    1 92  I 

1 92 1.  Tupaia  belangeri  assamensis  VVroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  599.  Mokok- 

chung,  5,000  ft.,  Naga  Hills,  Assam.  Range  includes  Manipur. 

Tup.A.i.'^  GLIS  cocHiN'CHiNENSis  Robinson  &   Kloss,  1922 

1922.  Tupaia  glis  cochinchincnsis  Robinson  &  Kloss,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  87.  Trangbom, 

30  miles  cast  of  Saigon,  Cochin-China. 

TUP.AIA    GLIS    ANNAMENSIS    RobinSOll    &    KloSS,    1 922 

1922.  Tupaia  disiimilis  annamensis  Robinson  &  Kloss,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  87.  Daban, 
650  ft..  Southern  Annam.,  Indo-China. 

Tupaia  glis  versurae  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Tupaia  belangeri  versurae  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  42B.  Dening, 
2,250  ft.,  Mishmi  Hills,  North  Assam. 

Tupaia  glis  lepcha  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Tupaia  belangeri  lepcha  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  428.  Narbong,  near 

Darjeeling,  2,000  ft.  Ranges  to  Bhutan  Duars. 

Tupaia  glis  bru.metta  Thomas,  1923 

1923.  Tupaia  belangeri  brunetta  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2g:  84.  King  Island, 

Mergui  Archipelago. 

Tupaia  nicobarica  Zclebor,  1869  Nicobar  Tree-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nicobar  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Tup.MA  nicobarica  nicobarica  Zelebor,  1869 

1869.  Cladobates  nicobaricus  Zelebor,  Reise  Novara,  Zool.  Theii,  /.•  17,  pi.  i,  figs,  i,  2, 
3,  and  pi.  2.  Great  Nicobar,  Nicobar  Islands. 

Tup,\iA  nicobaric.\  surda  Miller,   1902 

1902.  Tupaia  nicobarica  surda  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  2^:  774.  Little  Nicobar, 
Nicobar  Islands. 

Tupaia  minor  Giinther,  1876  Gunther's  Tree-Shrew 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo;  north  into 
South  Siam. 

(Tupaia  minor  minor  Gunther,  1876.  Extralimital) 

1876.    Tupaia  w;«nr  Giinther,  P.Z.S.  426.  Borneo,  mainland  opposite  Island  of  Labuan. 

TuPAi.\  minor  malaccana  Anderson,  1879 

1879.  Tupaia  malaccana  Anderson,  Zool.  Res.  Yunnan,  134,  pi.  7.  Malacca.  Chasen 
( 1940,  10)  quotes  two  immature  examples  of  T.  minor  from  Koh  Lak,  South- 
\Vest  Siam.  We  are  unable  to  trace  this  locality,  but  have  reason  to  believe 
it  is  just  inside  our  region,  and  extralimital  to  the  part  of  Peninsular  Siam 
covered  by  Chasen. 


Status  not  sure : 

TuPAiA  siAMENSis  Gyldcnstolpe,  19 16 

1916.  Tupaia  siamensis  Gyldcnstolpe,  K.  Svenska  Vetensk.  Akad.  Handl.  57,  2;  20. 
Koh  Lak,  Siamese  Malaya.  From  descriptions  it  is  much  like  T.  minor  except 
for  considerably  larger  size,  but  too  small  for  nicobarica  (head  and  body 
145  mm.,  tail  175  mm.,  hindfoot  42  mm.).  There  are  no  dental  details  in 
the  original  description. 

Genus  ANATHANA  Lyon,   1913 

19 1 3.  Anathana  Lyon,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  4^:  120.  Tupaia  ellioti  \Vaterhouse. 

I  species:  Anathana  ellioti,  page  13 

Lyon  divided  this  genus  into  three  nominal  species,  but  we  doubt  whether  they  are 
really  more  than  well  differentiated  races  of  the  earliest  named  form. 

Anathana  ellioti  \Vaterhouse,  1850  Madras  Tree-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Eastern  Ghats,  Madras,  Bihar,  Central 
Provinces,  Surat  District,  Bombay  (part),  in  Peninsular  India. 

Anathana  ellioti  ellioti  Waterhouse,  1850 

1850.   Titpaia  ellioti  Waterhouse,  P.Z.S.  i84g:   107,  pi.  Mamm.  13.  Hills  between 
Cuddapah  and  Nellore,  Eastern  Ghats,  India.  Range:  Eastern  Ghats  and 
^         Shevaroy  Hills,  India. 

Anathana  ellioti  wroughtoni  Lyon,  1913 

191 3.  Anathana  wroughtoni  Lyon,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  ^5.-  123.  Mandvi,  near  Bom- 
bay, India.  Range:  Region  of  Satpura  Hills,  and  Dangs,  near  Bombay, 
Western  India. 

Anathana  ellioti  pallida  Lyon,  191 3 

1913.  Anathana  pallida  Lyon,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  4^:  124.  Munbhum,  Bihar,  India. 

Range:  Raipur  in  Central  Provinces  north-eastwards  as  far  as  the  Ganges, 


Genus  DENDROGALE  Gray,  1848 

1848.  Dendrogale  Gray,  P.Z.S.  23.  Hylogalea  murina  Schlegel  &  Mtiller. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Dendrogale  murina,  page  14 

Lyon  divided  this  genus  into  two  groups.  The  murina  group  is  characterized  as 
having  hght  colour,  face  markings  present,  and  small  claws.  D.  murina  was  supposed 
to  have  come  from  Borneo,  and  the  Indo-Chinese  species  is  currently  called  D.frenata. 
However,  Chasen,  1940,  Handlist  Malaysian  Mammals,  10,  states:  ^'Dendrogale  murina 
.  .  .  said  to  have  come  from  Pontianak,  West  Borneo,  seems  a  very  doubtful  species 



(i.e.,  of  doubtful  occurrence  in  the  Malaysian  region);  it  has  never  again  turned 
up  in  Borneo  and  the  type  is  so  very  hke  the  Indo-Chinese  frenala  that  I  have  dropped 
the  name  from  the  Malaysian  list."  Lyon  (p.  131)  suggests  that  there  is  "just  a 
possibility  that  the  type  oi  miirina  is  an  example  oi frenala  wrongly  labelled  as  coming 
from  Pontianak,  Borneo".  He  states  that  Dr.  VV.  L.  Abbott,  with  much  careful 
collection  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  supposed  (Bornean)  type  locality,  failed  to 
secure  additional  specimens  ot  miirina.  It  seems  logical,  therefore,  to  adopt  the  name 
miirina,  which  antedates  y/rwa/rt  by  seventeen  years,  for  the  Indo-Chinese  species. 

Dendrogale  murina  Schlcgel  &  MiiUer,  1845  Northern  Smooth-tailed  Trcc-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Cambodia,  Annam,  Cochin-China.  in  Indo- 

Dendrogale  murina  Schlcgel  &   Mtiller,  1845 

1845.  Hrlogalfa  murina  Schlcgel  &  Mtiller,  Verh.  Nat.  Gesch.  Ned.  Overz.  Bezitt. 

167,  pi.  26,  fig.  5;  pi.  27,  figs.  17-18.  Supposed  to  be  from  Pontianak,  West 

Borneo  (error  ?). 
(?)  i860.   Ttipaia  frcnata  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  6:  217.  Cambodia,  Indo-China. 


Genus:  F.hjiliantulus,  page  15 

This  family  is  principally  from  South  and  East  Africa,  but  one  of  the  species  occurs 
in  Morocco  and  Algeria.  The  genus  differs  from  those  tropical  genera  which  ante- 
date it  roughly  as  follows.  In  Rhynchocvon,  which  contains  large  species,  the  hallu.x  is 
absent;  the  dentition  is  abnormal,  in  that  the  upper  incisors  are  reduced  to  one, 
which  is  nearly  vestigial,  so  that  there  are  no  functional  front  teeth  in  front  of  the 
canine,  which  is  conspicuously  enlarged  and  dominant.  In  the  other  genera  there  are 
three  upper  incisors  and  the  upper  canine  is  not  extremely  dominant.  Petrodromus 
contains  large  species  with  no  hallux  and  with  normal  dentition.  Macroscelides  con- 
tains small  species  with  the  hallux  small  but  clawed  and  present,  and  the  bullae 
enormously  enlarged.  Elephantulus  is  like  Macroscelides  but  with  quite  normal,  small 
bullae.  Usually  it  has  ten  lower  (and  ten  upper)  cheekteeth,  thereby  differing  from 
Nasilio  which  is  closely  allied  but  which  has  normally  ele\en  lower  cheekteeth. 
Perhaps  Nasilio  is  only  a  subgenus  oi  Elephantulus. 

The  Palaearctic  species  oi  Elephantulus  is  the  first  specific  name  in  the  genus.  There 
arc  three  rather  well-defined  groups  of  species  in  British  Museum  material  of 
Elephantulus.  E.  intuji  from  South  Africa  stands  apart  from  all  the  remainder  in  having 
the  upper  P  3  (the  fifth  tooth  from  the  back)  large,  four-cusped  and  molariform.  For 
this,  the  subgeneric  name  Elephantomys  Broom,  1937,  is  available.  E.  rupestris,  South 
African,  the  type,  has  the  upper  P  3  narrow,  sectorial,  and  usually  two-cusped.  Two 
co-types  of  E.  rupestris  are  in  the  British  Museum,  and  both  show  the  characters 
clearly.  The  bullae  in  these  are  broken,  but  in  other  specimens,  and  in  types  of  forms 
named   as   subspecies  of  rupestris,   the   bullae   are   somewhat   llattened   so   that   the 



external  part  of  the  bulla  is  about  on  the  same  level  with  the  median  part  of  the  bulla 
as  seen  in  ventral  view.  E.  rupestris  myurus  and  E.  rupestris  jamesoni  are  subspecies 
represented  in  London,  and  E.  capensis  belongs  to  the  same  group.  The  remainder 
have  the  upper  P  3  narrow  and  sectorial  but  the  bullae  are  not  flattened,  so  that  the 
e.xternal  part  of  the  bulla  is  on  a  much  lower  level  than  the  median  part  of  buUa 
as  seen  in  ventral  view.  E.  rozeti  is  the  prior  name  for  this  group,  and  the  following 
types  have  been  available  for  examination:  atlantis,  clivorum,  deserti  and  moralus. 
Essentially  similar  forms  are  represented  by  the  types  oi peasei  and  somalicus  (respec- 
tively from  Abyssinia  and  Somaliland),  boramis,  delicatus  and  dundasi  (all  from  Kenya), 
ocularis,  pulcher  and  renatus  (all  from  Tanganyika).  The  type  of  edwardsii  has  P  3  as  in 
rupestris,  but  the  bullae  are  broken.  All  these  forms  are  listed  by  G.  Allen  (1939). 

Genus  ELEPHANTULUS  Thomas  &  Schwann,  1906 

1906.  Elephantulus  Thomas   &   Schwann,  Abstr.   P.Z.S.,  No.   33,    10.   P.Z.S.   577. 

Macroscelides  rupestris  Smith,  from  the  Cape  Province. 
1937.  Elephaniomys  Broom,  S.  Afr.  J.  Sci.  jjj.-  758.  E.  langi  Broom  from  cave  deposits 

at  Schurveberg,  Transvaal.  Valid  as  a  subgenus,  to  include  also  the  living 

species  E.  intufi  Smith  from  the  West  Transvaal. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Elephantulus  rozeti,  page  15 

Elephantulus  rozeti  Duvernoy,  1833  North  African  Elephant-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Morocco  and  Algeria.  Closely  allied  forms 
(subspecies  ?)  inhabit  Abyssinia,  Somaliland,  Kenya  and  Tanganyika. 

Elephantulus  rozeti  rozeti  Duvernoy,  1833 

1833.  Macroscelides  rozeti  Ttuwemoy ,  Mem.  Soc.  Hist.  Nat.  Strasbourg,  /,  2:  art.  4,  18, 
pis.  I,  2.  Near  Oran,  Algeria.  Range:  Northern  .\lgeria,  Oran,  Northern  Rif 

Elephantulus  rozeti  deserti  Thomas,  1901 

1 90 1.  Macroscelides  rozeti  deserti  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  155.  Near  Jebel  Bourzel, 
Biskra,  Algeria. 

Elephantulus  rozeti  atlantis  Thomas,  1913 

1913.  Elephantulus  rozeti  atlantis  Thomas,  Novit.  Zool.  20:  587.  Northern  slope  of 
Great  Atlas  of  Morocco,  south  of  Seskawa,  Ain  Moussa. 

Elephantulus  rozeti  moratus  Thomas,  19 13 

1913.  Elephantulus  rozeti  moratus  Thomas,  Novit.  Zool.  20:  587.  Jebel  Chedar,  about 

80  km.  south-east  of  Mazagan,  South- Western  Morocco.  Range  includes 

desert  of  Zragna,  Morocco. 

Elephantulus  rozeti  clivorum  Thomas,  191 3 

1913.  Elephantulus  deserti  clivorum  Thomas,  Novit.  Zool.  20:  588.  Guelt-es-Stel,  900  m., 

plateau  of  Eastern  Algeria.  Range:  as  above,  also  Matmata,  Southern  Tunis, 

and  Maafa,  Eastern  Algeria. 




Genera :  Echinoiorex,  page  1 7 
Eriiiacfus,  page  19 
HiDiiechinus,  page  23 
Hylomys,  page  17 
Meotelracus,  page  18 
Paracchitius,  page  26 

This  family  is  divided  into  two  subfamilies :  the  Echinosoricinae,  containing  Neo- 
tetracus,  Echinosorex  and  Hylomys,  and  chiefly  Indomalayan  in  distribution;  and  the 
Erinaceinae,  containing  the  true  Hedgehogs,  Erinaceus,  Paraechinus,  Htmiechinus,  which 
is  principally  Palaearctic  and  African  in  distribution.  Formerly  the  Hedgehogs  were 
all  referred  to  a  single  genus  Erinaceus  Linnaeus,  and  this  classification  is  still  followed 
by  some  authors,  for  instance  by  Bobrinskii  (1944).  Thomas,  1918,  Ann.  Mag. 
N.H.  i:  193-196,  divided  these  animals  into  five  genera.  Of  these  we  are  not  pre- 
pared to  admit  Atelcnx  as  more  than  a  subgenus;  and  certainly  not  Aethechinus  as 
anything  but  a  synonym  of  Atelerix  which  was  restricted  by  Thomas  to  species  in 
which  the  small  hallux  is  absent.  This  character  is  now  known  not  to  be  constant: 
see  J.  A.  Allen,  1922,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  47:  13.  But  there  seems  a  generic 
division  in  the  formation  of  the  bullae  between  Erinaceus  and  Herniechinus.  From 
the  last,  Paraechinus  is  not  so  easily  distinguished,  and  it  might  be  regarded  as 
only  a  subgenus  of  Herniechinus.  The  genera  admitted  here  may  be  keyed  as 
follows : 

1.  Coat  not  definitely  spiny;  10  or  1 1  lower  teeth  (40  or  44  teeth  in  all).  Tail  at  least 

visible  externally.     (Subfamily     Echinosoricinae)  2 

Coat  densely  spiny  dorsally.  Eight  lower  teeth  (36  teeth  in  all).  Tail  not,  or 
scarcely,  apparent.     (Subfamily     Erinaceinae)  4 

2.  Coat   rough   and   harsh;   much   larger  animal,   head   and    body   265-345   mm. 

in  B.M.  material.  Colour  striking;  typically  mixed  black  and  white,  with 
black  stripe  round  eye,  and  with  tail  dark  basally,  pale  terminally.  (White 
forms  occur.)  Tail  long,  averages  over  80  per  cent,  of  head  and  body.  First 
upper  incisor  and  upper  canine  strong  and  well  dilferentiated. 

Coat  soft;  smaller  animals,  head  and  body  in  adults  143  mm.  at  most,  and  usually 
less,  in  the  specimens  examined.  Colour  drab;  appearance  very  reminiscent  of 
certain  Voles  (Microtinae).  Tail  short,  averages  54  per  cent.,  or  less,  of  head  and 
body  in  B.M.  material.  Upper  canine  weak  (Hylomys)  or  scarcely  differentiated 
(Neotetracus).  3 

3.  Tail  averages  about  54  per  cent,  of  head  and  body,  and  is  usually  over  60  mm.  in 

length.  Normally  10  upper  and  lower  teeth.  NEOTETRACUS 

Tail  very  short,  averages  17  per  cent,  of  head  and  body,  and  reaches  30  mm.  in 
only  one  specimen  of  the  material  examined.  Normally  1 1  upper  and  lower 
teeth.  HYLOMrS 


4.  "Pterygoids  inflated,  their  cavity  communicating  with  that  of  bullae.  Paraptery- 

goid  fossae  shallow.  Postglenoid  fossae  even  larger  and  more  hollowed  out  than 
Hemiechinus"  (Thomas).                                                                PARAECHINUS 
Pterygoids  and  bullae  more  normal.  5 

5.  Postglenoid  process  as  large  as  mastoid  process,  hollow  internally. 

Postglenoid  process  small,  not  hollowed  out,  and  much  surpassed  by  the  mastoid 
process.  ERINACEUS 

Subfamily     Echinosoricinae 

Genus  ECraNOSOREX  Blainville,  1838 

1827.  Gymnura  Lesson,  Man.  Mamm.  171.  Gymnura  rafflesii  Lesson  =  Viverra  gymnura 
'  Rafiles.  Not  of  Kuhl,  1824. 

1838.  Echino-sorex  Blainville,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  6:  742.  Viverra  gymnura  Raffles. 
1840.  Echinosorex  VAa^nviWc,  Osteogr.,  Insectiv.  109.  Substitute  for  Echino-sorex. 

I  species :  Echinosorex  gymnurus,  page  1 7 

Echlnosorex  gymnurus  Raffles,  1821  Moonrat  or  Raffles'  Gymnura 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Tenasserim,   Lower  Siam,   Malay  States, 
Sumatra,  Borneo. 

(Echinosorex  gymnurus  gymnurus  Raffles,  1821.  Extralimital) 
182 1.  Viverra  gymnura   Raffles,   Trans.    Linn.    Soc.    London,    /j.-    272.   Bencoolen, 
Sumatra.  (Ranges  to  Malay  Peninsula.) 

Echinosorex  gymnurus  birmanicus  Trouessart,  1879 

1879.  Gymnura  birmanica  Trouessart,  Rev.  ZooL  Paris,  240.  Bankachon,  Southern 

1888.  Gymnura  raffiesi  Blanford,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  220,  not  of  Lesson,  1827, 

which  =  the  typical  race  from  Sumatra. 
1909.  Gymnura  gymnura  minor  Lyon,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  36:  453.  Trang,  2,000  ft.. 

Lower  Siam. 

Genus  HYLOMYS  MuUer,  1839 

1839.  Hylomys  Miiller  in  Temminck,  Verb.  Nat.  Gesch.  Nederl.  Overz.  Bezitt.,  Zool. 

Zoogd.  50.  Hylomys  suillus  Miiller. 

■,  I  species :  Hylomys  suillus,  page  1 7 

Hylomys  suillus  MuUer,  1839  Lesser  Gymnura 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Yunnan  (Burmese  Border),  Burma,  Indo- 
China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Tioman  Island,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo. 



(Hylomys  suillus  suillcs  MuUer,  1839.  Extralimital) 

1839.  Hylomys  suillus  Muller  in  Temminck,  Verb.  Nat.  Gesch.  Nederl.  Overz.  Bezitt., 
Zool.  Zoogd.  25,  50.  Java. 

Hylomys  suillus  peguensis  Blyth,  1859 

1859.  Hylomys  peguensis  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  28:  294.  Pegu,  Lower  Burma. 

Hylomys  suillus  siamensis  Kloss,  191 6 

19 16.  Hylomys  siamensis  Kloss,  J.N.H.  Soc.  Siani,  :?.•   10.  Hinlap,  900  ft.,  Eastern 
Siam.  Range:  to  Annam,  Laos  (Indo-China). 

Hylomys  suillus  miorotixus  Thomas,  1925 

1925.  Hylomys  suillus  microtinus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  497.  Thai-nien,  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Ranges  to  Laos,  but  probably  not  occurring  with  the  last.  Osgood  (1932) 

regarded  both  forms  as  races  of  H.  suillus. 

Genus  NEOTETRACUS  Trouessart,  1909 
1909.  Neotetracus  Trouessart,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  389.  Neotetracus  sinensis  Trouessart. 
I  species:   Neotelracm  sinensis,  page  18 

Neotetracus   sinensis  Trouessart,  1909  Shrew-Hedgehog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan  and  Yunnan,  in  China;  Northern 
Burma;  Indo-China. 

Neotetracus  sinensis  sinensis  Trouessart,  1909 

1909.  Neotetracus  sinensis  Trouessart,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  390.  Tatsienlu,  2,545  m., 
Szechuan,  China.  Range:  Szechuan,  Yunnan. 

Neotetr.\cus  sinensis  fulvescens  Osgood,  1932 

1932.  Neotetracus  sinensis  fulvescens  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  18:  239.  Chapa, 
Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Neotetracus  sinensis  cuttingi  Anthony,  1941 

1941.  Neotetracus  sinensis  cuttingi  Anlhony,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  sy:  58.  Hpimaw 
Road,  above  Hpimaw  fort,  9,000  ft.,  North-Eastern  Burma. 

Subfamily     E  r  i   n  a  c  e  i  n  a  e 

Authors  arc  not  yet  agreed  on  how  many  species  of  Hedgehogs  should  be  recog- 
nized. For  instance,  Ognev  (1928),  in  his  work  on  the  Mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R., 
recognized  four  genera  containing  thirteen  species  in  that  region;  whereas  Bobrinskii 
and  Kuzyakin  ( 1944)  retain  in  the  same  region  one  genus  with  only  four  species. 



The  late  J.  L.  Chaworth-Musters  was  for  many  years  doing  preparatory  work  at 
the  British  Museum  for  a  checklist  of  Palaearctic  Mammals.  Through  the  kindness  of 
his  executors  we  have  most  or  aU  of  his  notes  in  our  possession,  including  the 
synonymy  of  all  the  Palaearctic  Hedgehogs,  and  we  propose  here  to  adopt  most  of 
his  classification,  which  retains  the  three  genera  which  we  think  it  reasonable  to 
adopt,  and  recognizes  two  or  three  species  in  each  of  them. 

Genus  ERINACEUS  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.  Erinaceus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  52.  Erinaceus  europaeus  Linnaeus. 
1848.  Atelerix  Pomel,  Arch.   Sci.   Phys.   Nat.   Geneve,  g:   251.  Erinaceus  albiventris 

Wagner,  the  Senegambian  Hedgehog.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1866.  Peroechinus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  ^4:  565,  1866,  and  ^6:  856,  1867. 

Erinaceus  pruneri  Wagner  from  the  Sudan.  (  =Atelerix.) 
1868.  Herinaceus  Mina-Palumbo,  Ann.  Agric.  Sicil.  12:  37.  {N.V.)  (Emendation.) 
1918.  Aethechinus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•   194.  Erinaceus  algirus  Duvernoy  & 


2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Erinaceus  algirus,  page  23 
Erinaceus  europaeus,  page  19 

The  first-named  belongs  to  the  subgenus  Atelerix.  It  differs  from  normal  species  of 
that  subgenus  in  retaining  the  small  hallux  which  is,  however,  not  constantly  sup- 
pressed in  the  restricted  Atelerix  of  Thomas.  In  the  subgenus  Atelerix  the  prior  name  is 
E.  frontalis  Smith,  1831,  from  South  Africa,  but  E.  algirus  may  be  shown  to  be 
distinct  from  that  by  the  fact  that  there  is  an  average  size  distinction  between  the  two 
species.  Thus,  often  specimens  oi  E.  frontalis  examined,  only  one  reaches  52  mm.  in 
length  of  skull;  all  the  others  fail  to  reach  50  mm.  But  we  possess  only  two  specimens 
off.  algirus  (in  a  moderate  series)  which  are  less  than  51  mm.  in  length. 

Miller,  1912,  Cat.  Mamm.  West  Europe,  115,  contrasts  the  characters  of  the  two 
Palaearctic  species  here  admitted. 

Chaworth-Musters  used  to  put  all  named  forms  into  synonymy,  and  did  not 
recognize  any  subspecies.  Whilst  this  list  is  based  on  his  notes,  we  do  not  feel  that 
such  an  arrangeinent  would  be  acceptable  to  the  majority  of  zoologists,  and  so  have 
listed  those  forms  which  are  likely  to  be  of  subspecific  value.  Bobrinskii  divides  E. 
europaeus  into  three  groups  of  races  typified  by  europaeus,  roumanicus  and  amurensis  (all 
of  which  were  regarded  as  species  by  Ognev). 

Subgenus  ERINACEUS  Linnaeus,  1758 

Erinaceus  europaeus  Linnaeus,  1758  European  Hedgehog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Europe,  widely  distributed,  west  to  Britain 
and  Ireland,  north  to  Norway  and  Sweden,  south  to  Crete,  Greece,  Italy,  Sicily, 
Spain,  and  including  Denmark,  Holland,  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  Switzerland, 
Bohemia,  Hungary,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania,  Poland,  etc.  Russia:  roughly  from  north 


palaearc:tic:  and  Indian  mammals  i  758-1946 

of  Lake  Ladoga  eastwards,  south  to  the  Crimea  and  Caucasus;  Central  Siberia  in 
part,  eastwards  roughly  to  Tomsk  district,  south  to  River  Emba  and  North- West 
Kazakstan ;  Amur  and  Ussuri  regions  in  Pacific  Siberia.  Eastern  China :  states  of 
ChihU,  Shensi,  Shansi,  Hupeh,  Shantung,  Kiangsu,  Anhwei;  Manchuria.  Asia 
Minor:  Palestine. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  europaeus  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.  Ennacais  tiiropaais  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Xat.   loth  ed.   /.•  52.  Wamlingbo,  South 

Gothland  Island,  Sweden  (see  Thomas,  191 1,  P.Z.S.  142). 
1779.  Hvstrix  erinaceus  Blumenbach,  Handbuch  Naturg.  72.  Germany. 
1845.  Erinaceus  caniceps  H.  Smith,  Naturalist's  Libr.   1  Jardinc's),  2nd  ed.  /j;   148. 

Forest  of  Soignies,  near  Brussels,  Belgium. 
1897.  Erinaceus  echinus  Schulze,  Helios  Berlin,  14:  yi.  Substitute  for  europaeus. 
1900.  Erinaceus  europaeus   occidentalis   Barrett-Hamilton,    Ann.    Mag.    N.H.   fj:    362. 

Haddington,  Scotland. 
1900.   Erinaceus  europaeus  typicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  loc.  cit.  363. 
1912.   Erinaceus  suillus  Miller,  Cat.  Mamm.  Western  Europe,  120.  France,  quoted  as 

Geoflroy,  Cat.  Mammif.  Mus.  Nat.  H.N.  67,  but  according  to  a  note  in 

Chaworth-Musters  ALS.,  this  name  was  nc\'er  published  by  GeofTroy  in 

1803;  the  proofs  only  are  known. 
191 2.   Erinaceus  caninus  Miller,  loc.  cit.  France.  Quoted  as  GeofTroy,  Cat.  Mammif. 

Mus.  Nat.  H.N.  68,  but  according  to  note  in  Chaworth-Musters  MS.  this 

name  was  never  published  by  GeofTroy  in  1803. 
Range:  Western  Central  Europe  from  Scotland,  Southern  Norway  and  Central 
Sweden  to  Pyrenees  and  Alps,  west  to  Ireland. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  conxolor  Martin,  1838 

1838.  Erinaceus  concolor  Martin,  P.Z.S.  iS^y:  103.  Near  Trebizond,  Asia  Minor. 

1907.  Erinaceus  ponticus  Satunin,  Zool.  Anz.  31:  233.  Kobuleti,  22  versts  north  of 

Batum,  Georgia,  Transcaucasia. 
Range;  Transcaucasia,  Asia  Minor,  to  Lebanon,  Syria  (B.M.). 
Ognev  regarded  this  as  a  species. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  amurensis  Schrcnk,  1859 

1859.  Erinaceus  europaeus  var.  amurensis  Schrenk,  Reisen  im  Amur-Lande,  /,  pi.  iv. 

fig.  2  :  100-105.  Gulssoja,  near  Aigun,  on  Amur  river.  Northern  Manchuria, 

(5  Jan.  1859,  see  verso  2nd  title  page.) 
1903.  Erinaceus  orientalis  J.  .\llen.  Bull.  Amer.   Mus.   N.H.   ig:   179.  Vladivostock, 

Eastern  Siberia. 
10(17.   Eiiiiineus  ussuriensis  Satunin,  .Ann.   Mus.  Zool.  .Acad.  St.   Pctcrs'o.    19116,    ;/: 

170.  Sidemi.  Southern  Ussuri,  Eastern  Siberia. 
Range:  Korea,  Manchuria,  South-Eastern  Russian  Asia. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  dealbatus  Swinhoe,  1870 
1870.  Erinaceus  dealbatus  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  450.  Pekin,  C^hihli,  China. 
1907.   Erinaieus   chinensis   Satunin,   .\nn.    Mus.    Zonl.    Aiail.    St.    Pctersb.    19116,    //: 
173.  Tvnl/a-inl/a,  Kiiingan  .Mnuntains,  Manclunia. 


1907.  Erinaceus  krejenbergi  Matschie,  Exped.  Filchner,  Mamm.  135.  Type  purchased 

in  market  place,  Shanghai,  China. 
1907.  Erinaceus  tschifuensis  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  137.  Chefoo,  Shantung,  China. 

1907.  Erinaceus  hanensis  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  138.  Hankow,  Hupeh,  China. 

1908.  Erinaceus  hughi  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  44;   1909,  P.Z.S.  igo8:  966.  Paochi, 

Shensi,  China. 
1926.  Hemiechinus  manchuricus  Mori,  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.   //.•    108.  Koshurei,  South 

Manchuria.  Status ^^(/p  Kuroda. 
Range:  China,  from  Chihh,  Hunan,  Anhwei,  Hupeh,  Kiangsu,  Shantung,  Shensi, 
to  Manchuria  (part). 

Erinaceus  europaeus  hispanicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  1900 

1900.  Erinaceus  europaeus  hispanicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j.-  363.  Seville, 
Spain.  Range:  Iberian  Peninsula. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  italicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  1900 

1900.  Erinaceus  europaeus  italicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  §:  364.  Siena, 
Italy.  Range:  Italy,  Ticino  in  Switzerland,  Sardinia. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  roumanicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  1900 

1900.  Erinaceus  europaeus  roumanicus  Barrett-Hamilton,   Ann.    Mag.   N.H.  5.-   365. 

Gageni,  Prahova,  Rumania. 

1901.  Erinaceus  danubicus  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  9,  229.  Prundu, 

19 15.  Erinaceus   europaeus   roumanicus   var.    kievensis    Charlemagne,    Mamm.    of  the 
neighbourhood  of  Kiev,  37.  {N.V.,  fide  Ognev.)  Neighbourhood  of  Kiev, 
1930.  Erinaceus  rumanicus  rumanicus  (morpha)  bolkayi  \Iartino,  Zap.  Russk.  Nauch. 

Inst.  Byelgrad,  2:  60.  Cetinje,  Montenegro,  Yugoslavia. 
1933.  Erinaceus   roumanicus   roumanicus   drozdovskii   Martino,    Prirod.    Razpr.    2:    56. 

Kocane,  Vardar,  Macedonia,  Southern  Yugoslavia. 
Range:  Eastern  Germany,  Northern  Bohemia,  Hungary,  Rumania,  Yugoslavia, 
Greece,  Poland,  Southern  and  Central  Russia,  east  to  Orenberg  and  Tomsk  Govt. 
in  Siberia,  south  to  Crimea,  Northern  Caucasus. 
Regarded  as  a  species  by  Ognev  and  Miller;  as  a  race  oi europaeus  by  Bobrinskii,  and 
in  synonymy  of  that  species  in  Chaworth- Musters'  MSS. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  consolei  Barrett-Hamilton,  1900 

1900.  Erinaceus  europaeus  consolei  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j.-  366.  Near 
Palermo,  Sicily. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  transcaucasicus  Satunin,  1905 

1905.  Erinaceus  europaeus  transcaucasicus  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  2:   106,  281. 
'  Ordubad  on  the  Araxes  river,  Transcaucasia.  Ognev  referred  this  form  to 

roumanicus  as  a  race,  and  said  it  occurred  in  Northern  and  Southern  Caucasus, 

and  that  the  next  was  probably  a  synonym. 
1918.  Erinaceus  roumanicus  sacer  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  212.  Neighbourhood  of 

Jerusalem,  Palestine. 



Erinaceus  europael's  nesiotes  Bate,  1906 

1906.  Erinaceus  europaeus  nesiotes  Bate,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  ■2:  316.  Near  Gonia,  Western 


Erinaceus  europaeus  abasgicus  Satuniii,  1907 

1907.  Erinaceus  ponticus  abasgicus  Satunin,  Zool.  Anz.  ^i:  234.  Zebeldinsk  part  of 

Abchasia   on   the  upper   and   middle   course   of  River   Kodov,   \Vestern 
Caucasus.  Ognev  regarded  this  as  a  subspecies  oi  concolor. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  .miodon  Thomas,  1908 

igo8.  Erinaceus  miodon  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  44;  1909,  P.Z.S.  igo8:  965.  Yulinfu, 
Shensi,  4,000  ft.,  China. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  rhodius  Festa,  1914 

1914.  Erinaceus  europaeus  rhodius  Festa,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  zg, 
No.  686,  3.  Koskino,  Island  of  Rhodes,  Eastern  Mediterranean. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  meridion,\lis  Altobello,  1920 

1920.  Erinaceus  europaeus  meridionalis  Altobello,  Fauna  Abruzzo  e  MoHse,  Mamm.  i: 
13.  Abruzzi,  Italy. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  koreanus  Lonnberg,  1922 

1922.  Erinaceus  koreanus  Lonnberg,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  624.  Chosen,  Korea. 
(?)  1922.  Erinaceus  amurensis  koreensis  Mori,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  616.   Kaijo,  north 
of  Seoul,  Korea. 

Erinaceus  europaeus  centralrossicus  Ognev,  1926 

1926.  Erinaceus  europaeus  centralrossicus  Ogntw,  Uchen.  Zap.  Scv.  Kavkaz.  Inst.  /.•  37. 

Sichevsk,  Smolensk   Govt.,  Russia. 
1928.  Erinaceus    europaeus   centralrossicus    (natio)    pallidus    Ognev,    Mamm.    Eastern 

Europe,  Northern  Asia,  /.•  96.  Tyumensk  district,  Tobolsk  Govt.,  Western 


Erinaceus  europaeus  dissimilis  Stein,  1930 

1930.  Erinaceus  roumanicus  dissimilis  Stein,  Z.  Siiuget,  ^:  240.  Klcin-Sturlack,  Eastern 
Prussia,  Germany. 

Incertae  scdis 

Erinaceus  sibincus  Er.xleben,   1777,  Syst.  Regn.  Anini.   172.  Siberia  (based  on  Seba, 
1734,  Thesaurus,  /.•  79,  pi.  49,  figs.  4,  5). 

Erinaceus  or  Hemiechinus  dauuricus  Sundevall,  1842 

This  is  a  very  little  known  species.  G.  Allen  and  later  Bobrinskii  refer  it  to  Hemie- 
chinus; Bobrinskii  suggests  it  may  prove  to  be  a  well  marked  subspecies  of//,  auntus. 
Ognev  regarded  it  as  a  species  oi Erinaceus.  A  pencil  note  in  Chaworth-Musters'  MSS. 
says  that  A'.  dauuricu<,  is  a  genuine  Erinaceus,  a  subspecies  of  E.  europaeus,  but  that 
Hemiechinus  prrj-wahki  is  //.  albulus?  G.  Allen  lists  the  latter  as  a  synonym  oi'  dauuricus. 


1842.  Erinaceus  dauuricus  Sundevall,  K.  Svenska  Vetensk.  Akad.  Handl.  1841:  237. 

Dauuria,  Transbaikalia. 
( ?)  1907.  He77iiechinus  przewalskii  Sa.tunm,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  1906, 

//:  181.  Northern  China.  G.  Allen  recorded  this  form  from  Mongolia,  but 

had  seen  no  specimens. 

Subgenus  ATELERIX  Pomel,  1848  [Synonym:  Aethechinus  ThomdLi,  1918) 

Erinaceus  algirus  Duvernoy  &  Lereboullet,  1842  Algerian  Hedgehog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Morocco,  Algeria,  Libya,  Canary  Islands; 
South-Eastern  France,  Spain,  Balearic  Islands. 

Erinaceus  algirus  algirus  Duvernoy  &  Lereboullet,  1842 

1842.  Erinaceus  algirus  Duvernoy  &  Lereboullet,  Mem.  Soc.  Hist.  Nat.  Strasbourg, 

3,  2,  art.  1:14.  Algeria,  no  exact  locality;  Oran  given  by  Miller  (191 2)  and 

G.  Allen  (1939). 
1882.  Erinaceus  fallax  Dohson,  Monogr.  Insectivora,  9.  Sfax,  Tunisia  (type  in  B.M.). 

Range:  Morocco  to  Libya,  Spain,  South-Eastern  France. 

Erinaceus  algirus  vagans  Thomas,  1901 

1901.  Erinaceus  algirus  vagans  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igoi,  i:  38.  San  Cristobal,  Minorca, 
Balearic  Islands.  Range  includes  Majorca. 

Erinaceus  algirus  caniculus  Thomas,  19 15 

1915.  Erinaceus  algirus  caniculus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  152.  Toston,  Fuerte- 

ventura  Island,  Eastern  Canary  Islands. 
(?)  1877.  Erinaceus  krugi  Peters,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  78.  Habitat  unknown, 

probably   West  Africa   or   Southern  Europe.    (Type  specimen   killed   in 

Mayaguez,  Porto  Rico,  ?  introduced.) 

Erinaceus  algirus  lavaudeni  Cabrera,  1928 

1928.  Aethechinus  algirus  lavaudeni  Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  28:  454.  Mogador, 

Genus  HEMIECHINUS  Fitzinger,  1866 

1842.  Ericius  Sundevall,  K.  .Svenska  Vetensk.  Akad.  Handl.  1841:  223.  Erinaceus 

auritus  Gmelin.  Not  of  Tilesius,  181 3. 
1866.  Hemiechinus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  VViss.  Wien,  5^,  i :  565;  ibid,  1867,  j6:  858. 

Erinaceus  platyotis  Sundevall  =  Erinaceus  aegyptius  Fischer. 
(?)  1928.  Erinaceolus   Ognev,    Mamm.    E.    Europe,    N.   Asia,    /.•    168.    Hemiechinus 

microtis  Laptev. 

2  species :  Hemiechinus  auritus,  page  24 
Hemiechinus  megalotis,  page  26 



Chaworth-Miisters  was  goina;  to  retain  three  species  in  this  genus,  H.  aurilus,  H. 
collaris  (to  include  albulus,  turaniciis,  minor,  alaichankus,  persici/s,  turfanicus,  holdereri, 
major,  irisiilaris),  and  H.  rm'galolis.  Bobrinskii  says  all  these  forms  represent  one  species; 
Ognev  further  subdivided  forms  of  the  genus  which  occur  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  and 
retained  several  more  species.  The  British  Museum  material  gives  the  following 
cranial  measurements:  for  H.  megalotis,  length  of  skull  52-56.9  mm.  (average  54  mm., 
two  specimens) ;  H.  collaris  as  understood  by  Chaworth-Musters,  skull  length  averages 
about  47  mm.  (46.1-48.6  mm.)  (based  on  specimens  of  collaris  from  Cutch,  Sind, 
Palanpur,  Punjab;  of  albulus  from  Djarkent,  Yarkand,  Kashgar,  Northern  Afghani- 
stan; of  turanicus,  Transcaspia) ;  H.  aurilus  as  restricted  by  Chaworth-Musters  from 
Egy-pt,  Palestine,  Cyprus,  Iraq,  Cyrenaica,  has  the  skull  length  averaging  43.9  mm. 
(42-44.8  mm.).  The  type  of  calligoni  has  also  been  examined.  In  our  material,  there- 
fore, there  is  an  absolute  difference  in  size  of  skull  between  the  three  groups,  but  in 
Ognev's  Key  to  the  Mammals  of  Eastern  Europe,  etc.,  it  will  be  found  that  there  is  a 
considerable  overlap  between  auritus  and  "collaris"  as  listed  by  Chaworth-Musters, 
and  we  think  it  best  to  merge  these  two  species,  following  Bobrinskii.  Ognev's  form 
major  can  have  the  skull  as  large  as  in  megalotis.  Our  specimens  of  megalotis  are  from 
Kandahar  and  Baluchistan. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  Gmelin,  1770  Long-eared  Hedgehog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt,  Cyrenaica;  Palestine,  Cyprus,  Asia 
Minor,  Persia,  Afghanistan;  Punjab,  Cutch,  Sind,  Rajputana,  Palanpur  in  India; 
Chinese  Turkestan,  Mongolia;  Russian  Turkestan,  where  widely  distributed  north 
to  Altai  steppe;  Caucasus  and  South-Eastcrn  Russia  (Volga  steppes  as  far  north  as 
Kuibyshev,  Don  steppes).  ?  Ceylon  (B.M.,  "grayi"  is  labelled  from  Wella- 
watte,  Ceylon). 

Hemiechinus  auritus  auritus  Gmelin,  1770 

1770.  Erinaceus  auritus  Gmelin,  Nov.  Comment.  Acad.  Sci.  Petrop.  14:  519.  Astra- 
khan, South-Eastern  Russia. 

1842.  Erinaceus  aurilus  caspicus  Sundevall,  K.  Svenska  Vctensk.  Akad.  Hand!.  1841, 
237.  Emendation  of  auritus. 

Range:  European  range  of  the  species  and  Kazakstan  steppes. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  aegyptius  Fischer,  1829 

1829.   Erinaceus  aegrptius  Fischer,   Syn.   Mamm.   262.   Egypt.  Based  on  E.  aeg)ptius 

Geoflroyr  C;at.  .\Ius.  H.N.  Paris,  1803,  which  was  never  published;  proof 

sheets  only  are  known  ;  Chaworth-Mustcrsj. 
1833.   Erinaceus  libvcus  Ehrcnberg  in  Hemprich  &  Ehrcnberg,  S\'mb.  Phys.  Mamm.  .\- 

sig.  k,  recto  (footnote).  Desert  near  Alexandria,  Egypt. 
1842.   Erinaceus  [Ericius]  plalyotis  Sundevall,  K. -Svenska  Vctensk.  Akad.  Hand!.  1841, 

232.  Egypt. 
1882.   Erinaceus  frontalis  Dobson,   Monogr.   Insect.   /.•    18,   not  of  Smith,    1831.   See 

Anderson  &  de  Winton,  Mamm.  Egypt,   1902,   159,  as  to  status. 
Range:  Egypt,  Cyrenaica. 



Hemiechinus  auritus  collaris  Gray,  1830 

1830.  Erinaceus  collaris  Gray  in  Hardwicke,  Illustr.  Indian  Zool.   /,  pi.  8.  Doab. 

between  the  Rivers  Jumna  and  Ganges,  India.  (See  Wroughton,  1910,  J, 

Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  20:  81.) 
1832.  Erinaceus  spatangus  Bennett,  P.Z.S.  123.  Himalayan  mountains. 

1832.  Erinaceus  gravi 'Qennttt,  P.Z.S.  124.  Himalayan  mountains. 

1833.  Erinaceus   indicus   Royle,    Illustr.    Bot.    Himalaya,    6.    Delhi,    India. 
Range:  Northern  India  as  listed  under  the  species;  Afghanistan  (B.M.). 

Hemiechinus  auritus  albulus  Stoliczka,  1872 

1872.  Erinaceus  [Hemiechinus)  albulus  Stoliczka,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  41,  2:  226. 
Langur,  near  Sandshu,  Yarkand,  Chinese  Turkestan. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  syriacus  Wood,  1876 

1876.  Erinaceus  syriacus  ^Vood,  Bible  Animals,  83.  Palestine.  This  name  is  available  if 
the  Palestine  form  is  recognizable. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  calligoni  Satunin,  1901 

1 90 1.  Erinaceus  calligoni  Satunin,  Prot.  Obshch.  Est.  Kazan,  No.   192   (misprinted 

191),  2.  P.Z.S.  igoi,  2:  284.  Village  of  Aralyk,  about  40  versts  south  of 

Erivan,  Armenia.  Range:  Daghestan,  Transcaucasia. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  turanicus  Satunin,  1905 

1905.  Erinaceus  albulus  turanicus  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  2:  45,  70.  Ferghana, 

Usbekistan,  Russian  Turkestan  (see  Satunin,  1906,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad. 
-         St.   Petersb.    //.•    180.)    Range:   from   Kopet-Dag   to   Lake   Balkash   and 

Semirechyia  (Ognev). 

Hemiechinus  auritus  minor  Satunin,  1907 

1907.  Hemiechinus  albulus  minor  Satunin,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  1906, 
//:  180.  Barnaul,  W'estern  Siberia. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  alaschanicus  Satunin,  1907 

1907.  Hemiechinus  albulus  alaschanicus  Satunin,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb. 
1906,  //:  181.  Alashan,  Inner  Mongolia. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  persicus  Satunin,  1907 

1907.  Hemiechinus  persicus  Salunin,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  1906,  //:  184. 

Guljander,  Persia. 

Hemiechin'us  auritus  brachyotis  Satunin,  1908 

1908.  Hemiechinus  calligoni  brachyotis  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  4:  47,  106.  Ach-su, 

Semacha  district,  Transcaucasia. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  turfanicus  Matschie,  191 1 

191 1.  Hemiechinus  albulus  turfanicus  Matschie  in  Futterer,  Durch  Asien,  5,  5,  Zool.:  4 
(of  reprint).  Chami,  Sinkiang  (Chinese  Turkestan). 


Hemiechinus  auritus  holdereri  Matschie,  1922 

1922.  Hemiechinus  holdereri  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  73.  Near  River 
Sarin-gol,  Gobi  Desert,  Mongolia. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  major  OcjneN-  cS:   Heptncr,  1028 

1928.  Hemiechinus  alhulus  major  Ognev   &   Hcptner,    Zool.   Anz.    75;    259.   Station 
Annau,  Ashabad,  Transcaspia,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  turkestanicus  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Hemiechinus  calligorii  turkestanicus  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia,  /.•  130. 
Station  Kara-Usyak,  north  of  Perovsk,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Hemiechinus  auritus  insularis  Timofejcw,  1934 

1934.  Hemiechinus  alhulus  insularis  Timofejcw,  Zool.  J.  Moscow,  ij:  748,  758.  Island 
of  Barsa  Kelmes  in  the  Sea  of  Aral,  Russian  Gentral  Asia. 

Hemiechinus  megalotis  BIyth,  1845  Afghan  Hedgehog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species;  Baluchistan,  Afghanistan  and  South-\\'estern 
Russian  Turkestan. 

Hemiechinus  megalotis  BIyth,  1845 

1845.  Erinaceus  megalotis  BIyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  i^:  353  ifootnote).  Kandahar, 

(?")  1926.  Hemiechinus  chorassanicus  Laptev,  Bull.  Uniw  Asie  Cent,  ij:  1 15-1 16.  \'alley 

Tchandyr,  near  Atrek  river,  Kopet-Dagh,  South-Western  Russian  Turkestan. 

Bobrinskii  suggests  this  is  a  cross  between  H.  auritus  and  Paraechinus  hvpo- 

?nela5;  Chaworth-Musters  regarded  it  as  a  synonym  of//,  megalotis. 

Incertae  sedis 

Hemiechinus  russowi  Sntimn,  1907,  Ann.  Miis.  Zool.  .\cad.  St.  Petersb.  1906,  //:  177. 
Tchinaz,  Samarkand  district,  south  of  Tashkent,  Russian  Turkestan.  The 
skull  is  unknown.  According  to  Bobrinskii  it  "docs  not  even  represent  a  very 
pronounced  individual  aberration". 

Hemiechinus  microtis  Laptev,  1925,  Bull.  Univ.  Asie  Cent.  8:  66.  Tashkent,  Russian 
Turkestan.  Type  of  Ennaceolus  Ognev.  "Only  known  by  two  specimens 
from  Tashkent,  we  regard  as  a  pronounced  aberration,  all  the  distinctive 
features  of  which  are  connected  with  an  anomalous  under-development 
of  the  organ  of  hearing"  (Bobrinskii  &  Kuzyakin). 

Hemiechinus  homalacanthus  Stroganov,  1944,  C;.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  44.  ■',:  120. 
Kabadiani,  Tadjikistan,  Russian  Turkestan.  From  descriptions  a  large  form, 
perhaps  representing  //.  megalotis. 

Genus  PARAECHINUS  Trouessart,  1879 

1870.  Paraechinus  Trouessart,  Key.  Zool.  Paris,  j:  242.  Erinaceus  micropus  BIyth. 
1907.   Macroechinus  Satunin,   Ann.    Mus.   Zool.   Acad.   St.   Petersb.    1906,    //:    189. 
Eiinaceii^  krpnmelas  13randt. 



3  species:  Paraechinus  aethiopicus,  page  27 
Paraechiniu  hypomelas,  page  28 
Paraechinus  micropus,  page  28 

There  are  two  distinct  groups  in  this  genus,  typified  by  hypomelas  and  aethiopicus. 
Chaworth-Musters  was  going  to  retain  three  species  {micropus  was  the  third)  but  did 
not  deal  with  the  Madras  form,  nudiventris .  We  have  two  skulls  for  the  last-named 
which  have  the  zygoma  incomplete  and  apparently  lack  the  jugal,  but  it  does  not 
seem  a  constant  character  as  the  zygoma  is  complete  in  a  third  specimen.  Chaworth- 
Musters'  species  may  be  retained  and  keyed  as  follows:  nudiventris  is  tentatively 
referred  to  micropus,  and  micropus  might  well  be  regarded  as  an  eastern  representative 
of  aethiopicus. 

1.  P  3  less  reduced,  three-rooted.  Skull  appears  long  and  narrow,  narrow  in  ptery- 

goid region  (pterygoid  width  averages  about  51  per  cent,  or  less  of  length  of 
skull).                                                                                         Paraechinus  hypomelas 
P  3   single-rooted   (occasionally  two-rooted),   but  very  reduced.   Skull  appears 
wider,  and  is  wider  in  pterygoid  region  (pterygoid  width  averages  54  per  cent, 
or  more  of  length  of  skull).  2 

2.  Pterygoid  width  very  rarely  under  25  mm.  (only  once  in  fourteen  specimens). 

Paraechinus  aethiopicus 
Pterygoid  width  normally  less  than  25  mm.  (fifteen  out  of  sixteen  specimens). 

Paraechinus  micropus 

On  South-\Vestern  Asiatic  and  North  African  forms  (in  part)  see  Morrison-Scott, 
1939,  Novit.  Zool.  41:  202. 

Paraechinus  aethiopicus  Ehrenberg,  1833  Ethiopian  Hedgehog 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Morocco,  Algeria,  Asben,  Sudan,  Arabia, 

(Par.'\echinus  aethiopicus  aethiopicus  Ehrenberg,  "1833.  Extralimital) 

1833.  Erinaceus  aethiopicus   Ehrenberg   in   Hemprich.  &    Ehrenberg,    Symb.    Phys. 

Mamm.  2:  sig.  k,  recto  (footnote).  Dongola  Desert,  Sudan. 
1839.  Erinaceus  sennaariensis  Hedenborg,  Isis,  32.-  8,  nom.  nud. 
1841.  Erinaceus  brachydactylus  Wagner,  Schreber  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  24.  Renaming  of 

1867.  Hemiechinus  pallidus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  ^Vien,  ^6,   1:  866.  Senaar, 


Paraechinus  aethiopicus  deserti  Loche,  1858 

1858.  Erinaceus  deserti  Loche,  Cat.  Mamm.  Oiseaux  Algerie,  20.  Southern  Sahara,  in 
Oasis  of  Beni-Mzab,  Ouargla,  and  Tuggurt,  Algeria.  Ranges  to  Morocco. 

Paraechinus  aethiopicus  pectoralis  Heuglin,  i85i 

1861.  Hemiechinus  pectoralis  Heuglin,  Nov.  Acta.  Leop.  Carol.  2g:  22.  Petra,  Trans- 

c  27 


Paraechinus  aethiopicus  dorsalis  Anderson   &   de  VVinton,  1901 

1901.  Erinaceus  dorsalis  Anderson  &  de  VVinton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  y:  42.  Hadramaut, 
Southern  Arabia. 

Par.'^echini's  aethiopicus  LUDLOW!  Thomas,  191 9 

1919.  Paraechinus  hidlowi  Thomas,  J.   Bombay   N.H.    Soc.    26:    748.   Hitt,   on   the 
Euphrates,  about  100  miles  west  of  Baghdad,  Iraq. 


1 92 1.  Paraechinus  deserti  blancalis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  570.  Island  of  Djerba, 

South-Eastern  Tunis. 

Paraechinus  .aethiopicus  albatus  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Paraechinus  dorsalis  albatus  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.  g:    144.  Tanb  Island, 

Persian  Gulf. 

Par.\eciiinus  aethiopicus  oniscus  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Paraechinus  oniscus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  307.  Fayush,  7  miles  north  of 
Sheikh  Othman,  near  Aden,  Southern  Arabia. 

Par.-vechinus  aethiopicus  albior  Pocock,  1934 

1934.  Paraechinus  dorsalis  alhior  Pocock,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   14:  636.   Dhimir  Wad, 
Geradun,  960  ft.,  Southern  Arabia. 

Paraechinus  micropus   Blyth,  1846  Indian  Hedgehog 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Punjab,  Rajputana,  Sind,  Cutch,  Kathiawar, 
Palanpur  and  Madras,  India. 

P.-vraechinus  micropus  micropus  Blyth,  1846 

1846.  Erinaceus  micropus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  i§:   170.  Bhawalpur,  Punjab, 

Northern  India. 
1867.  I/emiechinus  inentalis  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  W'iss.  W'ien,  56",  i  :  874.  (Gray,  1843, 

Cat.  Mamm.  B.M.  81,  nom.  nud.).  ?  Himalayas. 
(?)  1872.  Erinaceus  [Hemiechinus)  pictus  Stoliczka,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  41,  2:  223. 

VVestern  part  of  Cutch,  India. 
Range:  as  in  the  species,  except  Madras. 

Paraechinus  (?)  micropus  .\udiventris  Horsficld,  1851 

1851.  Erinaceus  nudivenlris  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  .\Ius.  E.  India  Co.  136.  Madras, 
Southern  India. 

Paraechinus  hypomelas  Brandt,  1836  Brandt's  Hedgehog 

Approximate  distril  ■'  irm  of  species:  Russian  Turkestan  (Ust-L'rt,  Turkmcnia, 
Usbekistan  as  far  north  as  Samarkand  Province);  Persia,  Afghanistan,  Arabia;  Sind 
Punjab  (Salt  Rantjo  and  North- West  Frontier  (Peshawar). 


Paraechinus  hypomelas  hypomelas  Brandt,  1836 

1836.  Erinaceus  hypomelas  Brandt,  Bull.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.   /;  32.  Northern  Persia. 

(See  Ognev,  1927,  Zool.  Anz.  6g:  210-212.) 
1875.  Erinaceus  macracanthus  Blanford,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   16:   310.   Near  Kerman 

(Carmania),  5,000-6,000  ft.,  Persia. 
1918.  Paraechinus  amir  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  232.  Kandahar,  Afghanistan. 
Range:  Persia,  Afghanistan,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Paraechinus  hypomelas  blanfordi  Anderson,  1878 

1878.  Erinaceus  blanfordi  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  See.  Bengal,  ^7,  2:  208.  Rohri,  Sind, 

North-Western  India. 
1878.  Erinaceus  jerdoni  Anderson,  loc.  cil.  209.  Karachi,  Sind,  India. 

Paraechinus  hypomelas  nicer  Blanford,  1878 

1878.  Erinaceus  wz^cr  Blanford,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^7,  2:  212.  Muscat,  Arabia. 

Paraechinus  hypomelas  seniculus  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Paraechinus  niger  seniculus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  142.  Island  of  Tanb, 
Persian  Gulf. 

Paraechinus  hypomelas  sabaeus  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Paraechinus  niger  sabaeus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  143.  El  Kubar,  about 
60  miles  north  of  Aden,  5,200  ft.,  Arabia. 

Paraechinus  hypomelas  eversm.^'iNni  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Paraechinus  hypomelas  eversmanni  Ognev,  Zool.  Anz.  6g:  218.  Ust-Urt,  east  of 
Caspian  Sea,  Northern  Russian  Turkestan. 


Genera:  Desmana,  page  32 
Galemys,  page  33 
Scapanulus,  page  35 
Scaptonyx,  page  34 
Talpa,  page  35 
Uropsilus,  page  31 
Urotrichus,  page  33 

On  these  genera  see  Cabrera  (1925).  Another  helpful  work  is  W'inge,  1923, 
Pattedyr  Slaegter,  i:  143-155  (key,  154-155).  About  a  dozen  genera  are  currently 
recognized  in  this  family  in  the  Old  World  which  Simpson,  following  Thomas  and 
Cabrera,  divides  into  four  subfamilies.  It  is  beginning  to  be  understood  that  no  useful 
purpose  is  served  by  -recognizing  genera  based  solely  on  dental  formulae  in  this 
family.  Thus  Schwarz  (1948)  refers  all  members  of  the  subfamily  Talpinae  to  one 
genus,  in  one  species  of  which  are  four  different  dental  formulae  which  have  hitherto 



been  considered  as  of  generic  \alue.  Similarly,  Osgood  !  1937)  has  shown  conclusively 
that  in  the  UropsiUnae  the  three  supposed  genera  of  Thomas  are  of  very  little  value, 
being  based  solely  on  the  presence  or  absence  of  vanishing  teeth  which  give  three 
supposedly  different  dental  formulae.'  For  this  family  we  are  fortunate  in  possessing 
the  manuscript  which  Chaworth-Musters  prepared  for  a  list  of  Palaearctic  Mammals. 
The  subfamilies  and  genera  here  admitted  may  be  separated  as  follows: 

1.  The  upper  canine  is  the  dominant  front  tooth;  it  is  conspicuously  larger  than  the 

incisors  in  front  of  it.  Animal  modified  for  underground  life.  Tail  very  short. 
Hand  very  large,  larger  than  in  other  Asiatic  and  European  genera,  the  inner 
side  conspicuously  broadened.  (.Subfamily  T.\lpin.\e)  TALPA 
The  upper  canine  is  not  the  dominant  front  tooth,  but  the  first  upper  incisor  is 
generally  very  strongly  so.  In  one  genus  (.Scaplonvx)  none  of  the  front  teeth  are 
much  enlarged.  2 

2.  .\nimal  modified  for  aquatic  life;  hindfeet  very  broad  and  large;  tail  long,  nearly 

as  long  as,  or  longer  than,  head  and  body,  at  least  partly  specialized  for  swim- 
ming. First  upper  incisor  very  large.     (Subfamily  Desmani.xae)  3 

Animal    not    aquatic;    tail    not    specialized    for    swimming,    and    hindfeet    less 
broadened.  4 

3.  Tail  flattened  laterally  throughout;  unicuspid   teeth  low  and   thick;  ridges  on 

braincase  unusually  developed;   head  and   body   180-215  mm.   {Ognev),  tail 
1 70-2 1 5  mm.  DESMANA 

Tail  flattened  laterally  only  at  end;  unicuspid  teeth  slender;  ridges  on  braincase 
moderate;  head  and  body  circa  i  10-156  mm.,  tail  circa  126-156  mm. 


4.  Animal  shrew-like;  tail  long,  sometimes  as  long  as  head  and  body,  and  usually 

over  80  per  cent,  of  it,  poorly  haired;  hands  small,  not  fossorial.  First  upper 
incisor  dominant  but  not  very  strongly  enlarged.  Head  and  body  length  under 
90  mm.  (Subfamily  Uropsilinae)  UROPSILUS 
Animal  mole-like;  tail  well  haired,  often  almost  bushv,  short,  averaging  55  per 
cent,  at  most  of  head  and  body,  but  more  often  less  than  40  per  cent,  of  it. 
Hands  large  and  broad,  fossorial;  but  less  broadened,  particularly  on  inner  side, 
than  in  Talpinae.     (Subfamily  Scvlopinwe)  5 

^  Precisely  similar  conditions  occur  in  the  .African  family  Chrysochloridac.  .'Vs  many  as  nine  genera 
have  been  admitted,  and  no  two  authors  agree  which  are  valid  and  which  are  of  subgeneric  value 
when  endeavouring  to  make  revision:  nor  will  they  do  so  until  they  realize  that  presence  or  absence 
of  vanishing  teeth  are  of  not  much  value.  Thus  in  ^^Neambhsomus^''  three  quite  different  formulae  are 
found  in  the  same  series;  and  Chrysochloris  as  restricted  by  Roberts,  for  which  a  large  series  has  been 
collected  in  the  West  Cape,  has  the  formula  varying  indi\'idually  so  that  three  formulae  at  least  can 
be  present.  One  of  us  (J.  R.  E.)  has  examined  the  great  majority  of  type  specimens  in  this  family,  and 
inclines  to  the  view  that  there  are  only  three  main  generic  types  in  this  family:  Chrysospalax.  the  giant 
golden-moles  with  the  posterior  zygoma  root  and  occiput  much  enlarged ;  Chrysochloris^  containing  the 
majority  of  the  subgenera  and  species,  small  animals  with  posterior  zygoma  root  and  occiput  normal, 
and  two  functional  fmgers  in  the  hand;  and  Eremiialpa,  like  Chrysochloris^  but  hand  with  three 
functional  fmgers.  Surely  in  animals  so  highly  modified  for  digging  as  these  arc,  the  latter  character 
is  \'ery  much  more  important  than  any  dental  formula.'* 



First  upper  incisor  not  much  enlarged;  42  teeth,  11  upper,  10  lower.  (Head  and 

body  length  90  mm.,  and  less.)                                                       SCAPTONIX 
First  upper  incisor  very  enlarged;  36  or  38  teeth.  6 

Head  and  body  length  roughly  100  mm.  (98-108  mm.).  Nine  upper  and  9  lower 

Head  and  body  length  very  rarely  reaches  100  mm.  (four  only  in  eighty-five 
specimens  noted  in  B.M.).  Ten  upper,  8  or  9  lower  teeth.  UROTRICHUS 

Subfamily     Uropsilinae 

Genus  UROPSILUS  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Uropsilus  Milne-Edwards  in  David,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  7;  Bull.  92. 
Uropsilus  soricipes  Milne-Edwards. 

191 1.  Nasillus  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  49;  P.Z.S.  129.  Nasillus  gracilis  Thomas. 

1912.  Rhynchonax  Thomdii,  P.Z.S.  1^0.  Rkynckonax  andersoni  Thomas. 

I  species :  Uropsilus  soricipes,  page  3 1 

Three  genera,  based  on  three  dental  formulae  which  are  now  known  not  to  be 
constant,  are  tentatively  referred  to  a  single  species.  (It  may  be  noted  that  in  Talpa 
micrura  as  recently  defined  by  Schwarz,  four  different  dental  formulae  occur.)  See 
particularly  Osgood,  1937,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  ^ool.  20,  27:  365.  G.  Allen  thought  that 
the  three  groups  should  stand  as  genera  until  they  can  be  shown  to  be  not  generically 
valid,  and  argues  that  the  three  groups  are  probably  distinct  as  they  have  fairly 
distinct  areas  of  geographical  distribution.  Against  this  it  might  be  argued  that  as 
they  do  not  occur  together  they  are  probably  all  races  of  one  species.  The  three  are 
hardly  distinguishable  from  each  other  externally.  Osgood  retained  two  genera,  but 
his  diagnosis  is  not  very  convincing,  and  he  apparently  thought  Rhynchonax  andersoni 
was  a  race  of  U.  soricipes,  while  the  other  two  named  forms  of  Rhynchonax,  atronates 
and  nivatus,  he  thought  might  be  races  of  Nasillus  gracilis.  Until  the  contrary  is 
proved  we  prefer  to  retain  one  species  only,  which  is  considered  as  on  the  point 
of  losing  some  small  teeth,  so  that  different  individuals  may  either  have  them 
or  not. 

Uropsilus  soricipes  Milne-Edwards,  1872  Shrew-Mole 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan  and  Yunnan  in  China,  to  Northern 

Uropsilus  soricipes  soricipes  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.   Uropsilus  soricipes  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  7,  Bull.:  92. 
Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  1872,  272.  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 


Uropsilus  soricipes  gracilis  Thomas,  191 1 

191 1.  Aasilliis  gracilis  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.   100,  49.  igi2,  P.Z.S.   130.  Mt. 

Chinfusan,   near  Nanchwan,  4,000  ft.,   Szechuan,   China.  Osgood   (1937) 

retains  this  form  as  a  species. 

Uropsilus  soricipes  .\ndersoni  Thomas,  191 1 

1911.  Rhynchonax  andersoni  Thomas,  Abstr.   P.Z.S.   No.    100,  49.    /g/i',   P.Z.S.    130. 

Omisan,  Omei  Hsien,  Southern  Szechuan,  9,500  ft.,  China. 
1923.  Rhmchonax andersoni  atronates  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Novit.  No.  100,  2.  Mucheng 

Sahveen  drainage,  South-Western  Yunnan,   7,000  ft.,   China.  Status  fide 

Anthony,  1941,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  27:  G2.  But  O.sgood  thought  it  might 

be  a  race  oi  gracilis. 
Range:  to  Northern  Burma. 

Uropsilus  soricipes  investig.^tor  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Nastllus  investigator  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   10:   393.   Kiukiang-Salween 

divide  at  28"  N.,  Yunnan,  1 1,000  ft.,  China. 

Uropsilus  soricipes  nivatus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Rhynchonax  andersoni  nivatus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Novit.  No.  100,  2.  Ssu-shan 

(Snow  Mountain),   Likiang  Range,   Western  Yunnan,    12,000  ft.,   China. 
(Osgood  thought  this  might  be  a  race  oi gracilis.) 

Subfamily     Desmaninae 

Genus  DESMANA  Guldenstacdt,  1777 

1777.  Desrnana  Guldenstacdt,  Beschaft  Berl.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  3:  108.  Castor  moschatus 

1799.  Desman  Laccpede,  Tabl.  Mamm.  7.  Castor  moschatus  Linnaeus. 

1800.  Mrgale  Cuvier,  Leq.  Anat.  Comp.  i,  Tabl.  i.  Castor  moschatus  Linnaeus. 
1815.  Desmanus  Rafincsque,  Analyse  de  la  Nature,  59.  Renaming  oi  Mygale. 

1829.  Mxogalea  Fischer,  Synops.  Mamm.  250.  Substitute  for  Mygale. 

1830.  C.apiios  ^Vagler,  Nat.  Syst.  Amphib.  14.  Substitute  for  Alygale. 
1836.   .\/)Offa/c  Brandt,  Wiegmann's  Arch.  Naturgcsch.  /.•  176. 

I  species:  Desrnana  moschata,  page  32 

Desrnana  moschata   Linnaeus,  1758  Russian  Desman 

.Ali[jn,ximatc  distribution  of  species:  "The  basins  of  the  \'olga,  Don  and  Mius. 
East  to  the  lower  Kama,  north  to  upper  Unzha;  west  to  Ruibinsk,  the  confluence  of 
the  .Mi'sha  with  the  X'olga,  Moscow  and  Kharkos-,  and  south  to  the  Don  (it  does  not 
(«(  ur  (in  the  1<  ft-ljank  tributaries  of  that  river)  and  X'olga  deha,  and  the  middle  and 
lM\\<r  Ri\cr  Ural"  Tjubrinskii). 



Desmana  moschata  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Castor  moschatus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /;  59.  Russia. 
181 1.  Mygale  moscovitica  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ly:   192.  Substitute  for 
moschatus  Linnaeus. 

Genus  GALEMYS  Kaup,  1829 

1829.  Galemys  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierwelt,  /.•  119.  Mygale  pyrenaica  Geoffroy. 
1835.  Mygalina  I.  Geoffroy  in  Gervais,  Resume  des  Legons  de  Mamm.  45.  Adygale 

pyrenaica  Geoffroy. 
1846.  Galomys  Agassiz,  Nom.  Zool.  Index  Univ.  159.  Emendation  oi  Galemys. 

I  species:  Galemys pyrenaicus,  page  33 

Galemys  pyrenaicus  Geoffroy,  181 1  Pyrenean  Desman 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Pyrenean  region  of  South- Western  France, 
Spain  and  Portugal  (see  Puissegur,  1937,  Recherches  sur  le  Desman  des  Pyrenees, 
Bull.  Soc.  H.N.  Toulouse,  6j:  163-225,  map,  2  pis.,  104  figs.). 

Galemys  pyrenaicus  pyrenaicus  Geoffroy,  181 1 

181 1.  Mygale  pyrenaica  Geoffroy,  Ann.   Mus.  H.N.  Paris,   ly:    193.  Near  Tarbes, 
Hautes-Pyrenees,  France.  Range:  to  North-Eastern  Spain. 

Galemys  pyrenaicus  rufulus  Graells,  1897 

1897.  Myogalea  rufula  Graells,  Mem.  R.  Accad.  Madrid,  ly:  460.  Rio  Balsain, above 
the  Venta  de  los  Mosquitos,  Sierra  de  Guadarrama,  Segovia,  Central  Spain. 

Subfamily     Scalopinae 

Three  genera  in  Asia,  aU  apparently  closely  allied  to  each  other,  are  admitted  in 
this  typically  Nearctic  subfamily. 

Genus  UROTRICHUS  Temminck,  1841 

1839.  Urotrichus  Temminck,  Tijdschr.  Natuur.   Gesch.  j:   286.   Urotrichus  talpoides 

Temminck,  nom.  nud. 
1841.  Urotrichus   Temminck,    Het.    Instit.    K.    Ned.    Inst.    212.    Urotrichus   talpoides 

1887.  Dymecodon  True,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  1886:  97.  Dymecodon  pilirostris  True. 

2  species :   Urotrichus  pilirostris,  page  34 
Urotrichus  talpoides,  page  34 

U.  pilirostris  was  named  as  a  distinct  genus  Dymecodon,  characterized  by  having  nine 
lower  teeth  (two  lower  incisors),  thereby  differing  from  typical  Urotrichus  which  has 
eight  lower  teeth  (one  lower  incisor).  Bearing  in  mind  that  within  Uropsilus  and  Talpa 
as  here  understood  and  as  defined  in  part  by  Schwarz  and  by  Osgood,  different 



dental  formulae  occur  in  the  same  species,  and  also  bearing  in  mind  Simpson's  state- 
ment that  animals  from  similar  localities  are  likely  to  be  allied  to  each  other,  this  is 
not  a  character  of  even  subgeneric  value.  However,  the  tail  seems  about  half  head 
and  body  length  in  pilirostris  so  far  as  can  be  at  present  ascertained,  whereas  in 
talpoides  it  is  normally  below  40  per  cent,  of  that  measurement,  and  this  character 
combined  with  the  extra  lower  tooth  suggests  that  here  it  is  possible  that  we  are 
dealing  with  two  valid  species. 

Urotrichus  talpoides  Temminck,  1841  Japanese  Shrew-Mole 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Japan  (apparently  Hondo  southwards). 

Urotrichus  talpoides  talpoides  Temminck,  1841 

1 84 1.  Urotrichus   talpoides  Temminck,    Het.    Instit.   K.   Ned.    Inst.   215.   Nagasaki, 

Kiushiu,  Japan.  (See  Kuroda,  1938,  List.  Jap.  Mamm.  87.) 
1906.   Urotrichus  talpoides  pilirostris  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  /5105,  2:  342.  Not  of  True,  1886. 

Urotrichus  talpoides  adversus  Thomas,  1908 

1908.   Urotrichus  talpoides  adversus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  49.  Sasuna,  North  Island,  Tsushima 
Islands,  Japan. 

Urotrichus  t,\lpoides  centralis  Thomas,  1908 

1908.   Urotrichus  talpoides  centralis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  50.  Jinrio,  Tokushima  Ken,  500  ft., 
Shikoku  Island,  Japan. 

Urotrichus  talpoides  hondonis  Thomas,  1908 

1908.  Urotrichus  talpoides  hondonis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  51.  Nakaomi,  near  Ohitu,  Izo, 

Hondo,  Japan. 
1929.   Urotrichus  talpoides  yokohamanis  Kanda,   Zool.   Mag.  Tokyo,   ^i:    147.    [N.V.) 

Yokohama,  Hondo,  Japan. 

Urotrichus  talpoides  minutus  Tokuda,  1932 

1932.   Urotrichus  talpoides  minutus  Tokuda,  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.  /j.-  580.  Dogo  Island, 
Oki  Islands,  Japan. 

Urotrichus  pilirostris  True,  1886  True's  Shrew-Mole 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Hondo,  Japan. 

Urotrichus  pilirostris  True,  1886 

1886.  Dymecodon  pilirostris  True,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  g:  c^y.  Enoshima  (Venosima), 
at  mouth  of  Bay  of  Veddo,  Hondo,  Japan. 

Genus  SCAPTONYX   .\Iilnc-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Scaptonyx  Milne-Edwards  in  David,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  y:  Bull.  q-2. 
Scaptonvx fusicauda  David. 

I  species:  Scaptonvx Jusicaudus,  page  35 


Scaptonyx  fusicaudus  Milne-Edwards,  1872  Long-tailed  Mole 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan  and  Yunnan  in  China;  Northern 

Scaptonyx  fusicaudus  fusicaudus  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Scaptonyx fusicauda  Milne-Edwards  in  David,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  y: 

Bull.  92.  Borders  of  Kukunor  and  Szechuan,  China. 
1872.  Scaptonyx  fusicaudatus  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  278.  Borders  of 

Kukunor  and  Szechuan,  China. 

Scaptonyx  fusicaudus  affinis  Thomas,  19 12 

1912.  Scaptonyx  fusicaudatus  affinis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  514.  Twelve  miles 

south-east  of  Atunsi,  North-Western  Yunnan,  13,500  ft.,  China.  Range: 

Yunnan,  Northern  Burma. 

Genus  SCAPANULUS  Thomas,  191 2 
19 1 2.  Scapanulus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  396.  Scapanulus  oweni  Thomas. 
I  species:   Scapanulus  oweni,  page  35 

Scapanulus  oweni  Thomas,  19 12  Kansu  Mole 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  States  of  Kansu,  Szechuan  and 

For  notes  on  this  genus  see  also  G.  Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  &  Mongolia,  i:  81. 
The  Nearctic  Neiirotrichus  has  a  similar  dental  formula.  W't  have  few  specimens  for 
either,  but  our  Scapanulus  has  a  much  larger  hand,  and  thicker,  hairier  tail  than  our 
Neiirotrichus,  and  the  first  upper  incisor  seems  larger  in  Scapanulus. 

Scapanulus  oweni  Thomas,  191 2 

1912.  Scapanulus  oweni  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  397.  Twenty-three  miles  south- 
east of  Taochou,  Kansu,  9,000  ft.,  China. 

Subfamily     T  a  1  p  i  n  a  e 

For  revision,  see  Schwarz,  1948,  Revision  of  the  Old  World  Moles  of  the  genus 
Talpa,  P.Z.S.  118:  36-48. 

Genus  TALPA  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.   Talpa  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  52.  Talpa  europaea  Linnaeus. 

1848.  Mogera  Pomel,  Arch.  Sci.  Phys.  Nat.  Geneve,  g:  246.  Talpa  wogura  Temminck. 

1867.  Scaptochirus  Milne-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  y:  375.  Scaptochirus  moschalus 

1875.  Parascaplor  Gill,  Bull.  U.S.  Geo).  &  Geogr.  Surv.  Terr.  /,  2:  no.  Talpa  leucura 

1898.  Chiroscaptor  Heude,   Mem.   H.N.   Emp.   Chin.   4,    i  :   36.   Chiroscaptor  sinensis 

Heude  =  Scaptochirus  moschatus  Milne-Edwards. 
1940.  Euroscaptor  Miller,  J.  Mamm.  21:  443.  Talpa  klossi  Thomas. 



Talpa  'contd.] 

1941.   Eoscalops  StroganoN-,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  URSS.  33:  270.  Talpa  longirostris  Milne- 
1941.  Asiosialops  Strosanov,  Cl.R.  Acad.  Sci.  URSS.  33:  271.  Talpa  allaka  Nikolsky. 
1948.  Asioscaplor  Schwarz,  P.Z.S.  118:  36.  Error  for  Asioicalops  Stroganov. 

3  species:   Talpa  caeca,  page  38 

Talpa  europaea,  page  37 

Talpa  mkrura,  page  39 
It  is  \cry  difficult  to  decide  how  many  species  should  be  retained  in  this  genus. 
Miller  (  191 2)  recognized  four  in  Europe,  europaea,  caeca,  romana  and  occidenlalis,  and  in 
the  latest  revision  of  the  genus  (Schwarz,  1948)  this  classification  is  followed  exactly. 
Ognev  in  his  work  on  the  Mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R.  also  retained  four  species, 
europaea,  caeca,  allaka  and  caucaska,  but  his  characters  were  not  very  convincing,  and 
Schwarz,  while  retaining  altaka,  makes  caucaska  a  synonym  oi europaea.  More  recently 
Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin  refer  all  forms  from  the  U.S.S.R.  to  a  single  species  europaea, 
with  groups  of  races  typified  by  europaea,  caeca  and  altaica.  Chaworth-Musters'  manu- 
script agrees  with  Bobrinskii's  arrangement  for  the  Western  and  Central  Asiatic 
members  of  the  genus.  Against  this  it  must  be  stated  that  the  range  of  T.  europaea 
overlaps  that  of  T.  caeca  in  Switzerland  and  apparently  in  the  Caucasus.  On  account 
of  this,  the  latter  is  here  listed  as  a  valid  species.  There  is  an  average  size  difference 
between  the  two,  caeca  being  the  smaller.  Schwarz,  who  seems  to  oversplit  the  western 
section  of  the  genus,  does  the  reverse  with  the  Eastern  Asiatic  forms.  AU  of  these  he 
refers  to  a  single  species  for  which  the  prior  name  is  Talpa  mkrura.  Hitherto  these 
have  been  distributed  among  four  genera,  Talpa,  Mogera,  Parascaptor  and  Scaptochirus, 
aU  of  them  based  on  dental  formulae  which  Schwarz  shows  are  not  constant.  The 
nosepad  is  long,  naked  and  grooved  on  the  upper  side  in  T.  mkrura  as  understood  by 
Schwarz,  the  penis  is  said  to  be  speciaUzed  (on  this  account  .Miller  separated  those 
forms  which  retain  the  primitive  44  teeth  as  Euroscaptor),  and  the  tail  is  much 
shortened;  in  B.M.  material  this  is  usually  20  mm.  or  less  in  length,  except  for  the 
large  form  kobeae  in  which  it  averages  only  14  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body.  The 
western  species  have  the  tail  very  rarely  as  short  as  20  mm.  T.  allaica  approaches  the 
micrura  group,  apparently,  in  the  structure  of  the  nosepad,  and  the  tail  is  relatively 
short  (although  in  Bobrinskii's  figures  it  is  rarely  under  20  mm.).  This  author  states 
that  the  europaea  moles  in  the  U.S.S.R.  are  small,  but  with  large  teeth  and  a  long  tail, 
while  the  altaka  moles  are  considerably  larger,  but  with  small  teeth  and  a  short  tail, 
but  that  the  two  groups  are  connected  by  intermediate  forms  and,  excepting  in  the 
Caucasus,  all  conform  to  a  definite  law;  as  one  goes  south,  and  particularly  east,  the 
size  of  the  animals  increases  while  their  teeth  and  tail  become  smaller.  He  gives 
figures  to  support  this.  So  that  although  Schwarz  says  that  altaka  is  definitely  not 
europaea,  we  suggest  that  as  this  form  does  not  occur  together  with  europaea  it  might, 
f  .llowing  Bobrinskii  and  Chaworth-Musters,  be  considered  a  very  distinct  repre- 
sentative race.  It  seems  not  \cry  much  more  distinct  from  europaea  than  some  forms, 
notably  moschatus,  which  Schwarz  refers  as  a  subspecies  to  T.  micrura,  are  from  the 
latter.  If  in  the  future  subgeneric  division  is  required  for  the  micrura  group,  then 
Mogera  is  thr  prior  name. 


Talpa  europaea  group. 

Talpa  europaea  Linnaeus,  1 758  Common  Mole 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Europe,  widely  distributed;  north  to  Southern 
Sweden;  south  to  Spain,  Italy,  Sicily  and  Northern  Greece;  west  to  Britain;  east  to 
Ural  Mountains  and  Caucasus.  Occurs  in  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Denmark, 
Finland,  Poland,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Transylvania,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania, 
Bulgaria.  According  to  Kuzyakin  and  Bobrinskii,  represented  in  the  Siberian  Altai 
region  of  Lake  Baikal,  Lena  river,  near  Yakutsk,  Northern  Yenesei — apparently 
extending  north  of  the  Arctic  Circle  and  to  Mongolia. 

Talpa  europaea  europaea  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.  Talpa  europaea  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  52.  Engelholm,  Kristianstad, 
Southern  Sweden.  (Chaworth-Musters'  MSS.  See  Skanska  Reise,  352,  mis- 
printed "332"  in  Linnaeus,  loc.  cit.  52.) 

1772.   Talpa  caudata  Boddaert,  Kortbegrip  Nat.  /.•  50.  (jV.F.)  Renaming  oi  europaea. 

1776.  Talpa  frisius  Muller,  in  Linnaeus,  Natursyst.  Nat.  Suppl.  36.  East  Friesland, 


1777.  Talpa  europaea  albo-maculata  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  /.■   117.  East  Fries- 

1785.   Talpa  vulgaris  Boddaert,  Eiench.  Anim.  /.•  126.  Renaming  of  europaea. 
1788.   Talpa  europaea  alba  Gmelin,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.•  no.  Sweden. 
1788.    Talpa  europaea  cinerea  Gmelin,  loc.  cit.  Eifel,  Germany. 
1788.   Talpa  europaea  variegata  Gmelin,  loc.  cit.  Sweden. 
1792.   Talpa  europaea  nigra  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  200.  Renaming  oi europaea. 
1797.   Talpa    europaea    ruja    Borkhausen,    Der    Zoologe    fCompendiose    Bibliothek 

gemeinn.  Kenntn.  f.  alle  Stande,  21)  Heft.  5-8:   13.  (A'.L.,  teste  Miller). 

Southern  France. 
(?)  1800.    Talpa  europaea  major  Bechstein  in  Pennant,  Allgem.  Uebers  Vierf.  Thiere, 

2:  725.  Siberia,  no  exact  locality. 
1836.   Talpa  europaea  flavescens  Reichenbach,  Der  Naturfreund,  figs.  472-3.  Saxony, 

1852.   Talpa  europaea  albida  Reichenbach,  VoUstand.  Naturgesch.  .}:  336.  Germany. 
1852.   Talpa  europaea  lutea  Reichenbach,  loc.  cit.  Germany. 
i86g.   Talpa  europaea  maculata  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  W'iss.  Wien.  551,  i  :  401.  Renaming 

of  albo-maculata. 
1869.    Talpa  europaea  grisea  Fitzinger,  loc.  cit.  403.  .Synonym  of  cinerea  wrongly  attri- 
buted to  Zimmermann,  1780. 
1897.   Talpa  scalops  Schulze,  Helios  Berlin,  /^.'  gi.  Renaming  of  europaea. 
1908.   Talpa  europaea  brauneri  Satunin,   Mitt.   Kaukas.   Mus.   ^:   2,  8.   Post   Cuculi, 

Belitsk  district,  Bessarabia. 
1908.   Talpa  coeca  caucasica  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  ^.'  5-q.  Stavropol,  Caucasus. 

(Status_^rff  Schwarz.) 
1925.    Talpa  europaea  uralensis  Ognev,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  jjjj,  1-2:  4.  District  of 

Perm,  Russia. 
1930.   Talpa  europaea  pancici  Martino,  Zap.  Russk.  Nauch.  Inst.  Byelgrad,  2:  60. 

Kraljevo,  Serbia,  Yugoslavia. 



Talpa  europaea  europaea  [conld.] 

1 93 1.   Talpa  romana  stankovici  Martino,  J.   Mamm.   12:  53.   Magerevo  Mountains, 

Perister,  Macedonia,  1,000  m.,  Southern  Serbia. 
Range:  European  range  of  the  species,  except  Sicily;  in  Italy,  south  to  Tuscany;  in 
Russia,  north  to  the  region  of  the  White  Sea  (absent  from  Crimea). 

T.\LPA    (?)  EUROPAEA    ALTAICA    Nikolsky,    1 883 

1883.   Talpa  altaica  Nikolsky,  Trans.  Soc.  Nat.  St.  Pctersb.  14:   165.  Valley  of  the 

Tourak,  Altai  Mountains,  Siberia. 
1905.   Talpa  coeca  var.  suschkini  Kastschenko,  Trans.  Tomsk.  Univ.  27:  75  (of  reprint). 

Sayan  Mountains,  Central  Siberia. 
1921.   Talpa  altaica  saianensis  Bielovusev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22: 

xviii.  Kazir-Susko  Forest,  Sayan  Mountains,  2,000  ft.,  Siberia. 
(?)  1922.    Talpa  europaea  var.  irkiilensis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Nauk.  Biol.  Lwow,  /,  6-8:  4 
[rioni.  niid.).  Irkutsk,  Siberia. 

1936.  Talpa  altaica  salauica  Egorin,   Trav.   Inst.   Sci.   Biol.  Tomsk,   2:    154.   Salair 

Mountains,  Tomsk  Govt.,  Siberia. 

1937.  Talpa  altaica  tymensis  Egorin,   Trav.   Inst.   Sci.   Biol.  Tomsk.   4:  49.  Tymsk, 

Naunak,  on  River  Vasyugan,  tributary  of  River  Ob,  Siberia. 
1937.   Talpa  altaica  sibirica  Egorin,  Trav.  Inst.  Sci.  Biol.  Tomsk,  4:  51.  Avseenko, 

Tyazhin,  near  Mariinsk,  Western  Siberia 
Range:  Asiatic  range  of  the  species,  above. 
Schwarz  considers  this  a  distinct  species. 

Talpa  europaea  romana  Thomas,  1902 

1902.   Talpa  romana  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  516.  Ostia,  near  Rome,  Italy. 

1920.  Talpa  romana  major  Altobello,  Fauna  Abruzzo  e  Molise,  Mamm.  /.•  32. 
Abruzzi,  Italy.  Not  of  Bechstein,  1800. 

1925.  Talpa  romana  monlana  Cabrera,  Genera  Mamm.  87.  Mm.  nov.  for  major  Alto- 
bello, preoccupied. 

Range:  Italy  and  Sicily. 

Schwarz  considers  this  a  distinct  species,  chiefly  characterized  by  large  teeth  and 
dental  details.  It  is  not  known  to  occur  with  europaea,  and  Chaworth-Musters 
treated  it  as  europaea. 

Talpa  europaea  ognevi  Stroganov,  1944 

1944.  Talpa  romana  ognevi  Stroganov,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  44,  "i:  121.  Bakuriana, 

Georgia,  Transcaucasia. 
The  status  of  the  next  is  not  sure.   Neither  this  nor  apparently  the  last  were 
allocated  by  Schwarz. 

1945.  Talpa  europaea  traiiscaiicasica  Dahl,  Zool.  Pap.  Biol.  Inst.  Erevan,  3,  48.  {M.V.). 

\'(iskrescnkovva,  Kirovakan,  Armenia. 

Talpa  caeca  S.ivi,  1822  Mediterranean  Mole 

.\ppro.\imatc  distribution  of  species:  Portugal,  Spain,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Yugo- 
sKi\ia,  Greece,  ,'\sia  Minor,  Caucasus.  Treated  as  a  subspecies  of  europaea  by 
Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin,  and  in  synonyiny  ui' europaea  by  Clhaworth-Musters,  but  it 
occurs  with  europaea  in  several  places  in  Switzerland,  and  in  Caucasia.  Averages 
smaller  in  size  europaea. 



Talpa  caeca  caeca  Savi,  1822 

1822.   Talpa  caeca  Savi,  Nuovo  Giorn.  de  Letterati,  Pisa,  /;  265.  Near  Pisa,  Italy. 
1884.  Scaptochirus  davidianus  Milne-Edwards,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  gg:  1 143.  Said  to 
have  come  from  borders  of  Syria  and  Asia  Minor.  Not  of  Swinhoe,  1870. 

1906.  Talpa  coeca  levantis  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   ij:   416.   Scalita,   south  of 

Trebizond,  Asia  Minor. 

1925.  Talpa  hercegovinensis  Bolkay,  Nov.  Mus.  Sarajevo,  No.  1:1.  Stolac,  Herzegovina, 


1926.  Talpa  coeca  orientalis  Ognev,  Uchen  Zap.  Sev.  Kavkaz.  Inst.  /.•  33,  55.  Chosta, 

Black  Sea  Govt.,  Southern  Russia. 
1932.   Talpa  olympica  Chaworth-Musters,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:   166.  Eastern  slope 

Mount  Olympus,  Thessaly,  800  m.,  Greece. 
Range :  Switzerland  and  Italy  to  Asia  Minor  and  Caucasus. 

Talpa  caeca  occidentalis  Cabrera,  1907 

1907.  Talpa  caeca  occidentalis  Cabrera,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  212.  La  Granja,  Segovia, 

Spain.  Range:  Spain  and  Portugal.  Schwarz  gives  this  form  specific  rank. 

Talpa  micrura  group. 
The  classification  of  Schwarz,  1948,  is  followed. 

Talpa  micrura  Hodgson,  1841  Eastern  Mole 

Approximate  distribution  of  species,  as  understood  by  Schwarz:  from  Ussuri 
region  of  South-Eastern  Siberia,  Manchuria,  Korea,  Japan,  Formosa,  Eastern 
MongoHa  {fide  Schwarz),  the  greater  part  or  all  of  the  major  states  of  China  (Kansu 
apparently  excepted) ;  to  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  and  Burma,  Assam,  west- 
wards to  Sikkim  and  Nepal. 

Talpa  micrura  micrura  Hodgson,  1841 

1 84 1.  Talpa  micrurus  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J. N.H.  2:  221.  Nepal,  Central  and  Northern 

1843.   Talpa  cryplura  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  12:  177.  Sylhet,  Assam. 
1858.   Talpa  macrura  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.   Soc.  Bengal,   2j:    176.  Near  Darjeeling, 

7,000  ft.,  India.  (Status _/?rft!  Schwarz.) 
Range:  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Assam. 

Talpa  micrura  wogura  Temminck,  1842 

1842.  Talpa   wogura   Temminck,    in    Siebold's    Fauna  Japonica,    Mamm.    /.•    ig. 

Nagasaki,  Kiushiu,  Japan. 
1845.   Talpa  moogura  Temminck,  loc.  cit.  4:  tab.  4,  figs.  1-5.  Misspelling  oi  wogura. 
1880.   Talpa  mizura  Gunther,  P.Z.S.  441.  Neighbourhood  of  Yokohama,  Japan. 
1936.  Mogera  wogura  minor  Kuroda,  Botany  &  Zoology,  Tokyo,  4,  i:  74.  Shiobora, 

Pref  Tochigi,  Central  Hondo,  Japan. 
1936.  Mogera   wogura  gracilis   Kishida,   Nikko   No.   Shokubutsu   to   Dobutsu,    261. 

{N.V.,  ?  nom.  nud.).  Near  Shobugahama,  Nikko,  Japan. 
Range:  Japan,  including  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Oki  Islands. 



Talpa  micrura  leucura  Blyth,  1850 

1850.  Talpa  leucura  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ig:  215,  pi.  4,  fia;.  i.  Cheriapuuji,  in 
Khasi  Hills,  Assam. 

(?)  1929.  Talpa  klossi  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  206.  Hue  Nya  Pla,  10  miles  north- 
west of  Raheng,  2,500  ft.,  Siam. 

(?)  1940.  Talpa  parvidens  Miller,  J.  Mamm.  21:  203.  In  forest  at  agricultural  station 
of  Blao,  near  the  upper  Donai  River,  Annani,  Indo-China.  (See  Schwarz, 
1948:  46.) 

Range:  Assam,  Burma,  Siam,  Laos,  Clochin-Clhina,  Annam,  ?  Yunnan,  and  Malay 
(Some  lines  have  accidentally  been  omitted  from  Schwarz's  paper  in  dealing  with 

this  race.) 

Talp.x  micrura  insul.'\ris  Swinhoe,  1862 

1862.   Talpa  insularii  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  356.  Formosa. 

Talpa  micrura  moschata  Milne-Edwards,  18G7 

1867.   Scaplochints  moicfiatiis  Milne-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  y:  375.  Swanhwafu, 

100  miles  north-west  of  Pekin,  Chihli,  Clhina. 
1870.   Scaptochirus  davidiarms  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  620.  Accidental  renaming  oi  moschatus. 
1881.   Talpa  h'ptura  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   y:  470.  Neighbourhood  of  Pekin, 

Chihli,  China. 
1898.   Chiroscaptor  sinensis  Heude,   Mem.   H.X.   Emp.   Chin.   4:   36.   South-Eastern 

C;hihli,  China. 
1898.   Scaptochirus  moschiferus  Heude,  lac.  cit.  40.  Accidental  renaming  of  moschatus. 
1910.   Scaptochirus  gilliesi  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  350.  Ho-tsin,  South-Western 

.Shansi,  China. 
1941.  Parascaplor  grandidens  Strogano\',  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  jj:  271.  Tuntzia- 

Intza  (Tunchia  Yingtze),  east  of  Dolon  Nor,  Southern  Khingan  Mountains, 

Jehol,  North-Eastern  China. 
Range:  C;hihli,  Jehol,  Shansi,  Shensi,  Shantung,  in  China. 

T.\lpa  micrura  longirostris  Milne-Edwards,  1870 

1870.    Talpa  longirostris  Milne-Edwards,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.   Paris,  jo:  341.   Moupin, 

Szechuan,  China. 
1907.   Mogera  latouchei  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  463.  Kuatun,  Fukien,  3,500  ft.,  South-Eastern 

1940.  Euroscaptor  grandii  Miller,  J.  Mamm.  21:  444.  Mt.  Omei,  5,000  ft.,  Szechuan, 


Talpa  mk:rura  rorusta  Nehring,  1891 

1 89 1.  Mngera  robusta  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  No.  6:  95.  \'ladi\'ostock, 
Eastern  Siberia.  Range:  Ussuri  region,  Manchuria. 

Talp.\  mi(::rura  koheae  Thomas,  1905 

1905.   Mogera  woguia  kobcac  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j.'  487.  Kobe,  Hondo,  Japan. 



Talpa  micrura  kanai  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  Alogera  wogura  kanai  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  /505,  2:  361.  Miyanoura,  Yakushima, 

1938.  Mogera  wogura  kiusiuana  "Kishida",  Kuroda,  List  Jap.  Mamm.  Tokyo,  89, 

nom.  nud. 
Range  includes  Tsushima,  Kiushiu  and  the  Goto  group,  Japan. 

Talpa  micrura  coreana  Thomas,  1907 

1907.  Mogera  wogura  coreana  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  463.  Kim-hoa,  65  miles  north-east  of 

Seoul,  300  ft.,  Korea. 

Talpa  micrura  hainana  Thomas,  1910 

1910.  Mogera  hainana  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.  §:   535.   Mt.  Wuchi,   Island  of 
Hainan,  China.  (Apparently  not  dealt  with  by  Schwarz.) 


Genera:  Anourosorex,  page  87 
Blarinella,  page  55 
Chimmarogale,  page  87 
Crocidura,  page  70 
Diplomesodon,  page  86 
Feroculus,  page  86 
Nectogale,  page  88 
Neomys,  page  61 
Solisorex,  page  86 
Sorex,  page  43 
Soriculus,  page  56 
Suncus,  page  64 

According  to  Simpson  (1945),  so  far  as  the  present  region  is  concerned,  the  above 
genera  fall  into  two  subfamilies:  the  Soricinae,  with  Sorex,  Blarinella,  Soriculus  and 
Neomys;  and  the  Crocidurinae  with  the  remainder. 

This  division  into  subfamilies,  which  is  adopted  by  many  authors,  seems  to  be 
based  chiefly  on  the  Soricinae  having  the  teeth  pigmented  at  the  tips,  and  the 
Crocidurinae  having  the  teeth  entirely  white.  Other  authors,  e.g.  Allen,  Miller  and 
Bobrinskii,  do  not  recognize  these  subfamilies  and  we  concur  with  them,  especially 
in  view  of  the  variability  in  the  extent,  or  even  the  entire  absence,  of  the  pigmentation 
of  the  teeth  in  the  Soricinae. 

The  Soricidae  is  perhaps  the  most  difficult  of  all  mammalian  families  to  deal  with, 
so  far  as  the  species  are  concerned.  Chaworth-Musters  was  attempting  the  task  just 
before  his  untimely  death,  but  the  only  manuscript  he  left  deals  with  some  of  the 
Palaearctic  species  of  the  genus  Sorex. 



The  twelve  genera  represented  in  London  may  be  distinguished  as  follows : 

1.  Teeth  with  the  cusps  pigmented,  red  or  brown;  pigmentation  can  become  very 

weak  but  is  normally  traceable.     (Subfamily  Soricinae  of  Simpson)'   2 

Teeth  all  white.     (Subfamily  Crocidurinae  of  Simpson)  5 

2.  Slightly  modified  for  aquatic  life;  the  hindfeet  large  and  fringed;  the  tail  long, 

its  underside  keeled  or  hairy.  First  lower  incisor  more  or  less  simple,  scarcely 
lobed.                                      '                                                                 NEOMYS 
No  aquatic  modification.  3 

3.  First  lower  incisor  simpler,  with  only  one  prominent  lobe  on  its  cutting  edge. 

First  lower  incisor  more  complex,  with  more  than-  one  lobe  on  its  cutting  edge, 
usually  three  or  four  traceable.  4 

4.  The  last  two  upper  unicuspid  teeth  excessively  minute,  hardlv  traceable. 

The  last  two  upper  unicuspids  quite  well  marked.  SOREX 

5.  Externally  modified   for  underground   life;   tail   scarcely  apparent  externally, 

shorter  than  hindfoot.  Ears  much  reduced.  Seven  upper  teeth;  M  3  vestigial. 

Externally  not  much  modified  for  burrowing;  tail  clearly  longer  than  hindfoot. 
Except  Diplomesodon,  more  than  7  upper  teeth.  G 

6.  Considerably  modified  for  aquatic  life;  tail  long,  hairy,  more  or  less  fringed 

below.  Ear  small  or  absent.  7 

Not  modified  for  aquatic  life.  8 

7.  Much  more  specialized  for  aquatic  life;  toes  fully  vvebbed;  no  external  ear  trace- 

able; tail  with  fringes  of  hair  each  side  and  above  and  below.  Braincase  very 
wide.  NECTOGALE  ' 

Much  less  specialized  for  aquatic  life;  toes  not  webbed;  tail  hairy,  only  the 
underside  slightly  fringed;  with  external  ear.  CHEMMAROGALE 

8.  Colour  piebald,  quite  distinct  from  all  other  Soricidae  examined  'below,  sides, 

cheeks  and  a  patch  in  the  middle  of  the  back,  white;  otherwise  the  back  grey, 
but  much  white  showing  on  the  sides) ;  tail  hairy,  tufted,  and  white.  Soles 
slightly  hairy.  Seven  upper  teeth;  M  3  not  vestigial.      DIPLOMESODON 

Colour  not  as  just  described.  More  than  7  upper  teeth.  9 

g.  Foreclaws  strongly  enlarged.  10 

Foreclaws  not  enlarged.  11 

10.  First  lower  incisor  more  complex,  with  several  lobes  on  its  cutting  edge  (as  in 
Sorex) ;  0  upper  teeth  (30  teeth  in  all) ;  clear  elongated  bristles  on  the  tail  (such 
as  are  characteristic  1  if  most  of  the  species  (A  Crocidura  and  Suncw.). 

First  lower  incisor  simple;  8  upper  teeth  :  28  teeth  in  all);  no  elongated  bristles 
on  the  tail.  SOLISOREX 

1  Pii^iiipntation  nf  tcrth  often  weak  in  Soncului  and  almost  untraceable  in  the  two  named  Formosan 
forms  of  that  genus. 



II.  30  teeth  (4  upper  unicuspids).  SUNCUS 

28  teeth  (3  upper  unicuspids).  CROCIDURA 

Genus  SOREX  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Sorex  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  53.  Sorex  araneus  Linnaeus. 

1829.  Oxyrhin  Kaup,  Entw.  Gesch.  u.  Nat.  Syst.  Europ.  Thierwelt,  /.•   120.  Sorex 

tetragonurus  Hermann  (see  Miller,  191 2,  29). 
1835.    Amphisorex  Duvernoy^    Mem.    Soc.   Mus.   H.N.    Strasbourg,    2:    23.    [Sorex 

hermanni  Duvernoy  =  Neomys  fodiens  skull,   plus   Sorex  araneus  tetragonurus 

1838.  Corsira  Gray,  P.Z.S.  123.  Sorex  vulgaris  =  Sorex  araneus  Linnaeus. 
1842.  Otisorex  De  Kay,  Zool.  of  New  York,  /;  Mamm.  22.  Sorex  platyrhinus  =  Sorex 

personatus  Geoffrey,  from  North  America. 
1890.  Homalurus  Schulze,  Schriften  Nat.  Vereins  Harzes  in  \Vernigerode,  5.-   28. 

Sorex  alpinus  Schinz. 
1927.  Soricidus  A\Xoht\\o,  Rev.  Franc.  ALimm.  /.■  6.  Soricidus  monsvairani  AXtoheWo  = 

Sorex  araneus  tetragonurus  Hermann.    (See  Gulino,    1939,   Boll.   Mus.   Zool. 

Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  4y:  136.) 

Apparently  9  species  in  the  Palaearctic  region: 
Sorex  alpinus,  page  54 
Sorex  araneus,  page  50 
Sorex  buchariensis,  page  54 
Sorex  caecutiens,  page  48 
Sorex  cylindricauda,  page  55 
Sorex  daphaenodon,  page  53 
Sorex  hawkeri,  page  46 
Sorex  minutus,  page  47 
Sorex  pacificus,  page  54 

This  genus  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  classify,  and  at  'the  present  day  there  are 
nearly  a  hundred  named  forms  in  the  Palaearctic.  The  greatest  number  of  species 
occur  in  the  U.S.S.R.  Ognev,  1928,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.,  recognized  nineteen  in  that 
country,  but  more  recently  Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin  (1944)  give  a  more  compressed 
classification  of  Russian  Sorex  in  which  only  half  a  dozen  species  are  retained.  These 
authors  consider  that  the  large  number  of  named  forms  is  due  to  a  lack  of  knowledge 
of  individual,  seasonal  and  age  variations,  and  their  classification  incorporates  a 
tentative  assessment  of  these.  Chaworth-Musters  did  not  complete  his  manu- 
script for  the  classification  of  Sorex,  but  the  first  fact  that  emerges  from  it  is  that  the 
species  now  widely  known  as  Sorex  macropygmaeus  Miller,  1901,  must  be  called 
Sorex  caecutiens  Laxmann,  1788  [Nova  Acta  Acad.  Set.  Pelrop.  j:  285).  Among 
forms  which  Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin  would  reduce  to  subspecific  rank  or  less, 
Chaworth-Musters  was  going  to  retain  as  species  S.  daphaenodon,  S.  raddei,  S.  shinto 
and  S.  tundrensis  (the  latter  typically  from  North  America,  with  various  Asiatic 

D  43 


Tlic  classificatimi  (if  Kuzvakin  and  I'obriiiskii  lor  the  U.S.S.R.  was  as  follows: 

1.  (:(lnd^•lobasal   Icii^th  of  skull   imt   rxcccciini;    i)..'   niiii.   I.cnyth  of  upper  tooth- 

idw  under  ;,.!!  mm.  Widtli  oi  skull  nut  UKjre  than  7  mm.  Tail  short,  not  more 
than  31  mm.  Hindliiot  (without  claws)  generally  not  o\'er  8.7  mm.  Sorex 
tic/icrskii  OEjne\',  19 13,  here  considered  referable  to  Sorex  hmvkcri  Thomas,  ir)o6. 
C'ond\liibasal  length  of  skull  nut  less  ih.m  14. M  mm.  Length  (il Upper  toothrow 
over  ()  nuu.  Width  of  skull  o\er  7  lum.  Length  of  tail  nut  less  than  33  mm. 
HindlDot  (i\er  9  mm.  2 

2.  Width  of  skull  not  more  th.ui  ?■,  mm.  Total  length  of  skull  in  large  majority  of 

cases  under  i(Li  miu.,  cundylobasal  length  not  more  than  17.3  mm.  (usually 
under  iIlj  mm.).  Sccrmd  upper  intermediate  tooth  markedly  smaller  than  the 
third  or  1  less  frequenth)  the  same  size.  Hindloot  usualh  less  than  11  mm. 

Sorex  mi?uitiis 
Width  of  skull  not  less  than  8.2  mm.  Total  length  of  skull  over  16.3  mm.Condylo- 
basal  length  not  less  than  1(3.5  mm.  Second  upper  intermediate  tooth  markedly 
larger  than  third  or  con\ersely  smaller  than  it.  Hiiidfoot  ox'cr  10.5  miu.  3 

3.  Second  upper  intermediate  tooth  considerably  smaller  than  third.  Total  length  of 

skull  17.J  mm.  Length  of  upper  toothrow  7.!)  mm.                  Sorex  biicharicnsis 
Known  from  one  specimen  f  lund  in  the  North- Western  Pamirs.  In  size  and 
configurati<in  of  skull  it  is  like  .S'.  macropvgmacus  (  =  caeculicns)  but  in  structure 
of  the  teeth  it  differs  from  all  shrews  in  the  Palaearctic.) 
.Second  upper  intermediate  tooth  luarkedly  larger  than  third.  4 

4.  Head  and  body  not  more  than  84  lum.  Hindfoot  less  than  16  imn.  Condylobasal 

not  more  than  21  mm.  L'pper  toothrow  length  under  9.5  mm.  Distance  be- 
t\vecn  antrorbital  f  iraiuina  not  luore  than  3.5  lum.  Fourth  intermediate  tooth 
of  upper  jaw  the  same  size  as,  or  markedly  smaller  than,  third  intermediate 

tooth.  5 

Head  and  body  87  mm.  Hindfoot  17  mm.  C)ondylobasal  length  of  skull  23.3  mm. 
Upper  toothrow  10  nun.  Distance  between  anteorbital  foramina  4.3  mm. 
fourth  u|3prr  intermediate  tooth  larger  than  third.  Snrcx  jmcijiciis 

(Described  from  Oregon,  U.S.A.  To  this  species  Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin 
refer  the  Ussuri  f uni  mirabilis:  "Comparing  .S'.  mirahilis  with  the  excellent 
photographs  of  skulls,  measurements  and  descriptions  oi  S.  pacijiciis  gi\en  in 
H.Jackson's  monograph  of  the  American  shrews,  1928,  we  have  been  unable 
to  find  a  siirgle  feature  by  whi(  h  the  L^ssuri  shrews  ma\-  \\ith  certainty  be 
distinguished  from  the  form  S.  p.  Jiaiificiis") 

■-,.  C!ond\lol3asal  length  ol  skull  in  large  majorit)'  of  cases  under  18  mm.  Length  of 
upper  toothrow  not  more  than  8  mm.  Anteorbital  foramina  close  together, 
distanie  lietween  them  ncjt  more  than  2.8  mm. 

Siirt'x  macrofn'smaeus  Miller,  190 1  =  Sorex  cairiilirns  Laxmaiui,  1788 
flondvlobasal  length  of  skull  over   18  inm.  Length  of  upper  toothrow  in  large 
majority  of  cases  not  less  than  8  miu.  (usually  considerably  more).  Distance 
between  anteorbital  foramina  in  most  cases  over  2.8  mm.  Sorex  araneus 


According  to  notes  in  Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin,  there  is  a  wide  individual  variation 
to  be  found  in  forms  which  have  been  regarded  as  distinct  species  but  which  they 
refer  to  S.  araneus.  They  state,  for  instance,  that  the  hindfoot  length  in  the  Caucasian 
form  [satunini]  is  1 1.6- 12  mm.,  whereas  in  S.  a.  pnicinius  the  hindfoot  without  claws 
reaches  15  mm.  The  body  length  even  in  one  form  [tomensis)  varies  between  53  and 
84  mm.  The  colour  pattern  varies  from  almost  complete  uniformity  (in  such  forms  as 
isodon,  raddei,  unguiculatus,  nithenus)  through  the  common  two-coloured  type  to  the 
markedly  three-coloured  type  in  which  the  light  colouring  of  the  flanks  reaches  the 
back.  The  three  forms  are  connected  by  a  great  number  of  transitional  stages,  and 
not  isolated  geographically.  Again,  flat-skulled  individuals  (such  as  platjcranius, 
thomasi,  turuckanensis,  iochanseni)  are  distributed  in  the  same  places  as  specimens  with  a 
normal  braincase.  The  relative  sizes  of  the  small  intermediate  teeth  are  also  said  to 
vary  individually  in  this  species.  Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin  state  that  in  S.  caecutiens 
koreni  alone  three  different  types  of  colouring  have  been  noted,  and  that  coloration  is 
useless  for  diagnostic  purposes.  These  authors  incline  to  ignore  all  named  Russian  and 
Siberian  subspecies  in  the  two  widely  ranging  allied  species,  S.  araneus  and  S.  caecutiens. 

Chaworth-Musters  told  us  that  in  his  opinion  Bobrinskii  had  "lumped"  too  far  in 
the  Sorex  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  particularly  as  regards  S.  daphaenodon,  which  was  described 
as  having  an  unusually  hairy  tail  and  heavily  pigmented  teeth,  and  which  he  con- 
sidered a  very  distinct  species,  and  in  deference  to  his  opinion  that  species  is  here 
retained,  although  externally  it  is  not  separable  from  .S'.  araneus  as  here  understood. 

Miller  (1912)  recognized  three  species  of  the  genus  in  \V'cstern  Europe,  as  follows: 

1.  Anterior  lower  incisor  with  low,  sometimes  ill-defined  lobes  on  cutting  edge;  first 

lower  unicuspid  two-pointed ;  lachrymal  foramen  over  point  of  contact  between 
M  I  and  IVI  2.  Tail  about  as  long  as  head  and  body.  Sorex  alpinus 
(This  species  is  confined  to  Central  Europe,  and  does  not  occur  in  Russia.) 
Anterior  lower  incisor  with  high,  distinct  lobes  on  cutting  edge;  first  lower  uni- 
cuspid single-pointed;  lachrymal  foramen  in  front  of  point  of  contact  between 
M  I  and  M  2.  Tail  shorter  than  head  and  body.  2 

2.  First,  second  and  third  unicuspids  subequal;  condylobasal  length  of  skull  14.8- 

16.6  mm.  Head  and  body  about  50-60  mm.  Sorex  minulus 

First  and  second  upper  unicuspid  much  larger  than  third;  condylobasal  length  of 
skull  17.4-20  mm.  fiead  and  body  usually  about  65-80  mm.    Sorex  araneus 

It  appears  to  us  from  Miller's  cranial  measurements  that  the  great  majority  of 
specimens  of  the  last-named  have  the  condylobasal  length  vcit  seldom  under  18  mm. 
(cf  Bobrinskii's  characters  for  the  species),  except  the  Spanish  race  granarius,  which 
surely  represents  .S'.  caecutiens?  Few,  if  any,  of  the  species  outside  Europe,  except  the 
striped  S.  cylindricauda  have  the  tail  as  long  as  S.  alpinus  in  B.M.  material. 

G.  Allen,  1938,  Alamm.  China  &  Mongolia,  retained  half  a  dozen  species  from 
this  region,  as  follows: 

I.  Back  uniform  shade  of  brown  without  black  median  stripe.  2 

Back  with  blackish  median  stripe.  Sorex  cylindricauda 

(\Vhich  has  from  Allen's  measurements  the  greatest  length  of  skull,   16.6- 
18.5  mm.,  and  is  a  tropical  species.) 


pai..\i:arc;tic:  and  indlw  mammals  1758-1916 

■2.   Lara;cr,  hindfiiot  with  claws  13-14  mm.  3 

Smallor,  hindl'oot  with  claws  12  mm.  or  less.  5 

3.  Lower  surfaces  whitish-tipped.  4 

Lower  surfaces  distincth-  brownish.  Sorex  sinalis 

4.  Tail  about  40  mm.  Sorex  arancits 
Tail  about  50  mm.  Sorex  excelsus 

5.  Skull  length  about   18  mm.  Sorex  buxloni  Allen,   1903  =-  .S'.  macropjgmaeus  Miller, 

iC)Oi,Jide  Kuzyakin  and  Bobrinskii  =  Sorex  eacciilien^  L.ixmann,  1788. 
.Skull  lencjth  about  15  mm.  Sorex  miniitiis 

Chaworth-Musters  was  Roing  to  list  excehus  and  i/««//j  as  distinct  species;  but  if  one 
follows  the  arrangement  of  Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin,  certainly  iinalis  and  probably 
excelsus  might  be  regarded  as  outlying  forms  of  .S'.  araiieus. 

In  Lidia  this  genus  almost  fails  to  occur.  Only  S.  cMindricaucla  comes  into  Northern 
Burma,  and  Miller  described  a  form  (planieeps)  from  Kashmir  which  in  all  probability 
represents  .S'.  minulin.  In  South- Western  Asia  there  are  one  or  two  very  early  (perhaps 
imidcntifiable)  names  from  Persia;  Bodenheimer  listed  both  .S'.  araneus  and  .S'.  minutus 
from  Palestine;  and  Thomas  named  a  form  from  Asia  Minor  which  Bobrinskii  and 
Kuzyakin  refer  to  S.  araneus. 

The  listing  of  this  genus  must  of  necessity  be  regarded  as  provisional. 

Sorex  ha\vkeri  Thomas,  1906 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Russia,  part;  Siberia,  from  approximately 
region  of  Lake  Baikal  and  the  Nizhnaya  Tunguska  River,  eastwards  to  Kamtchatka, 
Sakhalin,  Ussuri  and  Nijni  Kolymsk;  Northern  Mongolia  (Bobrinskii   ;  Japan. 

Sorex  hawkeri  H.-wyKERi  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  ,S'o;r.v //rtirAc/;  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  /5/05,  2:  339.  Inukawa,  Ycdo,  Hondo,  Japan. 

Sorex  hawkeri  Tsr:HERSKii  Ognev,  191 3 

1913.   Sorex  heherskii  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Pctersb.  18:  412.  Odarka, 

Lake  C:h.iuka,  Ussuri  region,  Eastern  Siberia. 
Kuzyakin  and  Bobrinskii  state  that  owing  to  lack  of  material  it  is  not  possible  to 
give  descriptions  (jf  the  geographical  variation.  The  folowing  are  named  from  the 
U.S.S.R.  which  <irc  referable  to  this  species. 
191  5.   .S'o;r.v /'«)/;( 17  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j.'  499.  Listvineechnoya,  near  Irkutsk, 

Lake  Baikal,  1,400  ft.,  Siberia. 
ir)2i.  Siiiex  neglectus  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  r:?.-  324. 

Tesovo  forest,  Mozhaysk  district,  Russia. 
1921.   Sorex  itMurieirus  Ognev,   loc.  cit.   326.   Valley  of  Ri\er  Bikin,   Ussuri   region, 

Last(  in  Siberia.  "Given  adequate  material,  it  would  be  good  tn  determine 

whrilirr  or  not  the  features  of  \Sorcx  usuiriemi.i'  fall  outside  the  limits  of 

inrli\  \  ari.ition"  (Bobrinskii  and  Kuzyakin). 
1933.   .Son.v  in\iiiieii\n  ezekanovskii  NaumofT,  Abstr.  Zool  Inst.  Moscow'  Univ.   /.■  72. 

Till  a,  Lnwer  Tunguska  Ri\cr,  Clentral  Siberia. 



Sorex  minutus  Linnaeus,  1766  Pysniy  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Britain  and  Ireland,  Norway  and  Sweden, 
France,  Germany,  Holland,  Denmark,  Hungary,  to  Transylvania,  Switzerland, 
Italy,  Greece,  Poland;  forest  and  forest-steppe  zones  of  Russia,  Siberia  and  the  Far 
East  as  far  as  the  Shartar  Islands  and  Sakhalin,  and  including  the  Caucasus; 
Szechuan  and  Tsaidam;  North  Kurile  Islands;  apparently  Kashmir;  Palestine  {fide 

Miller,  191 2,  Cat.  Mamm.   W.  Europe,  recognized  two  races  in  Western  Europe: 

SoREX  MINUTUS  MINUTUS  Linnaeus,  1766 

1766.  Sorex  minutus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  ed.  /;  73.  Barnaul,  Western  Siberia 

(based  on  Laxmann's  MS.  oi  Sibir.  Briefe). 
1769.  Sorex pygmaeus  Laxmann,  Sibir.  Briefe,  72.  Barnaul,  Siberia. 
1780.   Sorex  minutissimus  Zimmermann,  Geogr.  Gesch.  2:  385.  Yenesei  River,  Siberia. 
1788.  Sorex  exilis  Gmelin,  in  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /."  1 15.  Yenesei  River,  Siberia. 
1806.  Sorex  canaliculatus  Ljungh,  K.  Svenska  Vetensk.  Akad.  Handl.  2y:  263.  Lom- 

maryd  Vigorage,  Northern  Vedbo  district,  Jornkoping,  Sweden. 
181 1.  Sorex  minimus  GeofTroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ly:  186.  Selo  Kiiskoe,  between 

Tomsk  and  Atchinsk,  Siberia. 
1832.   Sorex  pumilio  Wagler,  Isis,  2^:  54.  Bavaria,  Germany. 
1838.  Sorex  rusticus  }enyns,  Ann.  N.H.  /."  423.  Near  Cambridge,  England. 
1838.   Sorex  rusticus  var   S[orex)  hibernicus  Jenyns,  loc.  cit.  Dublin,  Ireland. 
1844.  Sorex pumilus  Nilsson,  K.  Svenska  Vetensk.  Akad.  Handl.  /.•  33.  North-Eastern 

Skaane,  Sweden. 
1928.  Sorex  minutus  minutus  natio  melanderi  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe  &  N.  Asia, 

/.•  245.  Smolensk  Govt.,  Russia. 
Range:  Siberia,  Russia,  European  range  of  species  except  Southern  Italy  and  Greece. 

Sorex  minutus  lucanius  Miller,  1909 

igog.  Sorex  minutus  lucanius  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  417.  Monte  Sirino,  Lagonegro, 

Since  Miller,  the  following  forms  have  been  named  from  AVestern  Europe: 

1932.  Sorex  minutus  gyvinurus  Chaworth-Musters,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:   167.  Eastern 

slope  Mt.  Olympus,  Thessaly,  800  m.,  Greece. 
1940.   Sorex  minutus  insulaebellae  Heim  de  Balsac,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  211,  11:  213. 

Belle  Isle,  Western  France. 

Kuzyakin  &  Bobrinskii,  1944,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.,  seem  to  regard  the  next  two 
named  forms  as  valid. 

Sorex  minutus  gmelini  Pallas,  181 1 

181 1.  Sorex  gmelini  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  /.•  134,  pi.  10,  fig.  3.  Crimea  (Ognev). 
(This  name  is  used  by  both  Bobrinskii  and  Ognev,  but  Chaworth-Musters 
in  his  synonymy  of  the  species  stated:  "ig28.  Sorex  minutus  gmelini  Ognev, 
Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia,  /.■  251.  Crimea,  not  Sorex  gmelini  Pallas, 


PALAKARCriC  AND   INDIAN    MAMMALS    i7-,;!-i946 
SOREX    MINUTUS    GRACILLIMUS    ThomaS,    1907 

1907.   Sonw  mimttus  <;racilliiiiiis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  408.  D.iriiu',  j-,  miles  norlh-wcst  of 
Kiirsaknir,  Sakli.iliii  Island.  Also  rccnidcd  Hokkaido  and  Kmca. 

Other  named  forms  Ik  mi  the  U.S.S.R.,  apparenth  nut  rec;aided  as  valid  by 
Kuzy.ikin  and  Bobrinskii.  are: 

1 02 1.   Soiiw  minulus  volnuchini  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  ri\-  32'2. 

Kisha  River,  Kouban  region,  \orth- Western  Caucasus. 
192'v   Sorcx  minutiis   (morpha)    kastchenkoi  }ohi\n?,en.   Trans.   Tomsk   Uni\-.    js:   66. 

Novii-kusk,  C^hulim  River,  Tomsk  district,  Siberia. 

C'.hincsc  and  Indian  forms  apparently  representing  this  species: 

SoREX  MixuTLS  THiBF.rAMis  Kastschcnko,  1905 

1905.   Sorex  minutiii  thib(tanus  Kastschenko,  Trans.  Univ.  Tomsk,  2y:  93  (of  reprint). 
Tsaidam,  Chinese  Central  Asia.  Also  recorded  from  Szcchuan.  China. 

Sorex  (.')  minutus  planiceps  Miller,  191 1 

191 1.   Sorex  planiceps  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  i;^:  242.  Dachin,  Kishtvvar, 
().ooo  ft..  Kashmir. 

Sorex  (?)  minutus  leucogaster  Kuroda,  1933 

1933.   Sorex  IcHcogasler  ¥^\\roA^,  Bull.  Biogcogr.  Soc.  Jap.  j,  3:  155.  Nasanki,  Amamu- 

shiru,  200  ft.,  North  Kurile  Islands. 
(?)  if|30.   Sorex  vamaihiiiai  Kishida,  Z.  Mag.  Tiik\-o,  XLII,  373,  nom.  run/. 

.Sorex  (?J  minutus  hyojironis  Kuroda,  1939 

it)39.   Sorcx  araneus  hvojiroiiis  Kuroda,  Bull.  Biogeogr.  Soc.  Tokyo,  9;  40.  J.damute, 

east  of  Hailar,  Northern  Manchuria.  The  measurements  in  the  description 

suggest  a  very  short-tailed  form  oi'  minutus. 

Sorex  caecutiens  T..i\mann,  1788  Laxmann's  Shrew 

Ap|3r(ixiniatc  distributicm  of  species:  apparently  Spain  and  Sweden;  Irom  Baltic 
Republics  and  Karelia,  Finland,  east  through  the  U.S.S.R.  to  the  Chukotski 
Peninsula,  Kamtchatka  and  Sakhalin,  north  to  the  Arctic  coasts;  the  southern  limit 
of  the  range  runs  from  C^cntral  Ukraine  to  Gorki  Province,  thence  by  the  upper  River 
Uial  .ind  the  .Altai  thrnugh  M(jng(ili.i  In  Kurea,  Kansu  .md   fapcUi. 

.SoRix  oAijjrriExs  cAKcrriENs   Laxmann,  1788 

1700.   Surex  caeculieiis  Laxmann,  Xii\.  .Vcta  Acad.  Sci.  Petrcip.  ijSj,  3:  28-,.  l')\   Lake 

Baikal  ?  =  ncighbourhoud  nl  Irkutsk,  Siberia.  Hitherto  knriwn  as  S.  niiicro- 

/'Vl^maeui,  fnit  according  tii  Chawdrth-Mustcrs'  MS.  this  much  earlier  name 

is  valid. 

In    the    U.S.S.R.,    Bobiinskii    .md    Ku/y.ikin   do   nut    recngnizc   subspecies   ol    ,S'. 

m(ieiii/ii:;in(ieu\    --  caicutiens,  but  the\"  refer  .V.  huxloni,  S.  iiniiexm,  S.  haikaletisn.  S.  tinuniin, 

S.   JiDilii  .md  .v.  iillni/in.  .ill  "I   whiili  li.i\i-  been  considered  distini  t  species,  to  the 

[Hisent  spi-(  ii-s. 



Chaworth-Musters  in  his  MS.  reii.ined  shinto  as  a  distinct  species,  and  referred  the 
forms  ultunus,  petschorae  and  middendorffi  as  races  to  Sorex  tundrensis  Merriam,  1900,  Proc. 
Washington  Acad.  Sci.  2:  16,  St.  Michael's,  Alaska. 

Russian  and  Siberian  forms  in  order  of  naming  are : 

1901.  Sorex  macropygmaeus  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  i^:  158.  Pctro- 
paulski,  Kamtchatka.  (Synonym  1933.  Sorex  macropygmaeus  macropygmaeus 
natio  tungussensis  Naumofl",  Abstr.  Zool.  Inst.  Moscow  Univ.  /.•  72.  Lower 
Tunguska  River,  Turukhansk  region,  North-Western  Siberia.) 

1903.  Sorex  buxtoni  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  ig:  181.  Gichiga,  west  coast 
Okhotsk  Sea,  Siberia.  (Synonym,  according  to  G.  Allen,  Sorex  centralis 
Thomas,  191 1,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  758.  Sayan  Mountains,  100  miles  west 
of  Lake  Baikal,  4,000  ft.,  Siberia.)  Ranges  to  Mongolia. 

1913.  Sorex   baikalensis   Ognev,    Fauna    Mosquensis,    /.•    106.    Zarentu    Mountains, 


1914.  Sorex  araneus  ultimus  G.  Allen,  Proc.  New  England  Zool.  Club,  j.-  51.  Nijni 

Kolymsk,  near  mouth  of  Kolyma  River,  North-Eastern  Siberia. 
1 91 4.   Sorex  macropygmaeus  koreni  G.  Allen,  loc.  cit.  56.  Nijni  Kolymsk,  near  mouth  of 

Kolyma  River,  North-Eastern  Siberia. 
1921.   Sorex  macropygmaeus pleskei  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22:  31 1. 

Charlamova  Gora,  Gdovsky  district,  Petrograd  Govt.,  Russia. 
1 92 1.   Sorex  macropygmaeus  rozanovi  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  313.  Listvenichnojc,  west  coast  of 

Lake  Baikal,  Siberia. 
1921.   Sorex  macropygmaeus  altaicus  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  314.  Ongudaj,  Bijsk  district,  Tomsk 

Govt.,  Siberia.  (Synonym,  1933,  Sorex  macropygmaeus  altaicus  tasicus  Ognev, 

Abstr.  Zool.  Inst.  Moscow  Univ.  /.'  62.  Mouth  of  River  Motliki,  tributary 

of  River  Taza,  Turukhansk  district,  Siberia.) 
192 1.  Sorex  amasari  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22:  316.  Valley  of 

River  Amazar,  frontier  between  regions  of  Amur  and  Zabaikalje,  Siberia. 
1921.   Sorex  ultimus  petschorae  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  317.  Pvim-va,  Petchora  region,  Northern 

1930.   Sorex  jenissejensis   Dukclski    Zool.   Anz.    88:    77.    Wostotschennje   village,   40 

versts  south-east  of  Minussinsk,  Siberia. 
1933.   Sorex  ultimus   midendorfii   Ognev,   Abstr.    Zool.    Inst.    Moscow    Univ.    /.•    59. 

Sidorovsk,    River    Taza,    Turukhansk    district,    North-\\'estern    Siberia. 

(Synonym,  1933,  Sorex  ultimus  middendorjii  natio  irkutensis  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  60. 

Near  Podunsk,  on  River  Angara,  Siberia.) 
1936.   Sorex  tundrensis  europaeus  Stroganov,  Zool.  J.  Moscow,  /j.-   130.  Lake  Chun, 

Imandra  district.  Kola  Peninsula,  North-Western  Russia. 

Chinese  and  Japanese  forms  referred  to  macropygmaeus  =  caecutiens  by  Kuzyakin 
and  Bobrinskii,  or  to  buxtoni  =  caecutiens  by  G.  Allen. 

1905.  Sorex  shinto  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.  23,   19.   1906,  P.Z.S.   igo^,  2:  338. 

Makado,  Northern  Hondo,  Japan. 
1907.   Sorex  shinto  saevus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  408.  Fifteen  miles  north-west  of  Korsakoff, 

Sakhalin  Island.  (Synonym,  1934,  Sorex  shinto  savenus  Tokuda,  Zool.  Mag. 

Tokyo,  .}6:  578.  ?  misspelling  oi  saevus.)  Occurs  Hokkaido  and  Kurile  Is. 
1907.   Sorex  annexus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo6:  859.  Mingyong,   iio  miles  south-east  of 

Seoul,  1,300  ft.,  Korea. 




1QI2.   Sorex  cansiiliis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  10:  398.  Forty-six  miles  south-cast  of 
Taochou,  Kansu,  China. 

Miller  (1912)  treated  the  following  form  as  a  race  of  .S'.  amneiis,  but  it  seems  to  us 
to  represent  the  present  species. 

Sorex  c.\ecutiens  gr.w.vrius  Miller,  1910 

I  QIC.   Sorex  araneus  granariiis  Miller,  .\nn.  Mag.  N.H.  6:  458.  La  Granja,  Segovia, 
Since   Miller  published  his  Catalogue,   the  following  form  which  is  apparently 
referable  to  S.  caccutiens  has  been  named  from  Western  Europe. 

1942.   Sorex  lapponieiis  Melandcr,  K.  fysiogr.  Sallsk.  Lund.  Forh.  //.■   134.  Vittjarv, 
Northern  Sweden. 

Sorex  araneus   Linnaeus,  1758  C:ommon  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Norway,  Sweden,  Britain,  Channel  Islands, 
France,  Germany,  Bohemia,  Poland,  Denmark,  Holland,  Belgium,  Switzerland, 
Italy,  Transylvania,  Yugoslavia.  Through  much  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  \vhcre  the  northern 
limit  runs  through  the  Eurasian  tundra,  and  in  many  places  reaches  the  Arctic  coast; 
eastwards  to  the  Pacific  and  Sakhalin;  the  southern  limit  skirts  the  steppes  and  semi- 
deserts  of  the  northern  Caucasus  and  Kazakstan,  and  the  range  includes  Trans- 
caucasia, Mongolia,  Manchuria.  Bodenheimer  lists  the  species  from  Palestine.  Asia 
Minor.  Apparently  also  frcxm  Shensi,  Kansu,  Yunnan  in  China,  and  the  Kurile 

Miller,  191 2,  Cat.  Mamm.  IT.  Europe,  recognized  the  following  eight  races  of  this 
species  in  ^Vestern  Europe.  Some  of  them,  however,  are  based  on  colour  details 
which  according  to  Kuzyakin  and  Bobrinskii  are  subject  to  wide  individual  variation 
and  are  likely  to  be  useless  fur  diagnostic  purposes. 

On  the  European  forms  see  aho  Zalesky,  1948,  S.B.  Osl.  Akad.  W'iss.  757.-  129. 

Sorex  .\raneus  ar.\neus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Sorex  araneus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /;  53.  Upsala,  Sweden. 
1828.  Sorex  coronatus  Millet,  Faune  de  Maine-et-Loire,  /.•  18.  Blou,  Maine-et-Loirc, 

1828.  Sorex  perionatu\  Millet,  loe.  cit.  (footnote).  Not  of  Geolfroy,  1827. 

1829.  Sorex  dauheiitonii  Q'.u\'\er,Kegn.  Anim.  i:  127.  Not  of  Erxleben,  1777. 
1832.   Sorex  eoneinnus  \\'agler,  Isis,  2^:  54.  Bavaria,  Germany. 

1832.   Sorex  rhinolophui  \Vaglcr,  loe.  eit.  Bavaria. 

1832.   Sorex  melanodnn  Wagler,  loe.  cit.  Bavaria. 

1839.   Sorex  macrotriehu^   de   Selys   Longchamps,    Etudes   dc    Micromamm.    20.   No 

1839.   .Sorex  lahiosus  ]cn\n^,  .Vnn.  N.H.  2:  326.  Frankfurt,  Germany. 
1847.   Sorex  vulficiris  Nilsson,  Ilium.  Fig.  Skand.  Fauna,  /.•  75.  (teste  Trouessart.) 
Range:  Western  Continental  Europe,  from  Finland  to  France,  Germany,  Bohemia, 
Norway  fpart). 


SoREX  ARANEUS  TETRAGONURUs  Hermann,  1 780 

1780.  Sorex  tetragonurus  Hermann,  in  Zimmerniann,  Geogr.  Gesch.  2:  383.  Stras- 
bourg, Eastern  France. 
1792.  Sorex  quadricaiidatus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  208.  Strasbourg,  Eastern  France. 

1834.  Sorex  hermanni  Duvernoy,  L'Institut,  299.  1835,  Mem.  Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Stras- 

bourg, 2:  3.  Near  Strasbourg,  Eastern  France.  (Animal,  not  skull.) 

1835.  Sorex  fodiens  Duvernoy,  Mem.  Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Strasbourg,  2:   17.  (Skull,  not 

animal.)  Strasbourg,  Eastern  France.  Not  of  Schreber,  1777. 
(?)  i858.   Sorex  vulgaris pallidus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  ^\'iss.  \\'ien,  ^j,  1  :  488.  Locality 

unknown,  probably  Italy. 
i86g.   Sorex  vulgaris  var.  nuda  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.■  127.  Bernese  Oberland. 
1869.   Sorex  vulgaris  var.  nigra  Fatio,  loc.  cit.  Lucerne,  Switzerland. 

1900.  Sorex  vulgaris  var.  vel  subsp.  mollis  Fatio,  Rev.  Suisse  de  Zool.  8:  471.  Substi- 

tute for  nigra. 

1901.  Sorex  araneus  alticola  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  /^.-  43.  Meiringen, 

1905.  Sorex  vulgaris  crassicaudatus  Fatio,  Arch.  Sci.  Phys.  Nat.  Geneve,   ig,  4:  201. 

Zermatt,  Switzerland.  Not  of  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  1834. 
1905.  Crossopus  ou  Sorex  ignotus  Fatio,  loc.  cit.  202.  (Mandible,  not  skull.) 
1905.  Sorex  araneus  carpathicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i^:  506.  Hatszeg, 

Hunyad,  5,500  ft.,  Hungary. 
1927.  Soricidus  monsvairani  Altobello,  Rev.  Franc.  Mamm.  /.•  6.  Between  Campo- 

basso  and  the  Commune  of  Busso,  Montevairano,  Abruzzi,  Central  Italy. 

Status _^(3'e  Guhno,  1939,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  4j:  136. 
Range:  Alps  and  neighbouring  parts  of  Germany,  France,  Italy,  east  to  Tyrol  and 

Sorex  araneus  castaneus  Jenyns,  1838 

1838.  Sorex  tetragonurus  var.  <^S{orex)  castaneus ]fnyns,  Ann.  N.H.  /.■  424.  Burwell  Fen, 
Cambridgeshire,  England. 

Sorex  araneus  euronotus  Miller,  1901 

1901.   Sorex  araneus  euronotus  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  /^.-  44.  Monlrejeau, 
Haute-Garonne,  France. 

Sorex  araneus  santonus  Mottaz,  1908 

1908.  Sorex  santonus  Mottaz,  Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  Geneve,  /.■  118.  Lignieres-Sonneville, 

Charente,  France. 

Sorex  araneus  bergensis  Miller,  1909 

1909.  Sorex  araneus  bergensis  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2-  4'6.  Graven,  Hardanger, 

Norway.    Range:    Western   Norway,    from   Bergen   region   at   least    into 

Sorex  araneus  pyren.'^icus  Miller,  1909 

1909.  Sorex  araneus  pjrenaicus  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j.-  416.  L'Hospitalet,  Ariegc, 
4,700  ft.,  France. 


PAl.AKARCTIC:  AND   1M)IA\   MAMMALS   i7-,8-iq4r) 
SOREX    ARANEUS    FRETAI.IS    Millcr,    KJOt) 

1009.   Sorix  arancusfn-tain  Millcr,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  415.  Trinity,  Jersey,  Channel 


.Since  Miller's  C^atalogue  (1912)  the  following  names  have  been  proposed  for 
Western  European  forms  of  this  species : 

iqr?.   Sons  araufits  pfucimus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  21G.  Cliatal,  Dobrudscha, 

Rumania.  According  to  Ognev,  ranges  eastwards  to  Russia. 
if\\\.   Sorcx  uranlii  Barrett-Hamilton  &  Hinton,  Abstr.  P.Z..S.  18.  P.Z.S.  824.  IsLmd 

of  Islav,  Hebrides. 
i()2(j.   Sorex  samniiicus  A\U)hAh\  Boll.  Inst.  Zool.  Rom.i,  ;;.•  102.  Pro\incc  di  C;ampo- 

basso,  Goo-1,000  ni..  Southern  Itah. 
Hr27.   Soifx  ariuiiin  ehoiiintic  W'ettstein,  .\n/..  Akacl.  W'iss.  W'icii,   i.  Ruja,  \'eliki  lom 

\alley,  south  ol  the  .Mali  Rainac,  .Xcjrthern  \'elebit,  near  Krasno,  Croatia, 

l(|2o.   Soiix  aiaihi/s  csikii  G\  ula,  .Mlatt.  Ko/lcm  Budapest,  2j:  54.  98.  Mateszalka  and 

Nagydobos  Komitat,  Szatmar  district,  Hungary. 
K130.   Sorex  araneiis  holkavi  Martino,  Ann.  H.N.  Mus.  Hung.  17.-  158.  Igman  Moun- 
tains, 1,350  m.,  Sarajevo  district,  Yugo.slavia. 
1037-   ■^'''"•^'  «""'""  pulchcr  Zaleskv,  Anz.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  ^4:  214.  Terscheling 

Island,  HoUand. 
i<)3q.   Sorex  araniui  pctrori  M.irtino,  Zap.  Russk.  Nauch.  Inst.  Byelgrad,  14:  90.  Asan 

Cesma,  Kozuii  .Mountains,  Southern  Serbia,  Yugoslavia. 
1944.   Sorex  araiiein  bohemirus  Stcpanek,  Rozpr.  Ceske  Akad.  Praha,  53,  2,  No.  30:  2.,  Southern  C'./,echoslo\akia. 

On  account  of  individual  variation,  Kuzyakin  and  Bobrinskii  think  that  the  whole 
group  of  relati\elv  large  shrews  in  the  U.S.S.R.  should  be  classed  as  Sorex  araneiis, 
without  dixisioii  into  species  and  subspecies.  Names  available  from  the  U.S.S.R. 
include  .S'.  daphaenodon  (and  races)  which,  in  deference  to  Chaworth-Musters'  opinion, 
is  here  listed  as  a  distinct  species.  Besides  these,  the  following,  in  order  of  naming, 
.ire  available  from  the  U.S.S.R.; 

1890.   Sorex  imilinenlatus  Dobson,  /\nn.  Mag.  N.H.   -,:  i  l  5.  Island  of  Sakhalin.  Occurs 

1895.   Sorex  raddei   Satuiiin,  Arch.   Naturgcsch,   /.■    109.   Neighbourhood  of  Kutais, 

Georgia,  Transcducasia  (Ognev,  1938,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia,  /.-  220). 

iSynonyms;  .S'o;c.v  />«//,(  Thomas,   1913,  .Xnn.  Mag.  N.H.  //.■  214.  Sumela, 

30    miles   south   of  Trebizond,    1,000-1,300    m.,    Asia    Minor;    and    Sorex 

caiicasicus  Satunin,  191 3,  Trud.  Obshch.  Izuch.  Chernomorsk.  Poberezh.  2: 

24    i.V.I'.).    Bakuryani,    Tiflis    Govt.,    Transcaucasia.)    Clhaworth-Musters 

thought  raddei  was  a  distinct  species. 
|i)o-,.   Sorex  araneiis  horealis  Kastschcnko,  Rcc.  Tomsk  Univ.  83.  Neighbourhood  of 

Tomsk,  Siberia.  .According  to  G.  .Allen,  range  includes  mountain  ranges 

Ironi  Altai  eastwards,  and  Mongolia. 
ii)i.;.    ,SVj/,.v  rohoratiii  Hollister,  Smiths.  .Misc.  Coll.  Go,  24:  2.  Ta]mcha,  .Altai  .Moun- 

t.iins,   12-,  miles  so\ith-east  of  Bijsk,  Siberia. 
|i)i4     .So?, A  I'll  t;.  Allen,  I'roi  .  New  England  Zool.  CUub,  5.-  52.  Nijni  Kolymsk,  near 

mouth  ol  Kiplvm.i  Ri\cr,  .\oi  th-Eastern  Siberia. 


1914.   Sorex  asper  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ij:  565.  Tekes  Valley,  Tianshan  Moun- 
tains, Central  Asia. 
192 1.   Sorex  macroprgmaeus  araneoides  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22: 

315.  Valley  of  River  Sosnovka,  east  coast  of  Lake  Baikal,  Siberia.  Bobrinskii 

and  Kuzyakin  consider  this  a  form  of  6'.  araneus. 
1921.   Sorex  araneus  tometuis  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  329.  Govt,  of  Tomsk,  Siberia. 
1 92 1.  Sorex  araneus  schnitnikovi  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  330.  Near  Kopal,  Semirechyia,  East 

Russian  Turkestan. 
1 92 1.  Sorex  araneus  satunini  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  331.  Miusaret,  Kars  region,  Caucasus. 
1 92 1.   Sorex  platycranius  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  334.  Near  Nikolsk-Ussurijsky,  Ussuri  region, 

Eastern  Siberia. 
192 1 .   Sorex  thomasi  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  336.  River  Budarman,  tributary  of  River  Sosnovka, 

north-west  coast  of  Lake  Baikal,  Siberia. 
1924.  Sorex  araneus  tomensis  isodon  Turov,   C.R.   Acad.   Sci.   U.R.S.S.    iii.   River 

Sosovka,  Bargusinsk  taiga.  Lake  Baikal,  Siberia. 
1928.   Sorex  araneus  jaculensis  Yinkchki,  Zool  Anz.  y8:  102.  Village  of  Sunlar,  on  the 

middle  reach  of  the  River  Wiluj,  Yakutsk,  Siberia. 
193 1.  Sorex  vir  turuchanensis  Naumoff,  Trans.  Polar.  Comm.  Acad.  Sci.  U.S.S.R.  .^.■ 

8-10  {N.V.).  (See  Ognev,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  2-   611.)  Yanov  Stan,  River 

Turuchan,  North-VVestern  Siberia. 
(?)  1933.  Sorex  dukelskiae  Ognev,  Abstr.   Zool.   Inst.   Moscow  Univ.   /.•   57.   River 

Artyugin,  tributary  of  Yenesei,  Turukhansk  district,  Siberia. 
1933.   Sorex  araneus  iochanseni  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  61.  Bobrovka,  on  River  Kaba,  in  district 

of  Altaiskaya,  in  former  Semipalatinsk  Province,  Siberia. 
1933.   Sorex  araneus  iiralensis  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  62.  Source  of  River  Nyais,  Northern  Ural, 

Eastern  Russia. 
1933.  Sorex  gravesi  Goodwin,  Amer.  Mus.  Novit.  No.  637,   i.  Monoma  River,  80 

miles  east  of  Troitskov,  Maritime  Province,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1936.   Sorex  isodon  ruthenus  Stroganov,  Zool.  J.  Moscow,  /j.'   132,  141.  Lake  Seliger, 

Kalinin  district,  Russia. 

The  following  Chinese  names  are  likely  to  represent  .S'.  araneus: 
Sorex  araneus  sinalis  Thomas,  191 2 

1912.   Sorex  sinalis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  398.  Forty-five  miles  south-east  of 
Feng-hsiang-fu,  Shensi,  10,500  ft.,  China.  Ranges  to  Southern  Kansu. 

Sorex  (?)  .\raneus  excelsus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.   Sorex  excelsus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Novit.  No.   100,  4.  Summit  of  Hoshan, 

Peitai,  30  miles  south  of  Chungtien,  Yunnan,  13,000  ft.,  China. 
The  following  form  from  Japanese  territory  is  likely  to  represent  .S".  araneus: 
1933.  Sorex  megalotis  Kuroda,   Bull.   Biogeogr.   Soc.  Jap,   4,    i;   47.   Chikuradake, 

Paramushiru,  Kurile  Islands.  Synonym: 
(?)  1930.   Sorex  paramushirensis  Kishida,  Z.  Mag.  Tokyo,  XLII,  373,  nom.  nud. 

Sorex  daphaenodon  Thomas,  1907 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sakhalin,  Kurile  Islands,  Central  and  Eastern 
Siberia,  Hokkaido  in  Japan.  Referable  to  S.  araneus  according  to  Kuzyakin  and 


PALAEARC:TR:  A\U   INDIAX   mammals   ly-.S    I94f> 
SOREX    DAPHAENODON    ThomaS,    I9O7 

1907.   Soii'x  dajihaenudon  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  407.  Darinc,  25  miles  north  west  of  Korsa- 

kofl,  .Sakhalin  Island.  The  following  forms  were  referred  to  the  synonymy 

of  this  in  Chaworth-Musters'  M.S. 
IQ14.  Sorex  sangidnidcns  G.  Allen,   Proc.  New  England  Zool.   Club,  5.-   54.   Xijni 

Kolymsk,  near  mouth  of  Kolyma  River,  North-Eastern  Siberia. 
192 1.  Sorcx  iibiriemis  Ogncv,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Pctersb.  :?:?.•  328.  \'illage 

Koltchugina,  Kuznetsky  district.  Govt,  of  Tomsk,  Siberia. 
1924.   Sorcx  daphaenodon yeiocmis  Kishida,  Monogr.  Jap.  Mamm.  168.  Kuroda,  1928, 

J.  Mamm.  g:  222.  Province  of  Ncmuro,  Hokkaido,  Japan. 
1933.   Sortx  daphaenodon  orii  Kuroda,  Bull.  Biogeogr.  Sue.  Japan,  ^,  i  :  48.  Nasauki,  in 

Paramushiru,  North  Kurile  Islands.  ( Sonw  mil  Kishid.i,   1930,  Zool.  Mag. 

Tokyo,  ^3:  373,  nom.  mtd.) 
1933.   Sorcx  daphaenodon  icaloniOgnev ,  Abstr.  Zool.  Inst.  Moscow  Univ.  /.'  63.  Mouth 

of  River   Motliki,    basin   of  River  Taza,    Turukhansk   district.    Northern 

Central  .Siberia. 

Sorex  buchariensis  Ogne\ ,  1921 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Russian  Pamir  Mountains. 

SORE.X    BUCH..\RIENSIS    OglKV.    1 92  I 

1 92 1.   Sorex  buchariensis  Ognev,  Ann.  ,\Ius.  Zool.  .\cad.  St.  Petersb.  22:  320.  \'alley  of 
River  Da\an-su,  North- West  Russian  Pamir  Mountains. 

Sorex  pacificus   C^oucs,  1877  Giant  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ussuri  region  of  Eastern  Siberia;  North- 
Western  United  .States  fCaiifornia,  Oregon).  For  note  on  status  of  Ussiui  form,  see 
above  (page  441. 

Sorex  pacificus  Coues,  1877 

1877.   Sorex  pacificus  Clones,  Bull.  U.S.  Geol.  &  Geogr.  Surv.  Terr,  jj.'  650  (jV.F.). 

Fort  Umpqua,  mouth  of  Unipqua  River,  Douglas  County,  Oregon,  U..S.A. 
(?)  1937.   Sorex  mirahiUs  Ot,'nev,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  Sect.  Biol.  46:  268,  270. 

Kiskinka  Ri\cr  willey,  Ussuri  region.  Eastern  Siberia. 

Sorex  alpinus   Schinz,  1837  .Alpine  Shrew 

.\]3proximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  south  to  Pyrenees,  Germany, 
S\sitzerland,  Italy,  ^'ugoshuia,  Transylvania,  Prjland. 

Sf)KEX    ALPINUS    ALPINUS    Schinz,    1 837 

1837.   Sorcx  alfiinus  Schinz,   Ncue   Denkschr.   Allgem,   .Schweiz.   Gesell.   Naturwiss. 

Neuchatel,  /.•  13.  St.  Gothard  Pass,  .Switzerland. 
(?j  1840.   Sorex  antinorii  Bonaparte,  Iconogr.  Faun.  Ital.  /.■  fasc.  29,  no  exact  locality, 

"probably  not  a  European  species"  (Miller,  1912). 
(?)  1870.   Sorcx  uilcrmedius  C^ornaiia,  Catal.  Descr.  Mamm.  Ital.  27.  Hills  of  Brianza, 

Como,  Italy.  (Part,  body.  See  Sordelli,  i8f)i).) 



(?)  1899.  Sorex  alpinus  var.  longobarda  SordelLi,  Atti  Soc.  Ital.  Sci.  Nat.  Milano,  ^8: 

363.  (Synonym  ot  interrnedius.) 
Range:  France,  Switzerland,  Transylvania  (Pyrenees,  Jura,  Alps,  Tyrol,  etc.). 

Sorex  alpixus  hercynicus  Miller,  1909 

1909.  Sorex  alpinus  hercynicus  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j.-  417.  Mauseklippe,  Bode 

Valley,  Harz  \Iountains,  Germany.  Range :  Harz  Mountains  and  Riesenge- 

birge,  Germany. 

Sorex  cylindricauda  Milne-Edwards,    1872  Stripe-backed  Shrew 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Yunnan,  Szechuan,  Kansu,  Shensi,  in  China; 
and  Northern  Burma. 

Sorex  cylindricauda  cylindricauda  Milne-Edwards,   1872 

1872.  Sorex  cylindricauda  Milne-Edwards,  Xouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.X.  Paris,  7.  Bull.:  92 

(footnote).  Moupin,  Western  Szechuan,  China. 
191 1.  Sorex  bedfordiae  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.  90,  3.  P.Z.S.  164.  Omisan,  9,500  ft., 

Szechuan,  China. 
191 1.  Sorex  wardi  fumeolus  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.   100,  49.   1912,  P.Z.S.   132. 

\Veichoe,  on  Siho  River,  \Vestern  Szechuan,  6,000-11,000  ft.,  China. 

Sorex  cylindricaud.-^  wardi  Thomas,  1 9 11 

igii.  Sorex  wardi  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.  90,  3.  P.Z.S.  165.  Taochou,  9,000  ft., 
Kansu,  China. 

Sorex  cylindricauda  gomphus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.   Sorex  bedfordiae  gomphus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Novit.  No.   100:  3.  Mucheng, 

Salween  drainage,  \Vestern  Yunnan,  7,000  ft.,  China.  Ranges  to  Northern 


Incertae  sedis 

Sorex  pusillus  Gmelin,  1774,  Reise,  5.'  499,  pi.  57,  fig  i.  Persia,  no  exact  localit\-. 
Perhaps  a  Crocidura,  and  probably  unidentifiable. 

Sorex  (?)  shinanensis  (described  as  Urotrichus  talpoides  shinanensis)  Yagi,  1927,  Zool. 
Mag.  Tokyo,  jg:  201  (A'.IVi.  Kitazawatoge,  between  Senjogatake  and 
Higashi-Komagatake,  in  Southern  Japanese  Alps,  Hondo,  Japan.  Status 
Jide  Kuroda,  1938,  List  Jap.  Mammals.  Synonym,  possibly,  1937,  Sorex 
dorichurus  Kishida,  Rigaku  Kai,  25,  ^o.  410:  742.  Senjogatake,  Southern 
Japanese  -Alps,  Hondo.  [N.V.) 

Genus  BLARINELLA  Thomas,  191 1 
igii.  Blarinella  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  166.  Sorex  quadraticauda  Milne-Edwards. 
I  species:  Blarinella  quadraticauda,  page  56 


PAl,AF.ARC:riC;  AND   INDIAN   MAMMALS    i  yv'S-u^li 

Blarinella  quadraticauda    Milnc-Kdw  aids,   ifjyj  Short-taiied  Moupin  Shrew 

Appniximatc   distribution    ol    species:    Szcchuan,    ^'ullnan    anil    Kansn,    China; 
Niirthern  Burma. 

BlARIXKLLA    qiADR.MICAUDA    nlADRATICAl'DA    MihlC-Edwards,    1872 

1872.   .S'o;v.v  (juadraliiduda   Milne-Edwards.  Reeh.   H.X.   Manim.   261,   pj.   38a,   furs. 
■:;--!d.  pi.  38b,  fi<4.  2.  .Moupin,  Szcrhuan.  C^hina. 

Bl.ARlNKI.I.A    QIADRATICAL'DA    GRISEl  D.\    Thnmas.    I  9  I  2 

101-'.  I'llariritlla  c^risthla  Thmnas,  .Ann.  .Mat;.  X.H.  lo:  4110.  FortN-two  miles  south- 
cast  of  Taocluiii.  10,000  It.,  Kansu,  Cihina. 

BL.\RINt.LL.\    qU.XDRATICAt-'D.V    WARD!    ThoHias,    I  f )  I  5 

It)!;,.  Blarinella  ky;r/;  Thomas,  .\nn.  Mas;.  X.H.  i§:  336.  Pipimaw,  26   X.,  08.3'/  E.. 
8,000  ft..  Upper  Burma.  Range  includes  Yunnan. 

Genus  SORICULUS  Blvtii,  185.1 

1854.   Sdiiciiltii  Bhth,  J.  .'Vsiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  2;]:  733.  (,'orsira  ni<^re\criii  Gray. 
1907.   (.hodsigoa  Kastschcnko,  Ann.  .\Ius.  Zonl.  Arad.  .St.  Petersb.,  10:  251.  Soriculus 
salrnskii  Kastschcnko    see  G.  Allen,  1038:  1041.  \'alid  as  a  subgenus. 
E/iiuirniiliis   iiihgen.   nor.    Type   species:    .S'o/v.v  laiidalus   Horsfield.    \'ali(l    as    a 
subgenus,  to  contain  also  .S'.  hucops  Horsfield.' 

6  species:  Soricnlus  caiidatus,  page  '>') 
Soriculus  kvpsibius,  page  bo 
Soriculus  leucops,  page  j(\ 
Soriculus  lowci,  page  ')i 
Soricnlus  ni,i;resccns.  page  -,8 
Soriculus  salcnskii.  page  <>o 

(  )1  these  species,  h\]>\ihius,  salcnskii  and  lohti  belong  to  the  subgenus  C/iodsii^oa 
which  28  instead  of  30  teeth.  The  vanishing  tooih  the  last  upper  unicuspid)  is 
\estigial  in  the  other  species  and,  as  has  already  been  poiiit<-d  out  by  Osgood,  its 
presence  can  at  most  be  of  subgencric  value.  The  first  nam  ■  111  the  subgenus  Chndsigoa 
is  .S.  lirpsihiu^.  a  relati\eh-  short-tailed  species  in  which  the  liindl(iol  is  about 
ii-i"!  mm.,  and  according  tn  G.  .Mien  it  occurs  in  parts  nf  China  with  an  allied 
longer-tailed  s]3ecies  hitherio  known  as  unillii,  but  here  (diisidered  as  representing 
the  earlier  name  salcnskii.  This  has  the  hincHoot  about   i(i-2ii  mm.  Typical  salcnskii 

'  Subgenus  Chodsiguir,  with  ci'^ht  ui)prr  t'-cth. 

Subgenus  Smiculns:  with  nine  upper  teclh.  the  \ery  small  extr.i  upp.r  unicuspid  being  present. 
F';  tail  short,  usually  less  than  70  per  cent,  o!  liead  and  body  lin  all  bul  radulm  averages  less 
than  Ijo  per  cent.;.  Rather  large,  head  and  body  usually  more  than  70  mm.  Foreclaws  enlarged. 

Subgenus  K/mni Ifidin;  with  nine  upper  teeth,  the  very  small  extra  upper  unicuspid  being  present. 
Not  fussorial;  tail  long,  approximatclv  110-147  piT  rent,  avi-rage  of  hear!  and  bodv.  Small,  head  and 
body  length  usually  less  than  70  mm.  ■  prrliaps  excepting  S.  c.  bailryi  .  Forn  l.n\>  not  enlarged. 



seems  to  be  only  known  by  one  specimen,  which  has  an  unusually  long  tail  (over 
140  per  cent,  of  head  and  body  length)  and  a  hindfoot  of  20.5  mm.,  but  according  to 
Anthony,  1941,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  ^ooL  2j:  71,  the  hindfoot  in  forms  which  he 
referred  to  smithii  can  be  as  much  as  20  mm. ;  and  as  in  some  forms  currently  referred 
to  smithi  the  tail  is  also  considerably  longer  than  the  head  and  body  (though  less 
elongated  than  in  the  type  oi  salenskii),  there  seems  not  much  reason  why  the  name 
salenskii  should  not  be  regarded  as  the  prior  name  for  the  smithi  section  of  races.  The 
third  species  of  Chodsigoa,  lowei,  has  a  short  hindfoot,  as  in  hypsibius,  but  a  very  long 
tail,  as  is  often  the  case  in  salenskii,  combined  with  some  cranial  peculiarities  pointed 
out  by  its  describer,  and  although  not  well  known  is  tentatively  regarded  as  valid. 
In  those  species  hitherto  referred  to  Soriculus  (with  30  teeth),  there  are  two  very 
distinct  groups.  The  type,  nigresceris,  is  a  rather  large,  heavily  built  fossorial  shrew 
with  enlarged  foreclaws  and  a  short  tail  which  is  rarely  as  much  as  70  per  cent,  of 
the  head  and  body.  The  other  two  species,  caudatus  and  leucops  are  rather  small, 
slender  shrews  with  small  foreclaws  and  a  long  tail  which  is  on  average  go  per  cent. 
or  more  of  the  head  and  body  fpossibly  excepting  the  very  little-known  Formosan 
race)  (the  species  caudatus  as  a  rule  has  the  tail  90-109  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body, 
and  the  species  leucops  has  it  nearly  half  as  long  again  as  the  head  and  body) .  The 
external  difference  between  the  nigresceris  group  and  the  caudatus-leucops  group  is  so 
well  marked  that  we  feel  subgeneric  division  is  advisable,  and  propose  the  name 
Episoriculus,  with  type  S.  caudatus.  The  distinction  between  the  t-\vo  subgenera  is 
greater  than  between  Sorex  and  Blannella  in  external  characters.  It  is  necessary  to 
note  that  Blanford  used  the  name  S.  macrurus  for  S.  leucops,  but  macrurus  was  a  nomen 
nudum  except  from  Blanford  (1888),  and  Osgood  has  shown  that  the  name  leucops  has 
priority  dating  from  1855.  G.  Allen  regarded  the  form  sacratus  as  a  race  of  5.  caudatus, 
but  more  recently  Anthony  (1941)  has  revived  sacratus  as  a  specific  name  because  a 
form  which  he  calls  a  race  of  sacratus  occurs  with  caudatus  in  Northern  Burma.  He 
suggests  (page  69)  that  it  is  possible  that  the  two  animals  have  different  habitat 
preferences  and  thus  remain  separated  in  the  same  locality;  until  the  contrary  is 
proved  we  follow  G.  Allen.  Two  rather  differentiated  forms,  radulus  and  batleji,  ha\-e 
been  named  since  Blanford  classified  the  Indian  species,  but  neither  are  so  distinct  in 
our  opinion  that  they  need  be  given  specific  rank;  the  first  is  here  considered  to 
represent  nigresceris,  and  baileji  is  here  referred  to  caudatus.  The  status  of  the  t  >vo 
named  Formosan  forms  of  the  genus  is  not  clear.  The  pigmentation  on  their  teeth  is 
extremely  weak  or  untraceable,  and  the  Formosan  Chodsigoa  is  based  on  a  skull,  the 
skin  being  unknown. 

The  available  species  of  Soriculus  may  be  distinguished  as  below: 

I.  Eight  upper  teeth.  Foreclaws  not  enlarged.      Subgenus  Chodsigoa.)         2 

Nine  upper  teeth,  the  last  upper  unicuspid  exceedingly  reduced.  4 

2.   Hindfoot  about   16-20  mm.  (Tail  usually  as  long  as  or  longer  than  head  and 
body.)  Soriculus  salenskii 

(Form  seen:  smithi.) 

Hindfoot  about  11-15  mm.  3 



■3.  Tail  much  lunger  than  head  and  body.  Soriculiis  lowei 

(Type  in  B.M.) 
Tail  about  80  per  cent.,  or  less,  of  head  and  body.  Soriculiis  hypsibius 

(Forms  seen:  hvpsihius,  larvariim.  lamia.) 

4.  Tail  normally  less  than  three-quarters  of  head  and  body  length,  its  length  50  mm. 

and  less.  Foreclaws  enlarged.     (Subgenus  Soriculiis.)              Soriculus  nigrescens 
(Forms  seen:  nigrescetn,  centralis,  caurinus,  pahari,  radulus.) 
Tail  normally  90  per  cent,  or  more  of  head  and  body,  its  length  usually  over 
-,o  mm.  Foreclaws  small.     (Subgenus  Episoriculus.)  5 

5.  Tail  about  90-109  per  cent,  of  head  and  body,  its  length  below  80  mm. 

Soricului  caudatus 
(Forms  seen:  caudatus,  sacratus,Jumidus  (no  measured  skins),  bailcvi.) 
Tail  as  a  rule  about  1.1.5  P*^''  cent,  of  head  and  body,  its  length  usually  over  80  mm. 

Soriculus  Icucops 
(Forms  seen :  Icucops,  macrurus,  Irene.) 

Subgenus  SORICULUS  BIyth,  1854 

Soriculus  nigrescens  Gray,  1842  Sikkim  Large-clawed  Shrew 

Appri.>ximatc  distribution  of  species:  Bhutan,  Kumaon,  Sikkim,  Nepal,  Mishmi, 
Northern  Burma. 

Soriculus  nigrescens  nigrescens  Gray,  184? 

1842.   Corura  nigrescens  Gray,  .\nn.  -Mag.  X.H.  10:  261.  Darjecling,  India.  (Hinton, 

1842.   Sorcx  aterrinius  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  12:  928,  nom.  nuil.  1854,  J.  Asiat. 

Soc.  Bengal,  I'j:  733.  Darjceling. 
1849.   Sorcx  sikimensis  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.- N.H.  5.-  203,  nom.  nud.   1855,    J.  Asiat. 

Soc.  Bengal,  16:  iii.  Darjceling. 
18G3.    Sorex  oligurus  Gray,  Ciat.  H(jdgson  C<A\.  .\epal  &   Tibet,  2nd  cd.  8,  Sikkim 

nom.  nud.). 
18(^3.   Sorex  holosericeus  Gray.  loe.  cit.  9.  Darjecling  ^nom.  nud.). 

Soriculus  nigrescens  radulus  Thomas,  1922 

ii|22.   Soricului   radulus   Thomas,  J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.   28:   429.    Dreyi,   5,140  ft., 
.Mishmi  Hills,  Northern  Assam.  Ranges  to  North  Burma. 

Soriculus  nigrescens  t.vhari  Hinton,  1922 

1922.   Soriculus  nigrescens  pahari  Hinton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:    1053.  Gnatong, 
12,300  ft.,  Sikkim. 

Soriculus  nigresce.vs  C-\urixus  Hinton,  1922 

i')22.   Soriculus   nigrescens  caurinus   Hinton,  J.  Bombay   .\.H.   Soc.   28:   1054.   Khati, 
7,l)0o  it.,  Kumaon,  Northern  India. 



1922.  Soriculus  nigrescens  centralis  Hinton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:   1054.  Bouzini, 


Subgenus  EPISORICULUS  Ellerman  &   Morrison-Scott,  1951 

Soriculus  caudatus  Horsfield,  1851  Hodgson's  Brown-toothed  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kumaon,  Sikkim,  Mishmi,  Northern  Burma; 
Szechuan,  Yunnan  and  apparently  Formosa;  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China. 

Soriculus  caudatus  caudatus  Horsfield,  1851 

1 85 1.  Sorex  caudatus  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  E.  India  Co.   135.  Darjeeling, 

India  {fide  Chaworth-?>Iusters). 
(?)  1863.  Sorex homourus  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson's  CoU.  B.M.,  2nd  ed.  8,  nom.  nud.  Sikkim. 
1877.  Soriculus  gracilicauda  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46,  2:  282.  Sikkim. 
1890.  Soriculus  minor  Dobson,  Monogr.  Insectiv.  jj,  pi.  xxiv,  figs.  2-2b.  Manipur. 
Range:  Kumaon,  Sikkim,  Northern  Burma. 

Soriculus  caudatus  sacratus  Thomas,  1 9 11 

191 1.   Soriculus  sacratus  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  4.  P.Z.S.  165.  Omei  Shan,  6,000  ft., 
Szechuan,  China. 

Soriculus  (?)  caudatus  fumidus  Thomas,  19 13 

1913.  Soriculus  fumidus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  216.  Mt.  Arizan,  8,000  ft., 

Central  Formosa. 

Soriculus  caudatus  baileyi  Thomas,  1914 

1 9 14.  Soriculus  baileyi  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  22:  683.  Tsu  River,  Mishmi 

Hills,  7,500  ft.,  north  of  Assam.  Range  includes  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Soriculus  caud.jltus  umbrixus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Soriculus  caudatus  umbrinus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Novit.  No.  100,  5.  Mucheng, 

Salween  drainage.  South- Western  Yunnan,  7,000  ft.,  China.  Ranges  into 
Northern  Burma. 

Soriculus  leucops  Horsfield,  1855  Indian  Long-tailed  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Northern  Burma;  Szechuan 
and  Yunnan,  China. 

Soriculus  leucops  Horsfield,  1855 

1855.  Sorex  leucops  Horsfield,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  iii.  Nepal. 

(?)  1863.  Sorex  nivicola  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson's  Coll.  B.M.,  2nd  ed.  8,  nom.  nud. 

1863.  Sorex  macntrus  Hodgson,  loc.  cit.  9,  nom.  nud.  Not  macrourus  Lehmann,  1822. 

1888.   Soriculus  macrurus  Blanford,  Fauna  Brit.   India,   Mamm.   /.■  231.  Darjeeling, 

Northern  India. 
191 1.  Soriculus  Irene  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  49.  1912,  P.Z.S.  132.  Yuanchinghsien, 

South-Western  Szechuan,  5,200  ft.,  China. 

E  59 


Subgenus  CHODSIGOA  Kaststhcnko,  1907 

Soriculus  hypsibius  dc   Winton,  1899  dc  \Vinton's  Shrew 

Approximate    distribution    of  species:    Yunnan    and    Szim  huan,    northwards    to 
Kansu,  Shcnsi  and  ClhihH,  China. 

SoRiciLis  iivpsinn  s  iivpsiBUs  dc  Wintim,  iflf)i) 

1899.   Soriculu.s  hv/iMhiiis  dc  \\'inton,  P.Z.S.  574.  \'ant;liupa,  North-Western  Szcchuan, 

1907.   .Soriculus    [Chod^igoa)    benxowikii   Kastschcni<o,    Ann.    Mus.    Zool.    Acad.    St. 

Pctcrsb.  in:  252.  Chodsigou,  Northern  Szcchuan. 
Range :  Yunnan  (part),  Szcchuan,  Shcnsi. 

Soriculus  hypsidrls  larv.xrum  Thomas,  191 1 

1911.  Chodsiaoa  Inrvaium  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  49.  1912,  P.Z.S.  133.  Eastern  Tombs, 

()5  miles  east  of  Pekin,  1,000  it.,  Clhilili,  Ciiina. 

Soriculus  hypsibius  lamula  Thomas,  19 12 

191 2.  Chodsiona  lamula  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  399.  Forty-six  miles  south-east 

of  Taochou,  Kansu,  9,500  ft.,  C^hina. 

SoRICULU,S    HYPSIBIUS    PARV.\    G.   Allcn,    I923 

1923.   Chodsiiioa  hv/iiibia parva  G.  .Allen,  Amcr.  Mus.  Novit.  No.  loo:  5.  Ssushanchang, 
Likiang  Range,  Western  Yunnan,  9,000  ft.,  China. 

Soriculus  salenskii  Kastschenko,  1907  Salenski's  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  as  here  understood,  Shcnsi,  Szechuan  and 
Yunnan,  in  (Ihina;  Northern  Burma. 

Soriculus  salen.skii  salenskii  Kastschenko,  1907 

1907.   Snriciiliis   iChndiigoa)  salenskii  Kastschenko,   Ann.    Mus.   Zool.  Acad.   Sci.   St. 

Pcteisb.    10:   253.   G.  Allen,    1938,   Mamm.   China   &   Mongolia,   /.•    108. 

Linganfu,  Northern  Szechuan,  China.  (Tate  (1947)  thinks  this  is  a  distinct 

species  from  .S'.  smithii  on  account  of  its  longer  tail.) 

Soriculus  sale.nskii  smithi  Thomas,  191 1 

191 1.   Clwdsiooa  smithii  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  4.  P.Z.S.   166.  Tatsienlu,  Szechuan, 
9,000  It.,  China.  Range  includes  Tsingling  Mountains,  Shcnsi,  China. 

SoRir:ULUS    SALENSKII    PARC,\    G.   Alicu,    1 923 

1923.   Clindsii^oa  smilhii  parca  G.  Allen,  .'\mer.   Mus.  Novit.  No.    loo:   6.  Homushu 
Pass,  Western  Yunnan,  8,000  ft..  C;hina.  Ranges  to  Northern  Burma  (part). 

Soriculus  salenskii   eik\'a  Anthony,  1941 

1941.  Chodsinoa  smithii  furva  Anthony,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  2j:  Ji.  .Mt.  Iniaw  Bum, 
I), (Mill  It.,  \i)rtli(rn  l?urma. 


Soriculus  lowei  Osgood,  1932  Lowe's  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China. 

Soriculus  lowei  Osgood,  1932 

1932.  Chodsigoa  lowei  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  18:  249.  Chapa,  Tonkin, 

Incertae  sedis 

1913.  Chodsigoa  sodaiis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  217.  Mt.  Arizan,  8,000  ft., 
Central  Formosa.  Based  on  a  single  skull  with  scarcely  pigmented  teeth; 
skin  unknown. 

Genus  NEOMYS  Kaup,  1829 

1829.  JVeomys  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierwelt,  /.•   117.  Sorex  daubentonii  Erxleben  = 

Sorex fodiens  Pennant. 
1829.  Leucorrhynchus    Kaup,    loc.    cit.     118.    Sorex    lineatus    Geoffro)'  =  Sorex  fodiens 

1829.  Hydrogale  Kaup,  loc.  cit.  123.  Sorex  remijer  GcofTroy  =  Sorex  fodiens  Pennant. 
1832.  Crossopus  Wagler,  Isis,  275.  Sorex  fodiens  Pennant. 
1835.  Hydrosorex  Duvernoy,   Mem.   Soc.   Sci.   Nat.   Strasbourg,   2:    19.   Sorex  fodiens 

1835.  Amphisorex  Duvernoy,  loc.  cit.  23.   Sorex  herinanni  Duvernoy  =  Neomys  fodiens 

skull  plus  Sorex  araneus  tetragonnriis,  skin. 
1838.  Pinalia  Gray,  P.Z.S.  iS^j:  126.  Synonym  oi  Crossopus  ex  Gray  M.S. 

2  species:  Neomys  anomaltis,  page  64 
Neomys  fodiens,  page  61 

This  genus  was  dealt  with  at  some  length  by  Miller,  191 2,  Cat.  Mamm.  W.  Europe, 
65.  Bobrinskii  recognizes  two  species  only,  which  are  both  compared  in  Miller  (who 
subdivided  anomalus). 

Neomys  fodiens  Pennant,  1771  European  Water-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Britain,  France  (south  to  Pyrenees),  Denmark, 
Belgium,  Holland,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Transylvania,  Germany,  Norway,  Sweden, 
Finland ;  in  Russia  the  northern  limit  runs  almost  along  the  coast  of  the  Arctic 
Ocean,  and  in  Western  Siberia  a  little  south  of  the  Arctic  Circle  (apparently  to 
about  Lake  Baikal) ;  in  the  Far  East  there  have  been  individual  finds  on  the  lower 
Amur  and  coast  of  Sea  of  Okhotsk,  and  Sakhalin.  The  southern  limit  skirts  the 
Northern  Caucasus,  the  Volgo-Ural  and  Kazakstan  steppes.  Bodenheimer  recorded 
this  species  from  Palestine.  But  it  seems  more  likely  that  the  Palestine  form  is 
anomalus,  since  the  latter  is  the  water-shrew  of  Asia  Minor  and  the  Mediterranean 



Neomys  fodiens  fodiens  Pennant,  1771 
771.   Sorex fodiens  Pennant,  Synopsis  Qiiadrupcds,  308.  Berlin,  Germany. 
{Sorex  fodiens  Schrcbcr,  1777,  Saugcth,  7;  57  i.  Berlin,  Germany.) 

776.  Sorex  aqiialieiis  Mullcr,  Natursyst.  Suppl.  u.  Resist.  Band.  36.  France.  Not  of 

Linnaeus,  1758. 

777.  Sorex  dauhentomi  Erxleben,  Syst.  Rcsn.  Anim.  /.•  124.  Burgundy,  France. 
780.   Sorex  earinatus  Hermann,  in  Zimmcrmann,  Geogr.  Gesch.  2:  383.  Strasbourg, 

Eastern  France. 
79J.   Sorex  liricaudatus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  208.  Strasbourg,  Eastern  France. 
793.  Sorex  fluviatilis  Bechstein,  Gemeinn.  Nat.  Deutschlands,  j.-  746.  (Suggested, 

but  not  adopted,  as  preferable  to  fodiens.) 
793.  Sorex  eremita  Meyer,  Zool.  Annalen,  /.•  323.  Thuringia,  Germany. 
?)  1800.   Sorex  eanieulariiis   Bechstein,    Thomas   Pennant's   AUgcm.    Uebers.    Vierf. 

Thiere,  2:  541.  Renaming  oi fodiens  Bechstein,  1793. 
800.   Sorex  fodiens  alhus  Bechstein,  loc.  cil.  723. 

811.   Sorex  hydrophilus  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Rosso.  Asiat.  130.  Berlin,  Germany. 
811.   Sorex  lineatus  Geofi'roy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ij:  181.  Paris,  France. 
811.   Sorex  remifir  Geofiroy,  loc.  cit.  182.  Abbeville,  Somme,  France. 
818.   Sorex  eoUaris  Desmarest,  Nouv.  Diet.  H.N.  22:  65.  Islands  at  mouth  of  Escaut 

and  Mcusc,  Holland. 
822.   Sorex  maerourus  Lchmann,   Obs.  Zool.  Faun.   Hamburg,   /.•   5.   Sachsenwald, 

Schleswig-Holstcin,  Germany.  [N.V.) 
826.   Sorex  ampliibiiis  Brehm,  Ornis,  :?.•  38.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 
826.   Sorex  natans  Brehm,  loc.  cit.  44.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 
826.   Sorex  stagnatUis  Brehm,  loc.  at.  47.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 
830.   .S'orc.v  TOfl/w  Brehm,  Isis,  1128.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 
832.  Sorex  miisculiis  \Vagler,  Isis,  54.  Bavaria,  Germany. 
832.   Sorex  psilurus  VVagler,  loc.  cit.  Bavaria,  Germany. 

834.  Sorex  nioripes  Melchior,  Den  Danskc  Stats  og  Norges  Pattedyr,  68.  Sielland, 


835.  Sorex  hermanni  Duxcrnoy,  Mem.  .Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Strasbourg,  2:  23.  (Part;  the 

skull  only;  the  skin  is  another  form.)  Strasbourg,  Eastern  France. 
838.  Amphisorex  linneana  Gray,  Ann.  N.H.  2:  287.  North  Bothnia,  Sweden. 

838.  Amphisorex  eonstrictiis  Duvernoy,  Mem.  Mus.  H.N.  Strasbourg,  Suppl.  2:  4. 

839.  Sorex  fodiens  var.  Uucotis  de  Selys  Longchamps,  Etudes  de  Micromamm.  142, 

norn.  niid. 
839.   Sorex  fodiens  var.  alhiventris  de  Selys  Longchamps,  loc.  cit.,  nam.  nud. 
?)  1845.   Sorex  fodiens  nigricans  Nilsson,   Atti  deUa   scsta   Riunione  degli   Sci.    Ital. 

Torino,  1844:  357.  Sweden  {nom.  nud.). 
868.  Sorex  fonhriatiis  Fitzingcr,  S.B.  Akad.  \Viss.  \\'ien.  57,  i  :  610.  Not  of  Wagler, 

868.   (irossopus  cihatus  griseogiilaris  Fitzinger,  loc.  eit.  623.  Chartres,  Eure-et-Loire, 

870.   Sorex  intermedins  Gornalia,  Cat.  Desc.  Mamm.  Ital.  27.  Hills  of  Brianza,  Como, 

Italy.  iPcUt,  tail  only.  See  Sordelli,  1899.) 
899.   Sorex  alpimis  var.  longobarda  Sordelli,  Atti  Soc.  Ital.  Sci.  Nat.  Milano,  38:  363. 

MS.  synonym  of  intermedins. 
901.  Neomys  fodiens  minor  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  14:  45.  Montrejeau, 

Hautc-Gari  inne,  Fr.uice. 


1905.  Crossopus  ou  Sorex  ignolus  Fatio,  Arch.  Sci.  Phys.  Nat.  Geneve,  ig,  4:  202. 

Switzerland.  (Skull,  not  mandible.) 
1905.  jYeomjs  fodiens  naias  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.   /j.-  507.  Hatszeg, 

Hunyad,  Hungary. 
igo6.  Neomys  fodiens  nanus  Lydekker,  Zool.  Record,  ^2,  Mamm.  34.  Accidental  re- 
naming oi  naias. 
(?)  1 914.  Neomjs    leptodactylus    Satunin,    Mitt.    Kauk.    Mus.    8:    90.    Kasikoporan, 

(?)  1924.  Neomys  fodiens  alpestris  Burg,  \Veidmann,  Pallasia,  2,  2:  90.  Engadine  {nom. 

nud.  Original  N.V.). 
1926.  jNeomys  fodiens  halkaricus  Ognev,  Bull.  Sci.  Inst.  Explor.  Caucasus,  /.•  42,  55. 

Neighbourhood  of  the  town  of  Nalchik,  Terek  region,  Caucasus. 
1 93 1.  Neomys  fodiens  slresemanni  Stein,  Mitt.  Zool  Mus.  BerUn,  ly:  278.  (Status  _^f/(' 

Pohle,  1933.)  Reipzig,  near  Frankfurt-on-Oder,  Germany. 
Range:  Norway,  Sweden,  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  Hungary,  Switzerland,  Italy, 
to  Russia,  Transcaucasia  and  Western  Siberia. 

Neomys  fodiens  bicolor  Shaw,  1791 

1 791.  Sorex  bicolor  Shaw,  Naturalist's  Miscell.  2,  pi.  55.  Oxford,  England. 

1805.  Sorex  ciliatus  Sowcrby,  Brit.  Misc.  ^g:  103.  Norfolk,  England. 

1838.  Amphisorex  pennant  a  Gray,  P.Z.S.  iSjj:  125.  England. 

1840.  Crossopus  sowerbyi  Bonaparte,  Iconogr.  Faun.  Ital.  /,  fasc.  29,  in  text  under 

C.  fodiens. 
Range:  England,  \Vales,  Scotland. 

Neomys  fodiens  orientis  Thomas,  191 4 

1914.  Meomys  fodiens  orientis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ij:  564.  Swamps  of  River 

Kammanajaretschka,  near  Djarkent,  Semirechyia,  Russian  Central  Asia. 

1915.  Meomys  fodiens  orientalis  Hinton,  Zool.  Record,  5/,  Mamm.  (1914)  44.  Acci- 

dental renaming  of  orientis  Thomas. 
(?)  1 92 1.  Neomvs fodiens  brachyotus  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22:  343. 

Near  Kopal,  Semirechyia,  Russian  Central  Asia. 
(?)  1 92 1.  Neomys  argenteus  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  346.  Coast  of  Lake  Baikal,  Siberia. 
Range:  Bobrinskii  quotes  brachyotus  from  Semirechyia,  the  Altai,  Tarbagatai  Moun- 
tains, Central  Siberia  and  the  Far  East,  but  orientis  antedates. 

Neomys  fodiens  dagestanicus  Heptner  &  Formozov,  1928 

1928.  Neomys  fodiens  dagestanicus  Heptner  &  Formozov,  Zool.  Anz.  yy:  273.  Fort 
Gunib,  6,000  ft.,  Daghestan,  Eastern  Caucasus. 

Neomys  fodiens  watasei  Kuroda,  1941 

1941.  Neomys  fodiens  watasei  Kuroda,  Bull.  Biogeogr.  Soc.  Tokyo,  //.•  114.  Toyohara 

City,  Sakhalin  Island.  (Neomys  watasei  Kishida,  1930,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo, 

42:  ^■j2,  nom.  nud.). 
Incertae  sedis 

1913.  Neomys  schelkovnikovi  Satunin,  Trud.  Obshch.  Izuch.  Chernomorsk.  Poberezh, 
2:  24.  [N.V.)  Ushkul  village,  Svanetiya,  Transcaucasia.  (Chnworth-Musters 
regarded  this  as  a  form  oi N.  fodiens.) 



Neomys  anomalus   Clabiern,  1907  Mediterranean  \\'atcr-Shrevv 

Approximate  distribution  ot'species:  Spain,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Carpathian  Moun- 
tains, Pyrenean  France,  Yugoslavia,  Greece,  Poland,  Crimea,  Ukraine  to  Voronezh 
rcsjion  in  Russia,  and  Asia  Minor. 

Xeomys  anomalus  anomalus  Cabrera,  1907 

1907.  .Xeomys  anomalus  Cabrera,  Ann.  Mag.  N'.H.  ^o:  214.  i  September  1907.  San 
Martin  de  la  \'ega,  Madrid,  Spain. 

Xeomys  .\nom.\lus  milleri   Mottaz,  1907 

1907.  .Xcoinys  milhri  Mottaz,  Mem.  Soc.  Zool.  France,  20:  22.  20  September  1907. 

Cliesieres,  Alpes  \'.iudoises,  1,230  m.,  Switzerland. 
192 1 .  Xfornvs  sorkioides  Ognc\  ,  .Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  .\cad.  St.  Pctersb.  -^:?;  347.  Beloviczh, 

Grodno  district,  Poland. 

Xeo.mys  .\nom.\lus  teres  Miller,  1908 

H)o8.  .Womrs  /(7('-v  Miller,  .Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  /.•  68.  TwentN-five  miles  north  of 
Erzerum,  7,000  It.,  Asia  Minor. 

Xeomys  .^nom-^lus  mokrzeckii  Martino,  19 17 

191 7.  Neomys  fodicns  mokrzeckii  Martino,  Bull.  Soc.  Xat.  Crimee,  y:  i  (of  reprint). 
Kholodnaya  \Vater,  River  Alma,  Crimea.  ^.Although  this  form  was  named 
as  a  race  offodiens,  Bobrinskii  states  that  that  species  is  absent  from  Crimea, 
and  that  only  .A .  anomalus  occurs  there.) 

Xeomys  ano.m.^lus  josti  Martino,  1940 

1940.  .Xeomys  milleri  josli  Martino,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  j.-  494.  Ohrid,  Macedonia, 
Southern  Vugosla\ia. 

Genus  SUNCUS  fLhrcnberg,  1833 

1833.   Siinais  Ehrenberg,  in  Hemprirh   &   Ehrenberg,   Symb.   Phys.   Mamm.  2:  k. 

Suncus  sacer  Ehrenberg. 
1839.  Pachyura  de   Selys   Longchamps,   Etudes  de   .Micromamm.    32.   Sorex  etniseiis 

1843.   .SwH/tf/i  Sundevall,  K.  Svcnska.  \'etensk.  .\kad.  Handl.  1842:  17-,.  Emendation. 
il'>-,5.   Paradoxodoii    Wagner,    Schreijcr's    Saugeth.    Suppl.     j:    803.    Sorrx    mrlanodon 

Blyth  =  Croctdura  1  Pachyura)  nitidofulva  Anderson. 
i8()7.   Plerodus  Schulze,  Helios,  Berlin,  /.f  90.  Croctdura  suavolens  Blasius  (nee  Pallas) 

—  Sorex  etrusciis  Savi. 

4  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Siiiicus  dayi,  page  69 
Sitncw,  eiruseus,  page  68 
Siiucin  muruun.  page  65 
Stincus  it(dic.zkarius,  page  69 
The  retention  ol' the  genus  Suncus,  based  on  species  which  ha\c  .m  extra  small 
a])|)<r  unicuspid  tooth,  is  largely  a  matter  of  convenience.  Strictly  speaking,  it  is  not 


more  than  a  subgenus  oi'  Crocidura.  The  Indian  members  of  the  genus  were  reviewed 
by  Mrs.  Lindsay,  1929,  J.  Bombay  JV.H.  Soc.  33:  326.  This  author  recognizes  an 
extraordinary  number  of  species.  There  appear  to  be  in  the  region  now  under  discus- 
sion a  pygmy  species,  for  which  the  first  name  is  etrusctts,  a  giant  species,  for  which 
the  first  name  is  currently  regarded  as  murinus,  and  a  medium-sized  group  for  which 
the  first  name  is  stoUczkanus.  According  to  data  from  Lindsay,  Miller  and  Bobrinskii, 
and  examination  of  types  and  certain  other  specimens  in  London,  the  etruscus  group 
contains  forms  which  average  as  a  rule  48  mm.  or  less  in  head  and  body  length;  the 
type  of  the  Ceylon  race  and  the  form  nitidofulvus  are  both  a  little  larger  (head  and 
body  58  mm.).  The  Indian  perrotteti  and  its  allies  has  not  to  our  knowledge  been 
demonstrated  to  be  other  than  racially  separable  from  the  European  and  South-^Vest 
Asian  etruscus.  The  giant  species,  murinus,  is  very  widely  distributed  in  the  tropics 
partly  owing  to  human  introduction,  as  it  is  a  commensal  species.  Lindsay  says  the 
name  murinus  should  be  discarded  as  unidentifiable,  and  uses  cneruleus  for  the  giant 
house  shrews,  but  murinus,  which  is  used  by  Chasen  and  G.  Alien,  appears  no  more 
unidentifiable  than  several  other  very  early  names  which  are  in  current  use  for  small 
mammals.  From  Lindsay's  measurements,  forms  here  referred  to  murinus  average  at 
least  93  mm.  in  head  and  body  length,  but  the  majority  of  specimens  exceed  100  mm. 
The  medium-sized  group  is  much  less  common  than  the  other  two,  and  is  confined 
to  'Western  India.  The  head  and  body  length  in  B.M.  material  averages  70-71  mm. 
Only  one  specimen  examined  for  stoUczkanus  is  under  60  mm.,  and  only  one  is  over 
80  mm.  The  tail  averages  less  than  70  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body.  Lindsay's 
measurements  give  an  average  of  70-73  mm.  in  head  and  body  length  for  the  group. 
S.  dayi,  which  is  little  known,  may  well  be  a  valid  species.  The  type  is  darker  than 
other  specimens  of  the  stoUczkanus  group  examined.  The  tail  seems  considerably  less 
reduced,  but  unfortunately  the  type  specimen  does  not  bear  measurements.  In  the 
type,  the  extra  upper  unicuspid,  characteristic  of  the  genus,  is  unusually  large.  In  all 
probability  it  is  a  member  of  the  stoUczkanus  group. 

Suncus  murinus  Linnaeus,  1766  .  House  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Philippines,  Celebes,  Borneo,  Sumatra,  Java, 
Bali,  Malay  States,  to  Annam,  South-Eastern  China,  Formosa,  Japan,  Burma,  west- 
wards to  Kashmir,  southwards  to  Ceylon;  Arabia,  Palestine,  Egypt,  Abyssinia,  etc. 
Details  of  distribution  apparently  modified  by  human  agency. 

Suncus  murinus  murinus  Linnaeus,  1766 

1766.  Sorex  murinus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  ed.  /.•  74.  Java. 

1785.  Sorex  myosurus  Pallas,  Acta  Acad.  Sci.  Petrop.  1781,  2:  337.  Substitute  for 
murinus  Linnaeus. 

1792.  Sorex  caerulaeus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  207.  (Evidently  a  lapsus  for  caeruleus.)  Java. 
(For  status,  see  Chasen,  1940,  Handlist  Malaysian  Mamm.  19.) 

181 1.   Sorex  indicus  Gecjffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ij:  183.  Pondicherry,  India. 

1827.   Sorex  sonneralii  Gcoffroy,  Mem.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  75.-  132.  India. 

1 83 1.  Sorex  serpentarius  Gcoflroy  in  Belanger,  Voy.  Indes  Orient.  Zool.  119.  Pondi- 
cherry, India. 

1B45.   Sorex  nemorivagus  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ij:  269.  Central  region  of  Nepal. 




1859.  Son-x  iwin/wei  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  1:8:  285.  Amoy,  Southern  China. 

i860.  Sorex  albinus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  2g:  90,  (nom.  nud.). 

1870.  Crocidura  microhs  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  589.  Hong  Kong,  China. 

1870.  Crocidura  [Pachyura)  waldemarii  Peters,  loc.  cit.  590.  Bengal. 

1870.  Crocidura  (Pachyura)  media  Peters,  loc.  cit.  592.  Paradcnia,  Ceylon. 

(?)  1877.  Crocidura  (Pachyura)  pealana  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46:  267. 
Sibsagar,  Assam. 

1877.  Crocidura  (Pachyura)  rubicunda  Anderson,  loc.  cit.  277.  Parcsnath  Hill,  cast  of 
Hazaribagh^  Bihar,  India.  (Status  j^(/t'  Lindsay,  1929,  340.) 

1879.   Crocidura  andenoui  Troucssart,  Rev.  Zool.  Paris,  253.  Khasi  Hills,  Assam. 

(?)  1881.  Sorcx  heddomd  Anderson,  Cat.  Mamm.  Ind.  Mus.  179.  Kollegal  Hills, 
Coimbatore  district,  Southern  India. 

(?)  191',.  Crocidura  imnchata  Hatori,  Taiwan  Igakukai  Zasshi,  Ja]i.  Number.  (N.V.) 

Range:  Lindsay  quoted  cacriileus  from  Gwalior,  Central  Provinces,  Ximar,  Bihar  and 
Orissa.  India,  and  Ceylon;  according  to  Chascn,  Lindsay's  caeruleui  =  murinus, 
which  he  quotes  from  Malay  Peninsula,  Anambas,  Sumatra,  Java,  Bali,  Borneo. 
G.  Allen  quotes  it  from  the  larger  towns  of  Southern  C:hina,  coastwise  as  far  north 
as  Fukien;  Formosa,  Hainan.  Osgood  recorded  Suncus  caerulcus  from  Annam,  Indo- 
Clhina.  Kuroda  quotes  the  form  ncinhoei  from  Formosa. 

SUXCUS    MURINUS    C:.\ERULESCE.NS    SliaW,    1 80O 

1706.   Sorcx  piloridrs   Shaw,    Mus.    Lever,    i\-    31.    .\(jt    of   Pallas,     1779,    which    is 

1800.   Sorcx  caeriilcsccin  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  Mamm.  /.•  533.  India  (?  Bengal). 
1831.   Sorcx  ,!;i,!iantcus  Geoffroy,  Voy.  Belanger  Indes  Orient.  Zcjol.  117.  Bengal. 
Range:  Darbhanga  district,  east  of  Nepal,  and  Midnapore  district,  India. 

Suncus  murinus  sacer  Ehrenbcrg,  1833 

1833.  Suncus  sacer  Ehrenbcrg,  in  Hemprich  &  Ehrenbcrg,  Svmb.  Ph\s.  Manun.  2: 

folio  k.   Suez,  Egypt. 

1834.  Sorex   crassicaudus    Hemprich    &    Ehrenbcrg,    in    Liditciistcin's    Darstellung 

Saugcth,  pi.  40,  tig.  I,  and  text  thereto.  Neighbourhood  of  Suez,  Egypt. 
1 808.  Pachyura  diiirrnnyt  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien.   1:56.  Egypt. 
(?)  1935.   Suncus  tri\lrami  B(jdenhcimer,  Animal  File  in  Pal<-stine,  9-,.  Palestine. 

Su.NCUs  .murinus  socc.mus  Hodgson,  1845 

1845.   Sorcx  soccatus  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ij:  270.  Central  region  of  Nepal. 
1855.   Sorex  heterodon  Blyth,  j.  A^iat.  Soc.  Bengal,  24:  31.  Clhcrrapunji,  in  Khasi  HiUs, 

SuNCUS  MURINUS  MONTANUs  Kclaart,  i8-,o 

1850.   Sorex  montamis  Kclaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Soc.  2:  211.  Pidurutal.igala,  .\It. 

Nuw.ira  I'.liya,  Ceylon. 
1852.   Sorex  finiii^iueus  Kcla.irt,  J.  Cleylon  Br.  .'\siat.  Soc.  _■.•  212.  Dinibula,  Nuwara 

Eliya,  Ceylon. 
(?)  1855.   Sorex  kelaarli  lUvth.  J.  .'\siat.  Soc.  Bengal,  .■./;  :;2.  (uillc,  C:c\lon.  Based  on 

a  young  spc(  iincn  ol  iimnlanus  according  to  I'hiilips  ( 1935,  Mamm.  C.eylon). 



SuNCUS  MURINUS  GRiFFiTHi  Horsfield,  1 85 1 

1 85 1.  Sorex  griffithi  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  E.  India  Co.  134.  The  label  of  the 
type  has  "Afghanistan",  but  this  has  been  crossed  out  and  "Silket"  substi- 
tuted. See  Lindsay  (1929)  on  the  suggestion  that  the  type  came  from  Assam. 

1877.  Crocidura  (Pachyura)  blythii  AnAtnon,  ].  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^6,  2:  264.  Assam. 

SuNCUS  MURINUS  NIGER  Horsfield,  1 85 1 

1 85 1.  Sorex  niger  Horsfield,  Gat.  Mamm.  Mus.  E.  India  Co.   135.  Madras,  India. 

(Elliot  in  MS.) 

SuNcus  MURINUS  KANDiANUs  Kelaart,  1852 

1852.  Sorex  kandianus  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeyl.  30.  Ceylon. 

1870.  Crocidura  {Pachyura)  ceylanica  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  \Viss.  591.  Paradenia, 

SuNCUS    MURINUS    SATURATIOR    HodgSOn,    1 855 

1855.  Sorex  saturatior  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i6:  i  lo.  Gangtok,  Sikkim. 

SuNCUS   MURINUS    VIRIDESCENS    Blyth,    1 859 

1859.  Sorex  viridescens  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  28:  285.  Southern  Malabar, 
India.  Range:  Madura  and  Trivandrum,  Southern  India. 

SuNCUS    MURINUS    TYTLERI    Blyth,    1859 

1859.  Sorex  lytleri 'Qlyth,].  Aiiiit.  Soc.  Bengal,  28:  285.  Dehra  Dun,  Northern  India. 
Range:  Kumaon,  Punjab,  Kashmir. 

SuNCUS  MURINUS  FULVOciNEREUs  Audcrson,  1877 

1877.  Crocidura  {Pachyura)  fulvocinerea  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^G:  263. 
Gauhati,  Assam.  Range:  North  Kamrup  and  Valley  of  Assam. 

SuNcus  MURINUS  siNDENSis  Andcrsou,  1877 

1877.  Crocidura  {Pachyura)  sindetuis  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^6:  266.  Karachi, 
Sind,  India.  Range  includes  Kathiawar,  Rajputana  and  Cutch,  India. 

SuNCUS  MURINUS  BLANFORDi  Andcrson,  1877 

1877.  Crocidura  {Pachyura)  blanfordii  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46:  269. 
Khandalla,  Western  Ghats,  2,000  ft.,  India.  Range  includes  Deccan  area. 

SuNCus  MURINUS  RiuKiuANA  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Pachyura  caerulea  riukiuana  Kuroda,   On  New  Mamm.  from  Riukiu   Islands, 

Tokyo,  3.  Kinmu  Kunchan,  Okinawa,  200  ft.,  Liukiu  Islands.  Introduced 

Kiushiu,  Japan. 

SuNcus  MURINUS  ZEYLANicus  Phillips,  1928 

1928.  Suncus  zeylanicus  Phillips,  Spolia  Zeylan,  i^:  313.  Gonagamma  Estate.  Kitul- 
gala,  900  ft.,  Ceylon. 


PALAEARCrriC;  and   INDIAN  MAMMALS   1758-1946 
SUNCUS    MURINl'S    MALABARICl'S    Lindsay,     1 929 

I9_'().  Suiicus  nii^ir  malabaricus  Lindsay,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  55;  334.  No.  -2437  from 
\'irajpct,  .South  Coore;,  India,  the  only  specimen  to  be  mentioned  by 
number,  is  assumed  to  be  the  holotype.  Ranj^e:  Coora;  and  Cochin,  Southern 

Suncus  etruscus  Savi,  1822  Savi's  Pygmy  Shrew 

Apprdximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Europe  (Italy,  Sicily,  Sardinia, 
France,  Spain,  Greece,  Hungary,  etc.).  Caucasus  and  Southern  Russian  Turkestan; 
Persia  and  P.ilestine  iB.M.);  recorded  also  from  Algeria  and  Northern  Nigeria  (and 
quoted  bv  Boisrinskii  from  Arabia  and  Iraq;.  As  here  understood,  also  Ceylon,  India,  north  to  Punjab,  and  Orissa,  .Sikkim,  Assam  and  Tenasscrim.  A 
closelv  .lUicd  f)rm  (or  representative)  occurs  in  the  Malay  States,  and  perhaps  the 
species  is  represented  also  in  East  and  South  Africa. 

.Sf.NC:US    ETRUSCl'S    ETRUSCUS    Savi,    1 822 

1822.   Sorex  etruscus  Savi,  Nuovo  Giorn.  de  Lettcrati,  Pisa,  /;  60.  Pisa,  It.ily. 

183J.   Sorcx  pachvurui  Kiister,  Isis  (Oken),  77.  Cagliari,  Sardini.i. 

i8j7.   Crocidura  siiaveolens  Blasius,  Saugeth.  Deutschlands,   147.  Not  of  Pallas,   181 1. 

Range:  European  range  of  the  species;  Persia,  Turkestan,  Ptdestine;  Algeria  and 
Nigeria  ^sce  Morrison-Scott,  1948,  Mammalia,  10:  145). 

.SUXCUS    ETRUSCUS  PERROTTETI    DuVCrnoy,    1 842 

1842.   Sorcx  jhirultcli    Du\ern(iy,    Mag.    Zool.    Paris,    29.    Nilgiri    Hills,    Southern 

(?)  1855.   Sorcx  hudgsoni  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.,  i'_/.-  34.  Darjeeling. 
1877.   Crocidura   (Pachvura)   nilagirica  Anderson,   J.   Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,   ^fi,   2:   274. 

Ootacamund,  Nilgiri  Hills,  S(juthern  India. 
1877.   C.'rociduii!     I'achvura)   travancorcnsis  .Anderson,  loc.  cit.   275.  Tra\ancore,   India. 

Range:  Nilgiri  Hills,  Coori;,  BcUary,  etc.,  in  Scjuthrrn  India. 

SU.NCUS    ETRUSCUS    MICRO.NYX    Blyth,    1 855 

1855.  .So;<-v  inicro/ivx  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  j?./.-  33.  Landour,  in  Dehra  Dun 
district,  L'nited  ProN'inces,  Northern  India.  Range:  Kumaon  and  probably 
Kangra,  I' 

SuNCUS    ETRUSCi:S    MDIPES    P)lyth,    l8-,5 

18-,-,.   .V()/,A  iiudi/ici  Blyth,  J.  .\siat.  Soc.  Bengal,  _•./.■  34.  .Amherst,  Tenasserim. 
?,   18-,-,.   Siiiix  iitralus  Blyth,  J.  .Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  i'^.-  34.  Cherr.ipunji,  Khasi  Hills, 

?)   187",.   I'acliviira  a^\iitncii\i\  Anderson,  I'.Z.S.  2';4.  CJo.iljj.iroli,  on  Br.dimaputra. 
;?i   1877.   (Jocidurn     I'achxuKi]   macruli\  .Anderson,   |.  Soc.  Benf,'al,  ^0,  2:  271. 

Ran^e  includes  |aiiiti.L  Hills,  .Assam  and  Shan  States,  Buinui. 



SuNCUS  ETRUscus  NiTiDOFULVus  Andefson,  1877 

1877.   Crocidura  [Pachvura]  mtidofulva  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46:  272.  Lower 

Bengal,  India. 
1855.   Sorex  nu'lanodon  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  24:  33.  Not  of  \Vagler,    1832. 
Range:  Chaibassa,  Orissa,  India. 


1877.   Crocidura   {Pachyura)  pygtnaeoides  Anderson,  J.   Asiat.    Soc.   Bengal,    46:   279. 

1845.  Sorex prgmaeiis  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i§:  269.  Not  of  Laxmann,  1769. 
1867.   Sorex  hodgsoni  ^erdon,  Mamm.  57.  Not  of  Blyth,  1855,  which  is  a  synonym  of 

perrolteti  according  to  Lindsay,  1929. 
Range:  Darjeeling  district,  North-Eastern  India. 

SuNCUS    ETRUSCUS    FELLOWESGORDONI    Phillips,    1 932 

1932.   Suncus  fellowes-gordoni  Philhps,  Spolia  Zeylan,  ly:  124.  \Vest  Haputale,  Ohiya, 
Central  Province,  Ceylon. 

Suncus  stoliczkanus  Anderson,  1877  Anderson's  Shrew 

Appro-ximate  distribution  of  species:  India — Bombay,  Central  Provinces,  Gwalior 
district,  Rajputana,  Kathiawar,  Sind  and  Punjab. 

Suncus  stoliczkanus  stoliczkanus  Anderson,  1877 

1877.  Crocidura    (Pachyura)   stoliczkana  Anderson,  J.   Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,    46:    270. 

Bombay,  India. 
1877.   Crocidura  [Pachyura)  bidiana  Anderson,  loc.  cit.  276.  Madras,  India. 
Range  includes  Gwalior,  Salsette  Island,  Nimar  and  Hoshangabad,  India. 

Suncus  stoliczkanus  subfulvus  Anderson,  1877 

1877.   Crocidura  (Pachyura)  subfulra  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46:  278.  Cutch, 
India.  Range  includes  Kathiawar  and  Sind. 

Suncus  stoliczkanus  leucogenys  Dobson,  1888 

1888.  Crocidura  leucogenys  Dobson,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   /.•  428.  Ajmere   (Rajputana 
district),  India. 

Suncus  dayi  Dobson,  1888  Day's  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Peninsular  India. 

Suncus  dayi  Dobson,  1888 

1888.  Crocidura  dayi  Dobson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  428.  Trichur,  Cochin,  India.  (See 

Blanford,   1891,  Fauna  Brit.   India,   Mamm.  602.)   Range  includes   Palni 

Hills,  Southern  India. 


i';tr;  and  Indian  mammals  1738-1946 

Genus  CROCIDURA  \Vaglcr,  1832 

i8;j.  Crocidura  Waglcr,  Isis,  275.  (March,  1832.)  Sonx  leucodon  Hermann. 

i8t)q.  Leucodon  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.•  132.  Sulsstitute  for  Crocidura. 

i8()7.  Paurodus  Schulze,  Helios,  Berlin,  14:  90.  Sorcx  arancus  Schreber  (not  of  Lin- 
naeus) =  Sorcx  russulus  Hermann,  and  Sorex  leucodon  Hermann  . 

1910.  Hcliosorex  Heller,  Smith's  Misc.  Coll.  jff,  15:  (3.  Heliosorex  rooseieUi  Heller,  from 
East  .\frica^ 

Of  all  genera  in  the  class  Mammalia,  Crocidura  must  have  been  the  largest  collector 
of  specific  names.  G.  Allen  has  listed  about  no  supposed  species  from  Africa  alone; 
we  had  on  our  preliminary  lists  44  forms  described  binominally  from  the  Palaearctic 
and  Indian  region;  Chascn  lists  29  more  from  the  Malaysian  region,  and  there  are  at 
least  another  15  named  from  Celebes,  the  Philippines,  Timor,  etc. 

We  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  there  are  about  14  valid  species  in  the  region 
at  present  under  discussion.  It  may  be  noted  that  Miller  (1912)  recognized  three 
species  occurring  together  in  much  of  Western  Europe  [russula,  leucodon  and  mimula  = 
iuaveolens),  and  a  fourth  group  of  species,  for  which  the  prior  name  is  caudata,  from  the 
.Mediterranean  islands.  Bobrinskii  (1944)  recognizes  four  species  from  the  U.S.S.R. 
leucodon,  russula,  suaveolens  and  lasiura).  G.  Allen  (1938)  retained  five  species  in  China. 
His  ilcnsis  is  the  same  as  suaveolens;  his  two  large  species  attenuata  and  dracula  seem 
valid,  although  it  is  possible  that  dracula  is  not  the  prior  name  for  the  second  large 
species,  and  his  other  two  forms  seem  to  be  outlying  races  of  russula. 

14  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Crocidura  attenuata,  page  83 
Crocidura  caudata,  page  82 
Crocidura  dracula,  page  84 
Crocidura  JJoweri,  page  75 
Crocidura  hispida,  page  75 
Crocidura  Iwrsfeldi,  page  75 
Crocidura  lasiura,  page  84 
Crocidura  leucodon,  page  82 
Crocidura  miya,  page  75 
Crocidura  olivieri,  page  85 
Crocidura  pergrisea,  page  83 
Crocidura  religiosa,  page  75 
Crocidura  russula,  page     78 
Crocidura  suaveolens,  page  76 

Three  species  in  the  abo\e  list  of  names  have  the  tail  longer  than  the  head  and 
bi)dv.  This  is  a  rare  character  in  this  genus.  C.  his/nda,  i'rom  the  Andaman  Islands,  is 
a  very  large  species  (skull  length  about  27.7  mm.)  kn(jwn  by  one  specimen,  which  has 
the  tail  about  120  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body.  The  elongated  bristles  on  the  tail 
which  are  characteristic  of  this  genus  and  oi'  Surum,  but  which  are  not  invariably 
present  in  Crocidura,  arc  well  developed.  C.  miya  is  a  smaller  species  from  Ceylon 
(skull  length  rciuglily  20  mm.!,  with  the  t.iil  aliout  i  i  i  per  vcul.  of  the  head  and  body. 


The  caudal  bristles  are  very  reduced,  but  a  few  are  traceable.  C.floweri,  from  Egypt, 
is  the  third  long-tailed  species  in  the  present  region.  The  tail  bristles  seem  absent  in 
the  specimens  examined.  Mr.  R.  \V.  Hayman  has  remeasured  the  series  on  which  the 
species  was  based,  all  of  which  are  in  spirit,  and  has  obtained  the  following  results: 

Head  and 






















(Type)    54 




The  condylobasal  length  varies  between  17.8  and  19.2  mm.,  and  the  tail  averages 
log  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body. 

All  other  species  here  dealt  with  have  the  tail  shorter  than  the  head  and  body.  The 
only  specimens  examined  in  which  it  approaches  this  length  are  six  skins  labelled  C 
attcnuata,  from  Upper  Burma,  which  give  an  average  of  98  per  cent. 

There  are  three  very  small  short-tailed  species  in  the  present  region,  in  which  the 
condylobasal  length  of  the  skull  is  not  known  to  reach  18  mm.  C.  religiosa  is  an 
extremely  small  species  from  Egypt,  in  which  the  hindfoot  is  normally  less  than 
10  mm.,  the  head  and  body  length  45-55  mm.,  the  tail  relatively  long  (over  70  per 
cent,  of  the  head  and  body),  and  the  condylobasal  about  15. 9-16. i  mm.  (B.M.  speci- 
mens). In  the  Indomalayan  region  is  a  species  which  differs  from  religiosa  by  slightly 
larger  average  size  (hindfoot  not  below  10  mm.,  head  and  body  most  often  more  than 
55  mm.).  The  caudal  bristles  in  the  specimens  examined  are  traceable,  though  weak. 
The  tail  is  long,  more  than  70  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body.  Shrews  of  this  type 
have  been  examined  from  Ceylon  ihorsfieldi),  Indo-China  {indochinensis)  and  Liukiu 
Islands  [watasei).  No  characters  which  will  distinguish  these  three  forms  specifically 
have  been  discovered,  and  horsfieldi  is  the  prior  name.  According  to  its  description, 
the  form  tadae  appears  to  belong  here.  In  this  form  the  head  and  body  can  be  as 
small  as  50  mm.  but  the  foot  is  at  least  iii  mm.,  thereby  differing  from  religiosa. 
Sixty-one  millimetres  is  the  highest  measurement  which  has  been  noted  for  head  and 
body  length  of  horsfieldi  and  allies,  and  the  tail  can  exceed  80  per  cent,  of  the  head 
and  body. 

The  widely  distributed  northern  species,  C.  suaveolens,  differs  from  horsfieldi  and 
religiosa  by  its  shorter  tail,  which  is  normally  under  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body. 
The  body  length  is  approximately  55-75  mm.,  the  tail  percentage  43-63  per  cent,  in 
Europe,  up  to  67  per  cent,  in  China.  The  only  species  from  the  British  Islands 
{cassiteridum  from  the  Scilly  Isles)  belongs  here,  and  it  is  probable  from  descriptions 
that  lignicolor  may  be  a  race  (its  skull  is  not  fully  known).  C.  suaveolens  is  represented 
in  Palestine  by  portali  and  in  North-West  Africa  by  whitakeri.  Two  forms  named 
recently  by  Goodwin  from  Persia  may  also  be  representati\'es  of  this  species.  In  the 
remainder  of  the  species,  long  series  show  condylobasal  lengths  of  not  under  18  mm. 
(with  one  individual  exception).  C.  olivieri  from  Egypt  stands  apart  from  all  the  other 
short-tailed  species  in  its  unusually  large  size  (condylobasal  length  26.9-28.5  mm., 
B.M.    material).    This   species   looks   like    Simcus   murinus,    but   has   the   dentition 


PALAF.ARCrnC;  and   INDIAN  MAMMALS   i7r,H-,946 

characteristic  of  Crociduia.  It  has  shurt  fur,  the  body  length  is  93-110  mm.,  the  tail 
iwhich  averages  below  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body)  is  63-70  mm.  The  Crocidura 
olivieii  group  (giant  species)  is  common  virtually  throughout  Africa,  but  absent  in 
.\sia.  The  remainder  have  the  condylobasal  length  normally  between  18  and 
■2'-,  mm. 

There  seem  to  be  about  seven  species  definable  in  the  russida  group,  medium-sized 
species  with  the  tail  shorter  than  the  head  and  body,  but  the  differences  are  average 
rather  than  absolute.  C.  russtila  and  C.  leiicodon  arc  the  earliest-named  forms  of  this 
genus,  both  date  from  1 780,  and  lussiila  has  line  priority.  These  two  species  occur 
together,  and  dificr  from  each  other  in  some  colour  details  (see  Miller,  191 2).  In 
these  species  as  here  defined,  the  condylobasal  length  of  the  skull  rarely  reaches 
20  mm.  For  instance,  in  Miller's  measurements,  only  two  specimens  oi leucodon  out  of 
33  noted  are  as  much  as  20  mm.,  and  in  nnsula  12  out  of  about  79  specimens  reach 
20  mm.  In  the  Turkish  C.  r.  monacha,  one  in  six  reaches  20  mm.  (B.M.).  Two  little- 
known  forms  which  were  named  as  races  of  riivsi/la,  C.  r.  easpica  from  Persia  and 
C.  r.  judaica  from  Palestine  have  the  condylobasal  length  2 1  mm.  in  the  type  skulls, 
and  very  likely  represent  C.  lasiura,  but  before  transferring  them  to  that  species  more 
specimens  will  be  needed.  Bobrinskii  has  transferred  the  form  C.  leiicodon  lasia  to 
C.  lasiura  as  a  subspecies,  and  this  seems  necessary,  as  12  duplicates  for  lasia  have  the 
condvlobasal  length  20-23  mm.,  which  is  the  normal  size  for  lasiura.  Miller's  measure- 
ments for  C.  leucodon  have  the  head  and  body  63-87  mm.,  the  tail  averaging  about 
30-54  per  cent,  of  it;  and  for  russula  head  and  body  64-95  mm.,  tail  averaging 
,3_[j8  per  cent,  of  it.  There  are  other  races  in  which  the  tail  averages  over  60  per  cent, 
of  head  and  body.  These  include  C.  russula  cypria  from  Cyprus  and  C.  r.  caneae  from 
Crete;  also  C.  dsine-umi  and  allied  forms  from  Japan,  to  which  the  forms  vorax  and 
rapax,  described  by  G.  Allen,  from  Yunnan,  bear  a  close  resemblance.  As  no 
characters  have  been  found  to  separate  the  Mediterranean  island  forms  cypria  and 
caneae  from  the  Japanese  dsinezumi,  the  conclusion  has  been  reached  that  it  is  wiser  to 
call  all  these  forms  further  outlying  races  oSI  russula.  The  condylobasal  length  of  10 
specimens  oi: dsinerumi  in  thi-  H.M.  varies  between  18  and  19.4  mm.,  about  the  same 
size  as  published  measurements  fir  caneae  and  cypria.  Outlying  forms,  whii  h 
apparently  represent  C.  russula,  are  puUala  from  Kashmir  and  possibly  sodyi  from 


None  of  the  firms  just  listed  ha\e  the  tail  as  much  as  70  per  cent,  ol'the  head  and 
bodv,  which  is  characteristic  of  two  species  here  retained,  C.  caudata  [Mediterranean 
islands),  and  C.  pernrisea  (Kashmir  and  Baluchistan)  (we  have  not  seen  fiergrisea,  but 
from  descriptions  it  is  very  like  the  Baluchistan  firm,  -arudnyi,  which  it  antedates). 
These  species  have  the  condyfibasal  length  of  the  skull  approximately  18-19.4  "ini. 
18-18.8  mm.  in  forms  represented  in  London).  The  tail  averages  about  70-82  per 
cent.,  usually  more  than  70  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body.  A  few  specimens  repre- 
senting caudata  subspecies  and  zaruduyi  in  the  B.M.  indicate  that  the  two  species  can 
be  maintained  on  colour:  zarudnyi  is  conspicuously  paler  both  below  and  above;  and 
pergrisea  was  described  as  very  pale  grey,  below  creamy  white.  The  remaining  forms 
in  Asia  are  rather  larger  than  russula,  leucodon,  caudata  and  pergrisca,  although  the 
difrercncc  is  an  average  one,  the  condylobasal  length  of  the  skull  averaging  at  least 



20  mm.  in  each  of  the  races.  C.  lasiura,  from  Manchuria,  Ussuri,  Asia  Minor  and  the 
Caucasus,  is  a  short-tailed  species,  with  the  tail  fairly  well  haired;  the  condylobasal 
length  in  24  specimens  [lasiura,  lasia)  varies  between  20  mm.  and  22.6  mm.,  and  the 
tail  is  relatively  short,  roughly  42-51  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body  length.  In  the 
form  vamashinai  (not  represented  in  London,  but  here  tentatively  regarded  as  a  race), 
the  skull  length  is  23.5-25  mm.,  but  smaller  specimens  seem  covered  by  larger  speci- 
mens oi  lasiura.  (Kuroda  gives  measurements  of  21-24  mm.  for  lasiura^)  The  body 
length  is  73-98  mm.  in  more  typical  forms,  but  can  be  as  much  as  1 12  mm.  in  larger 
specimens  of  vamashinai.  Two  species,  which  are  mostly  Indomalayan  in  distribution, 
have  the  large  skull  o{ lasiura  but  differ  in  having  the  tail  at  least  60  per  cent.,  usually 
over  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body.  (Allen's  measurements  for  attenuata  have  the  tail 
averaging  about  64  per  cent.,  but  most  of  our  specimens  are  over  70  per  cent.)  Two 
named  races  of  dracula  have  the  tail  60  per  cent,  in  the  types,  but  it  is  more  usual  for 
the  tail  to  exceed  or  approximate  80  per  cent,  in  this  species.  The  two  species  occur 
together,  and  the  prior  names  seem  to  be  attenuata  and  dracula.  The  Himalayan  forms, 
rubricosa  and  kingiana,  seem  to  represent  attenuata.  Twelve  skulls  of  attenuata  (B.M.) 
have  the  condylobasal  length  ig. 8-22.1  mm.,  but  only  once  under  20  mm.  All  G. 
Allen's  specimens  exceed  20  mm.  Twelve  specimens  in  the  B.M.  representing 
rubricosa  and  kingiana  have  the  condylobasal  length  19.3-23.9  mm.,  but  only  once 
over  22  mm.  and  twice  under  20  mm.  From  descriptions,  the  Formosan  form  tanakae 
should  represent  attenuata. 

The  second  large  species  in  Southern  China  and  Northern  Burma  is  C.  dracula, 
unless  this  represents  one  of  the  numerous  earlier-named  forms  from  the  Malaysian 
region.  Where  it  occurs  with  attenuata  it  is  larger  on  average.  The  type  of  the  race 
grisescens  has  the  greatest  length  of  skull  only  2 1 .6  mm.  and  possibly  does  not  represent 
the  species;  otherwise  no  specimen  with  the  skull  length  less  than  22  mm.  has  been 
noted.  The  body  length  is  about  84-105  mm.,  and  the  largest  skulls  are  about 
24.3  mm.  in  length.  All  species  dealt  with  above  have  the  caudal  bristle  hairs  at  least 
perceptible,  except  apparently  floweri.  Of  the  specimens  seen,  they  were  noted  as 
being  most  reduced  in  rubricosa,  horsfieldi  and  miya. 

These  results,  which  must  be  regarded  as  provisional,  can  be  arranged  in  kev  form, 
as  follows; 

1.  Tail  clearly  exceeds  length  of  head  and  body.  2 

Tail  shorter  than  head  and  body.  4 

2.  Length  of  skull  27.7  mm.  Tail  more  than  120  per  cent,  of  head  and  body. 

(Type  in  B.M.)  CROCIDURA  HISP'iDA 

Length  of  skull  about  20.5  mm,  and  less.  Tail  109-1 1 1  per  cent,  of  head  and 

body.  3 

3.  Bristles  on  tail  barely  perceptible.  Length  of  skull  about  17. 8-19. 2  mm.  Head 

and  body  54  mm.,' and  less.  (Type  in  B.\L)  CROCIDURA  FLO]\'ERI 

Bristles  on  tail  perceptible.  Skull  length  approximately  20.5  mm.  Head  and  bodv 
79  mm.  (type  specimen,  B.M.)  CROCIDURA  MIl'A   ' 


pai.aearc;tic  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 

4.  Small;  condylobasal  length  of  skull  less  than  18  mm.  5 

Larger;  condylobasal  length  of  skull  normally  at  least  i8  nnn.  7 

5.  Tail  shorter,  averaging  less  than  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body. 

Forms    examined:     whilaken,    mtmiila,    ilensis,    coreac  --  s/iariluiigensis,    portali, 
Tail  longer,  averaging  over  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body.  6 

6.  Hindl'oot  normally  8?,-9  mm.  (Egypt). 

CROCIDL'RA  RELIGIOSA  (Several  specimens  a\ailable  for  examination) 
Hindfoot  10  mm.,  and  more  (Indomalayan).        CROCIDURA  HORSEIEI.DI 
Forms  examined:  hnisficldi,  indochinensis,  ivatasei. 

-.  Verv  large  species,  condylobasal  length  26.9-28.5  mm.  (Fur  short;  appearance 
reminiscent  of  a  house-dwelling  form.) 

CROCIDURA   OLIVIERI  (Several  specimens  available  for  examination) 
Smaller  species;  length  of  skull  not  known  to  exceed  25  mm.  8 

8.    In  the  majoritv  of  specimens,  the  skull  is  less  than  20  mm.  in  length.     9 

In  the  majority  of  specimens,  the  skull  is  at  least  20  mm.  in  length.     12 

C).   Tail  long,  averages  at  least  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body  length.         10 

Tail  shorter,  a\erages  less  than  70  per  cent,  of  head  and  body  length.    1 1 

10.  Colour  paler  abo\e  and  below. 

CROCIDURA  PERGRISEA  'Kashmir,  Baluchistan) 
Form  examined :  znrudnyi. 
Colour  darker  above  and  below. 

CROCIDURA  CAUDATA   (Western  Mediterranean) 
Forms  examined:  halearica,  cyrnensis. 

11.  Di\ision   of  colour  between   light   underparts   and   flark   back   gencrallv   more 


Forms  examined :  leiicodoii,  siciila,  pcrsica. 
Division   of  colour   between   underparts   and    back   usually   less   abrupt.    (The 
differences  between  these  two  species,   which  occur  together,  arc  not  very 
strongly  marked.)  CROCIDURA  RUSSULA 

Forms  examined:  nisuilii,  duneziimi,  iimbnna,  crpria^  monacha,  c/iisai,  caspica, 
ciiilrae,  piilchra,  cancae,  judaica,  pi'ln,  \ndyi.  The  forms  jiidaica  and  ca\pica  seem 
based  iin  one  specimen  each  with  a  skull  too  lart;e  for  riisMihi,  and  further 
material  m.iy  slmw  them  to  be  representatives  of  C  lasiiira. 

12.  Tail  relati\elv  short,  approximatinij;  half  head  and  bodv  length,  nv  less. 

Forms  examined:  lasiiira,  la.\ia,  thoman. 
Tail  long,  rarely  as  low  as  60  per  cent.,  iiKJstly  exceeding  70  per  cent,  of  head 
and  body.  13 



13.   In  the  majority  of  specimens  the  length  of  the  skull  is  less  than  22  mm. 

Forms  examined :  attenuata,  ruhricosa,  kingiana. 
In  the  majority  of  specimens  the  length  of  the  skull  is  22  mm.,  and  more. 

Forms  examined:  dracida,  praedax  =  dracula. 

Crocidura  hispida  group.     (Very  long-tailed  species.) 

Crocidura  hispida  Thomas,  191 3  Andaman  Island  Spiny  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Middle  Andaman  Island,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Crocidura  hispida  Thomas,  1913 

1913.  Crocidura  hispida  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  468.  Northern  end  Middle 
Andaman  Island,  Andaman  Islands. 

Crocidura  floweri  Dollman,  191 5  Flower's  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt. 

Crocidura  floweri  Dollman,  19 15 

1915.  Crocidura  floweri  Dollman,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i^:  515.  Gizeh,  Egypt.  See  also 
1916,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  192. 

Crocidura  miya  Phillips,  1929  Ceylon  Long-tailed  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon. 

Crocidura  miya  Phillips,  1929 

1929.  Crocidura  miya  Phillips,  Spolia  Zeylan.   i^:    113.   Moolgama,  village  in  the 
Nilambe  district  of  Kandyan  Hills,  about  3,000  ft.,  Ceylon. 

Crocidura  suaveolcns  group.     (Pygmy  species.) 

Crocidura  religiosa  GeofTroy,  1827  Egyptian  Pygmy  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt.  Probably  also  represented  iit  Somali- 
land,  Uganda,  Sudan,  under  the  names  nana,  nanilla,  pasha. 

Crocidura  religiosa  Geoffroy,  1827 

1827.  Sorex  religiosus  I.  Geoffroy,  Mem.  Mus.  H.X.  Paris,  /j.-  128.  Types  mummified, 
Thebes,  Egypt. 

Crocidura  horsfieldi  Tomes,  1856  Horsfield's  Shrew 

Approximate   distribution   of  species:    Ceylon,   also   apparently   represented   in 
Kashmir,  Indo-China,  Siam  (Tate),  Northern  Burma  and  Liukiu  Islands. 


Crocidura  horsfieldi  horsfieldi  Tomes,  1856 

1856.   Sorex  /wrsfieldii  Tomes,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  23.  Ceylon. 

1870.   Crocidura  retiisa  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  585.  Paradenia,  Ceylon. 

Crocidur.-\  (.')  HORSFIELDI  .MvoiDEs  Blanford,  1875 

1875.  Sorex  [Crocidura)  myoides  Blanford,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ./^,  2:  106.  Leh, 
Ladak.  From  descriptions  seems  nearest  to  horsfieldi. 

Crocidura  horsfieldi  indochinensis  Robinson  &   Kloss,  1922 

1922.   Crocidura  indochinensu  Robinson  &  Kloss,  /Xnn.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  88.  Dalat,  Lang- 

bian   Plateau,  5,000  ft.,  Annam,   Indo-China.  Range  includes  Northern 

Burma;  and  Siam,  according  to  Tate. 

Crocidur,.\  horsfieldi  watasei  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Crocidura  ivatasei  Kuroda,  New  Mamm.  from  Riukiu  Islands,  Tokyo,  i.  Komi, 
Amamioshima,  Liukiu  Islands. 

Crocidura  horsfieldi  tadae  Tokuda  &   Kano,  1936 

1936.  Crocidura  tadae  Tokuda  &  Kano,  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.  i§:  429.  Koto-sho  = 
Island  of  Botel  Tobago  (east  of  Formosa). 

Crocidura  suaveolens   Pallas,  181 1  Lesser  White-toothed  Shrew 

Appniximatc  distribution  of  species:  Germany,  southwards  to  Yugoslavia,  Bul- 
garia and  Greece;  France,  Switzerland,  south  to  Italy  and  Sardinia;  Spain; 
represented  in  the  Scilly  Islands;  Central  and  Southern  Russia  (north  to  southern 
districts  of  Moscow  Province),  Estonia;  Russian  Turkestan,  and  Ussuri  district  of 
Eastern  Siberia;  Sinkiang,  Mongolia,  Korea,  most  of  the  larger  states  of  China  from 
Shantung  and  Chckiang,  westwards  to  Szechuan;  Persia,  Palestine;  Morocco  and 
Algeria.  Probably  also  ranges  in  East  and  South-West  Africa  under  the  name  hicolor. 

Crocidur.'\  suaveolens  suaveolens  Pallas,  181 1 

181 1.  Sorex  suaveolens  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  /.•  133,  pi.  9,  fig.  2.  Khersones,  Crimea, 

Southern  Russia. 
(.'')  1934.   Crocidura  suaveolens  mordeni  Goodwin,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  742:   i.  Tuz 

Rulak,  50  miles  north  of  Kizil  Orda  (Perovsk),  Kazakstan,  600  ft.,  Russian 

C'entral  Asia. 
Range:  Lowlands  of  Russia  and  Russian  Central  Asia. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  whitakeri  de  \Vinton,  1898 

1898.  Crociduia  whitakeri  de  Winton,  P.Z.S.  i8gy:  954.  Sierzet,  half-way  between 
Morocco  City  and  Mogador,  Morocco. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  lignicolor  Miller,  1900 

1900.  Crocidura  lignicolor  Miller,  Proc.  Washington  Acad.  Sci.  2:  39.  Jungle  east  of 
Maralbashi,  near  Yarkand  River,  Chinese  Turkestan.  The  skull  of  this  form 
seems  not  fully  known,  but  the  external  measurements  suggest  a  small  form 
of  the  present  species. 



Crocidura  suaveolens  mimula  Miller,  1901 

1 90 1.  Crocidura  mimula  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  14:  95.  June,  1901. 
Ziiberwangen,  St.  Gallen,  Switzerland. 

(?)  1839.  Crocidura  aranea  var.  minor  de  Selys  Longchamps,  Etudes  de  Micromamm. 
35.  Silesia. 

1901.  Crocidura  antipae  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  228.  November,  1901. 
Siulnita  and  Barza,  Rumania. 

igo2.  Crocidura  minuta  Lydekker,  Zool.  Record,  igoi,  Mamm. :  27.  Accidental  re- 
naming of  mimula. 

1 92 1.  Crocidura  dinnicki  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  340.  Stavropol. 
Northern  Caucasus.  (Status ^rf^  Bobrinskii.) 

Range :  France,  Germany,  Bohemia,  Transylvania,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania,  Bulgaria, 
Switzerland,  Italy,  Greece,  Caucasus. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  ilensis  Miller,  1901 

1901.  Crocidura  ilensis  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  14:  157.  Kukturuk,  Hi, 

5,400   ft.,    extreme    W'estern    Chinese    Turkestan.    Ranges   to   Mongolia. 

Bobrinskii  thinks  this  is  probably  a  synonym  oi  suaveolens. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  shantungensis  Miller,  1901 

1 90 1.  Crocidura  shantungensis  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  i.}:  158.  Chimeh, 
Shantung,  China. 

1907.  Crocidura  coreae  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo6:  860.  Mingyong,  no  miles  south-east  of 

Seoul,  Korea. 
1927.  Crocidura  longicauda  Mori,  J.  Chosen  N.H.  Soc.  5.'  28.  Seoul,  Korea. 
Range:  Korea,  Shansi,  Shensi,  Shantung,  Chekiang,  in  China;  Tsushima  I. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  iculisma  Mottaz,  1908 

1908.  Crocidura  mimula  iculisma  Mottaz,  Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  Geneve,  /.•  119.  Lignieres- 

Sonneville,  Charente,  France. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  cantabra  Cabrera,  1908 

1908.  Crocidura  cantabra  Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  8:  239.  Basque  Provinces, 
Spain  (exact  locality  unknown). 

Crocidura  suaveolens  italics  Cavazza,  191 2 

1912.  Crocidura  mimula  italica  Cavazza,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  27, 
653:  12.  Delia  Valle  Padana,  Italy. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  sarda  Cavazza,  191 2 

191 2.  Crocidura  sicula  var.  sarda  Cavazza,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  27, 
659:  7.  Cagliari,  Sardinia. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  portali  Thomas,  1920 

1920.  Crocidura  portali  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  1 19.  Ramleh,  south-east  of  Jaffa, 



Crocidura  suaveolens  orientis  Ognev,  192 1 

1 92 1.   Crocidura  suaveolens  orientis  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22:  341. 
Ncbilmi,  valley  of  River  Tuman-gan,  Ussuri  region  of  Eastern  Siberia. 

Crocidur.x  suaveolens  phaeopus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Crocidura  ilcnsis  phaeopus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.   100,  7.  Wanhsien, 

Szcchuan,  C^hina.  Range  includes  Hupch  and  Southern  Shensi,  China. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  cassiteridum  Hinton,  1924 

1924.  Crocidura  cassiteridum  Hinton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  14:  509.  An  uninhabited  island, 

Scilly  Islands '(off  Cornwall,  England). 

Crocidura  suaveolens  debeauxi  Dal  Piaz,  1925 

1925.  Crocidura  mimula  debeauxi  Dal  Piaz,  Atti  Soc.  Vcn. -Trent.  Sci.  Nat.  16  (sep. 

pag).  Frugarolo,  Prov.  de  Allessandria,  Northern  Italy. 

Crocidura  suaveolens  lar  G.  Allen,  1928 

1928.  Crocidura  lar  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  317:   i.  Tsagan  Nor,  Central 
Gobi,  Mongolia. 

Crocidura  (?)  suaveolens  hyrcani.'^  Goodwin,  1940 

1940.   Crocidura  hyrcania  Goodwin,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1082;  i.  Turkman  plains, 

about  60  km.  north-east  of  Astrabad,  on  banks  of  the  Gurgan  River,  sea 

level,  Persia. 

Crocidura  (?)  suaveolens  astrabadensis  Goodwin,  1940 

1940.  Crocidura  astrabadensis  Goodwin,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1082:  3.  Dar  Kaleh, 
about  40  km.  east  of  Astrabad,  sea  level,  Persia. 

Crocidura  (?)  suaveolens  oyaensis  Heim  dc  Balsac,  1940 

1940.   Crocidura  oyaensis  Heim  de  Balsac,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  211:  296.  Yeu  Island, 
off  Vendee,  Western  France. 

Crocidura  russula  group.     (Medium-sized  species.) 

Crocidura  russula  Hermann,  1780  Common  European  White-toothed  Shrew 
Approximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  Channel  Islands,  Sardinia,  Corsica, 
Switzerland,  Italy,  Spain,  Portugal,  Belgium,  Holland,  Germany,  Poland,  Crete; 
Caucasus  and  Southern  Russian  Turkestan,  east  to  Pamir  Mountains;  Asia  Minor, 
Persia,  Palestine,  Afghanistan  (B.M.  specimens  collected  by  Chaworth-Musters 
identified  as  this  species);  Kashmir;  Japan;  Yunnan,  China;  ?  Korea;  Morocco, 
Algeria,  Tunis.  Probably  also  represented  in  Kenya,  Sudan,  Angola,  etc. 

Crocidura  russula  russula  Hermann,  1 780 

1780.   Sorex  russulus  Hermann,  in  Zimmermann,  Geogr.  Gesch.  2:  382.  Near  Stras- 
bourg, Bas-Rhin,  Eastern  France. 



1778.  Sorex  araneus  Schreber,  Saugeth.  j;  573.  Not  of  Linnaeus,  1758. 

(?)  1780.  Sorex  constrictus  Hermann,  in  Zimmermann,  Geogr.  Gesch.  2:  383.  Near 

Strasbourg,  France  (based  on  young  animal). 
(?)  1792.  Sorex  unicolor  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  208.  Strasbourg,  France. 
1798.  Sorex  musaraneus  Cuvier,  Tabl.  Elem.  H.N.  des  Anim.  109.  France. 
(?)  1800.  Sorex  leueums  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  /,  2:  538.  Strasbourg,  France. 
1801.   Sorex  araneus  cinereus  Bechstein,  Gemeinn.  Nat.  Deutschlands,  /,  2nd  ed.:  867 

(misprinted  863).  Thuringia,  Germany. 
1 801.   Sorex  araneus  eandidus  Bechstein,  loc.  eit.  Thuringia,  Germany. 
1832.   Sorex  Jimbriatus  Wagler,  Isis,  54.  Bavaria,  Germany. 
1832.  Crocidura  moschata  Wagler,  Isis,  275.  Substitute  for  Sorex  Jimbriatus. 
1832.  Crocidura  major  Wagler,  Isis,  1218.  Bavaria,  Germany. 
1832.  Crocidura  rufa  Wagler,  Isis,  1218.  Banks  of  Rhine,  Germany. 
1832.  Crocidura  poliogastra  Wagler,  Isis,  1218.  Banks  of  Rhine,  Germany. 
1832.  Sorex  thoracicus  Savi,  Nuovo  Giorn.  de  Letterati,  Pisa,  24:  52.  Near  Pisa,  Italy. 
(?)  1839.   Sorex  inodorus  de  Selys  Longchamps,  Etudes  Micromamm.  34.  Silesia. 
(?)  1839.  Crocidura  aranea  var.  albiventris  de  Selys  Longchamps,  loc.  cit.  No  locality. 
(?)  1839.  Sorex  hydruntina  Costa,  Fauna  del  Ragno  di  Napoli,  Mamm.  6.  Otranto, 

Calabria,  Italy. 
1855.  Sorex  chrysothorax  Dehne,  Allg.  Deutsche  Naturhist.  Zeitung,  /;  241.  Wilsdurf, 

near  Dresden,  Germany. 

Range:  Holland,  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Italy.  Bobrinskii  thinks 
the  next  is  the  same  and  includes  Russia,  Caucasus  and  Northern  Persia  in  the 

Crocidura  russula  GtJLDENSTAEDTi  Pallas,  181 1 

181 1.  Sorex guldenstaedtii  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /.•  132,  pi.  9,  fig.  1.  Near  Dushet, 

Georgia,  Transcaucasia. 
(?)  1863.  Sorex  {Crocidura)  fumigatus  de  Filippi,  Arch.  Zool.  Anat.  Fisiol.  Genova, 

2:    379.  Tehran,   Northern  Persia.   Range  includes   Simla,    according  to 

1889.  Crocidura  longicaudata  Tichomirov  &  Kortchagin,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat. 

Moscou,  §6,  4,  1 :  17.  Sukhum,  Black  Sea,  Russia. 
1889.  Sorex  bogdanowii  Tichomirov  &  Kortchagin,  loc.  cit. 
1914.  Crocidura  russula  aralychensis  Sa.tVinm,'\i\\.t.  Kaukas.  Mus.  8:  92.  Marshy  shores 

of  River  Karasu,  near  Aralych,  Caucasus. 

Crocidura  russula  dsinezumi  Temminck,  1844 

1844.  Sorex  dsi-nezumi  Temminck,  in  Siebold,  Faun.  Japon.  Mamm.  26.  Kiushiu, 

1844.  Sorex  kinezumi  Temminck,  loc.  cit.  26  (footnote). 

1845.  [Sorex)  kinezumi  Temminck,  in  Siebold,  Fauna  Japon.  Mamm.  ^,  Tabl.  iv,  figs. 

6-1  ic. 
Range:  Kiushiu,  Shikoku,  ?  Oki  Is. 

crocidura  russula  umbrina  Temminck,  1844 

1844.  Sorex  umbrinus  Temminck,  in  Siebold,  Faun.  Japon.  Mamm.  27.  Miyanoura, 
Yakushima,  Japan  (Kuroda). 



Crocidura  russula  agilis  Levaillant,  1867 

1867.  Pachvura  agilis  Levaillant,  in  Loche,  Explor.  Sci.  de  I'Algerie,  Zool.,  pi.  4, 
fig.  '2.  Algeria.  ("The  atlas  of  this  work  was  published  many  years  before  the 
text  according  to  Cabrera."  G.  Allen  (who  dates  the  name  from  1850).) 

(?)  1856.  Sorex  mmintanmis  Pomel,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  ^2:  653.  Algeria.  [N.V.)^ 

1867.  Pachnira  pigmaea  Loche,  Explor.  Sci.  de  I'Algerie,  Zool.  88.  Ain-el-Bel,  Algeria. 

Range:  Morocco  to  Tunis. 

Crocidura  russula  cypria  Bate,  1904 

1904.  Crocidura  russula  cypria  Bate,  P.Z.S.  igo3,  2;  344.  Cyprus. 

Crocidura  russula  monacha  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  Crocidura  russula  monacha  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  77.-  417.  Scalita,  near 
Trebizond,  700-1,000  m.,  Asia  Minor. 

Crocidur.'v  russula  chisai  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  Crocidura  dsi-nezumi  chisai  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  1 :  340.  Tsunagi,  near  Morioka, 

Northern  Hondo,  Japan. 

Crocidura  russula  caspica  Thomas,  1907 

1907.  Crocidura  russula  caspica  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  197.  Southern  coast  of 

Caspian  Sea,  Northern  Persia.  It  is  possible  that  this  little-known  form 
represents  C.  lasiura. 

Crocidura  russula  pulchra  Cabrera,  1907 

1907.  Crocidura  russula  pulchra  Cabrera,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  213.  Valencia,  Spain. 

Range;  Portugal  (part) ;  Spain  (Central  and  Southern) ;  lowlands  of  France, 

south  of  the  Gironde. 

Crocidura  russula  cintrae  Miller,  1907 

1907.  Crocidura  russula  cintrae  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  390.  Cintra,  near  Lisbon, 

Crocidura  russula  caneae  Miller,  1909 

1909.  Crocidura  caneae  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  3:  418.  Crete. 

Crocidura  russula  pullata  Miller,  191 1 

191 1.  Crocidura  pullata    Miller,    Proc.    Biol.    Soc.   ^Vashington,    24:    241.    Kotihar, 

7,000  ft.,  Kashmir. 

Crocidura  russula  ichnusae  Festa,  1912 

191 2.  Crocidura  ichnusae  Festa,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  27,  648:   i. 

Piscina,  Lanusei,  .Sardinia. 

Crocidura  russula  mimuloides  Cavazza,  1912 

191 2.  Crocidura  russula  mimuloides  Cavazza,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino, 
-7'  *^53'  "^l-  B"gg'o'o>  Ticino  Alps,  Italy. 


Crocidura  russula  yebalensis  Cabrera,  191 3 

1913.  Crocidura  yebalensis  Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  13:  400.  Tetuan,  Morocco. 

Crocidura  russula  judaic  a  Thomas,  1919 

1919.  Crocidura  russula  judaica  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2'  32.  Near  Jerusalem, 
Palestine.  It  is  possible  that  this  little-known  form  represents  C.  lasiura. 

Crocidura  russula  peta  Montagu  &  Pickford,  1923 

1923.  Crocidura  russula  peta  Montagu  &  Pickford,  P.Z.S.  1044.  Guernsey,  Channel 

Crocidura  russula  vorax  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Crocidura  vorax  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  100:  8.  Timber-line  forest  on 
Ssu  Shan  (Snow  Mountain),  Likiang  Range,  12,000  ft.,  Yunnan,  China. 

Crocidura  russula  rapax  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Crocidura  rapax  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  100:  9.  Yinpankai,  Mekong 

River,  9,000  ft.,  Yunnan,  China. 

Crocidura  russula  intermedia  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Crocidura  dsi-nezumi  intermedia  Kuroda,  New  Mamm.  from  Riukiu  Islands, 

Tokyo,  2.  Nishino-omote,  Tanegashima  Island,  200-400  ft.,  Japan. 

Crocidura  russula  orii  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Crocidura  dsi-nezumi  orii  Kuroda,  New  Mamm.  from  Riukiu  Islands,  Tokyo,  3. 
Komi,  Amamioshima,  Liukiu  Islands. 

Crocidura  russula  pamirensis  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Crocidura  pamirensis  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia,  /.•  366.  Near  Lake 

Drum,  south  slope  Pamir  Range,  12,000  ft.,  Russian  Asia. 

1929.  Crocidura  serezkjensis  Laptev,  Mater.  Centr.  Asiat.  Zool.  Gard.  /.•  16.  [N.V.) 

Ognev,    Mamm.    E.   Europe,   N.   Asia,   2:    771.   Lake   Severskoe,    Pamir 

Crocidura  russula  ^uelpartis  Kuroda,  1934 

1934.  Crocidura  dsi-nezumi  quelpartis  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  /j.-  236.  Seikiho,  Quelpart 
Island,  off  Korea. 

Crocidura  (?)  russula  sodyi  Kuroda,  1935 

1934.  Crocidura  neglecta  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  13:  238.  Not  of  Jentink,  1888. 

1935.  Crocidura  sodyi  Kuroda,   Zool.    Mag.   Tokyo,   4y:   327.   To   replace  neglecta 

Kuroda,  preoccupied.  Bampo,  Korea.  (Size  large,  skull  of  type,  20  mm.  But 
possibly  represents  russula,  as  it  occurs  with  the  much  larger  C.  lasiura 
yamaskinai  which  has  the  same  type  locality.) 

Crocidura  (?)  russula  corsicana  Heim  de  Balsac  &  Reynaud,  1940 
1940.  Crocidura  corsicana  Heim  de  Balsac  &  Reynaud,  Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  France,  6^: 
216.  Francardo,  He  Rousse,  Corsica. 



Crocidura  russula  anthonyi  Heim  de  Balsac,  1940 

1940.   Crocidura  anthonvi  Hcim  de  Balsac,  Bull.   Mus.  H.N.   Paris,   12:   382.   Gafsa, 

Croc:idur.\  (?)  russula  foucauldi  Agacino,  1943 

1943.   Crocidura  foucauldi  Agacino,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  41:  37.  Isaguen,   1,500  m., 
Beni  Seddat,  Rif,  Spanish  Morocco. 

Crocidura  leucodon  Hermann,  1780  Bicolor  White-toothed  .Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Holland,  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  Poland, 
Switzerland,  Italy,  apparently  represented  in  Sicily;  Yugoslavia,  Transylvania; 
Central  and  Southern  Russia,  including  Crimea,  Caucasus,  Eastern  Turkestan,  and 
northwards  to  Central  Siberia  (Minussinsk  steppe,  Semipalatinsk  province);  Persia. 

Crocidura  leucodon  leucodon  Hermann,  1780 

1780.   Sorex  leucodon  Hermann,  in  Zimmermann,  Gcogr.  Gesch.  2:  382.  \'icinity  of 

Strasbourg,  Bas  Rhin,  Eastern  France. 
1791:.  Sorex  albipes  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  208. 

i8Gq.  Leucodon  microurus  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.■  137.  Substitute  for  leucodon. 
1807.   Crocidura  leucodus  Schulze,  Helios,  Berlin,  /./.■  90.  Substitute  for  leucodon. 
Range:  European  and  Russian  range  of  the  species,  except  Sicily. 

CiRociDUR.A  '?)  leucodon  sicula  Miller,  1901 

Kioi.   Crocidura  sicula  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  14:  41.  Palermo,  Sicily. 

[Crocidura  sicula  Giglioli,  1879,  Aich.  Xaturgesch.  /.•  96,  nom.  mid.)  Perhaps 

a  form  of  C.  russula. 

C.ROCiDURA  leucodon  persica  Thomas,  1907 

1907.  Crocidura  leucodon  persica  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  20:  198.  Elburz  Mountains, 

near  Dcmavend,  6,500  ft.,  Persia. 

1908.  Crocidura  leucodon  caspica  Lydekker,  Zool.  Record,   igoy,  Mamm.:  59.  Acci- 

dental renaming  of  C.  I.  persica. 

Crocidura  leitiodon  narent.-\e  Bolkay,  1925 

1925.  Crocidura  leucodon  narentae  Bolkay,  X<>\it.  Mus.  Sarajevo,  /.-  7.  Between  Capljna 
and  the  uld  Roman  defensive  castle,  Mcigorjelo,  Herzegovina,  \'ugoslavia. 

Crocidur.\  leucodon  sibirica   Dukelski,  1930 

1930.  Crocidura  leucodon  sibirica  Dukelski,  Zool.  Anz.  88:  75.  Village  of  Osnatschen- 
noje,  on  River  Yenesei,  96  km.  south  of  Minussinsk,  Siberia.  Bobrinskii 
calls  this  form  C.  I.  myoides  fBlanfordj,  but  myoides  Blanford  from  description 
seems  to  be  a  form  of  C.  horsjieldii.  The  present  name  is  available  for  the 
Siberian  race. 

Crocidura  caudata   .Miller,  K|0i  .Mediterranean     Long-tailed  Shrew 

.Approximate  di^triljutidii  nf  species:  Sicily,  Corsica,  Balearic  Islands. 



Crocidura  caudata  caudata  Miller,  igoi 

igoi.  Crocidura  caudata  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  14:  42.  Palermo,  Sicily. 

Crocidura  caudata  cyrnensis  Miller,  1907 

1907.  Crocidura  cyrnensis  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  390.  Bastia,  Corsica. 

Crocidura  b.alearic.a  Miller,  1907 

1907.   Crocidura  balearica  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  391.  San  Cristobal,  Minorca, 
Balearic  Islands. 

Crocidura  pergrisea  Miller,  191 3  Pale  Grey  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kashmir,  Baluchistan  and  Eastern  Persia. 

Crocidura  pergrisea  pergrisea  Miller,  191 3 

1913.  Crocidura  pergrisea  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  26:  1 13.  Skoro  Loomba, 
Shigar,  Baltistan,  9,500  ft.,  Kashmir. 

Crocidura  pergrisea  zarudnyi  Ognev,  1928 

1 92 1.  Crocidura  tatianae  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  22:  338.  Eastern 

Persia  (Baluchistan).  Not  C.  tatiana  Dollman,  1915. 
1928.  Crocidura  zarudnyi  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia,  /.•  341.  New  name  for 

tatianae  Ognev  nee  Dollman. 
Specimens  examined  from  Kelat  and  Turbat,  Indian  Baluchistan. 

Crocidura  atienuata  Milne-Edwards,  1872  -Grey  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  states  of  Kiangsu,  Chekiang,  Hupeh, 
Szechuan,  Hunan,  Fukien,  \Vestern  Yunnan ;  Hainan,  Northern  Burma,  Assam, 
Bhutan  Duars,  Sikkim,  Kumaon,  Punjab,  Kashmir;  apparently  Formosa. 

Crocidura  attenuata  attenuata  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Crocidura  attenuata  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  263,  pi.  38B,  fig.  i, 

pi.  39A,  fig.  2.  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 
1926.  Crocidura  grisea  Howell,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  \\'ashington,  29-    '37-  Seventy-five 

miles  south-west  of  Yenpingfu,  500  ft.,  Fukien,  China. 
Range:  China,  as  listed  above,  and  including  Hainan;  Northern  Burma  (B.M.) 

Crocidura  attenuata  rubricosa  Anderson,  1877 

1877.   Crocidura  rubricosa  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46,  2  :  280.  Sibsagar,  Assam. 

Specimens  examined  from  Assam,  Kamrup,  Bhutan  Duars,  and  Pashok, 

near  Darjeeling. 

Crocidura  attenuata  kingiana  Anderson,  1877 

1877.  Crocidura  kingiana  Anderson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46,  2:  281.  Sikkim.  Speci- 
mens examined  from.  Kumaon  and  Punjab. 

Crocidura  (?)  attenuata  tanakae  Kuroda,  1938 

1938.   Crocidura   tanakae   Kuroda,    Handlist  Jap.    Mamm.    81.    Shohosha,    Horigai, 
Taichusiu,  Central  Formosa. 



Crocidura  dracula  Thomas,  1912  Dracula  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Yunnan,  Fukien,  Northern  Burma,  Indo- 
China.  The  form  dracula  requires  comparison  with  C.  baluensis  Thomas,  1898,  Borneo 
(?  =  a  race  of  C.  oricntalis ]cn\.\nk,  1890,  Java),  and  other  earher-named  extralimital 

Crocidura  dracula  dracula  Thomas,  191 2 

1912.  Crocidura  dracula  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  686.  Probably  near  Mongtze 

(Mengtsz),  Southern  Yunnan,  China. 
1923.   Crocidura  praedax  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.■  656.  LitLiang  Valley,  Central 

Yunnan,  9,500  ft.,  China. 

Crocidura  dracul.^  grisescens  Howell,  1928 

1928.  Crocidura  grisescens  Howell,  J.  Mamm.  g:  60.  Kuatun,  Fokien,  South-Eastern 

Crocidura  dracul.'\  mansumensis  Carter,  1942 

1942.  Crocidura  dracula  mansumensis  Carter,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1208:  i.  Mansum 
(25.47'  N.,  96.16°  E.),  3,200  ft..  Northern  Burma. 

Crocidura  lasiura  Dobson,  1890  Ussuri  Large  White-toothed  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ussuri  region  of  Eastern  Siberia,  Manchuria, 
Korea;  Kiangsu,  in  China.  Asia  Minor  and  Caucasus,  and  Northern  Persia  according 
to  Bobrinskii. 

Crocidura  lasiura  lasiura  Dobson,  1890 

1890.  Crocidura  lasiura  Dobson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j;  31.  Ussuri  River,  Manchuria. 

Crocidura  lasiura  lasia  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  Crocidura  leucodon  lasia  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /".■  416.  Scalita,  near 
Trebizond,  700-1,000  m.,  Asia  Minor.  Ranges  to  Transcaucasia. 

Crocidura  lasiura  thomasi  Sowerby,  191 7 

1917.  Crocidura  thomasi  Sowerby,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  318.  Mingyong,  no  miles 
south-east  of  Seoul,  Korea. 

Crocidura  lasiura  yamashinai  Kuroda,  1934 

1934.   Crocidura  yamashinai  Kuroda,  J.   Mamm.   if]:   237.  Bampo,   Kankyo-hokudo, 

Northern  Korea. 
1931.  Crocidura  lizenkarii  Kishida,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  43:  377,  (nom.  nud.). 

Crocidura  lasiura  campuslincolnensis  Sowerby,  1945 

1945.  Crocidura  campus-lincolnensis  Sowerby,  Musee  Heude  Notes  de  Mammalogie, 
No.  3,  I.  Lincoln  Avenue,  in  the  western  district  of  Shanghai,  Kiangsu, 
China.  (We  have  not  examined  this  form  which  from  description  agrees 
with  the  larger  members  of  this  species.) 


Crocidura  olivieri  group.  (Giant  species.) 

Crocidura  olivieri  Lesson,  1827  Egyptian  Giant  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt.  Perhaps  represented  in  Kenya  and 
Abyssinia  under  the  name  zcphiri. 

Crocidura  olivieri  Lesson,  1827 

1827.  Sorex  olivieri  Lesson,  Manuel  de  Mammalogie,  121.  Sakkara,  Egypt,  as 
mummies  from  catacombs. 

Other  Js'amed  Forms 

Crocidura  fuliginosa  Blyth,  1855 

1855.  Sorex  fuliginosus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Sec.  Bengal,  24:  362.  Schwegyin,  near  Pegu, 
Burma.  The  type  specimen  is  in  Calcutta,  and  we  have  ascertained  from  the 
curator  of  the  Calcutta  Museum  that  the  type  specimen  has  eight  upper 
teeth  and  is  therefore  a  Crocidura.  Mrs.  Lindsay  erroneously  transferred 
this  form  to  the  genus  Suncus.  According  to  Chasen,  it  occurs  in  the 
Malay  Peninsula.  This  early  name  may  ultimately  have  to  supersede 
one  of  the  specific  names  listed  above,  but  we  are  uncertain  of  its  exact 

Crocidura  nicobarica  Miller,  1902 

1902.  Crocidura  nicobarica  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  24:  •jyB.  Great  Nicobar 
Island,  Nicobar  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal.  Unrepresented  in  London  Based  on 
a  very  large  species,  head  and  body  120  mm.,  tail  90  mm.  Basal  length  of 
skull  26  mm. 

Crocidura  andamanensis  Miller,  1902 

1902.  Crocidura  andamanensis  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  24:  777.  MacPherson 
Strait,  South  Andaman  Island,  Andaman  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal.  Un- 
represented in  London.  Head  and  body  1 14  mm.,  tail  86  mm.  Basal  length 
of  skull  24.8  mm.  Probably  closely  allied  to  nicobarica. 

Crocidura  bolfvari  Morales  Agacino,  1934 

1934.  Crocidura  bolivari  Morales  Agacino,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  ^4:  93,  fig.  i.  Villa 
Cisneros,  Rio  de  Oro,  North-West  Africa.  We  have  not  examined  this  form, 
which  is  likely  to  be  valid  unless  it  represents  one  of  the  numerous  Ethiopian 
earlier-named  species.  Condylobasal  length  21.6  mm.,  tail  56  per  cent,  of 
head  and  body,  from  original  description. 

Crocidura  utsuryoensis  Mori,  1937,  J.  Chosen  N.H.  Soc.  22:  40,  41.  {N.V.) 
Utsuryo  Island,  off  Korea. 

Crocidura  nanula  Stroganov,  1941,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  33:  272.  Termez, 
Russian  Turkestan.  According  to  Vinogradov  based  on  a  specimen  with  the 
dentition  of  a  Crocidura,  but  may  represent  an  abnormal  specimen  oi Suncus 


Genus  FEROCULUS  Kclaart,  1852 

1852.  Feroculus  Kelaart,   Prodr.  Faun.  Zcylanica,  31.  Sorcx  macropus  BIyth  --=  Sorex 
feroculus  Kelaart. 

I  species :   Feroculus  Jeroculus,  page  86 

Feroculus  feroculus   Kelaart,    1850  Kelaart's  Long-clawed  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon. 

P'eroculus  feroculus  Kelaart,  1850 

1850.  Sorex  feroculus  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Branch  Asiat.  Soc.  :?,  5:  211.  Nuwara  Eliya, 

6,000  ft.,  Central  Province,  Ceylon. 

1851.  Sorex  macropus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  163.  Nuwara  Eliya,  Ceylon. 

1 85 1.  Corsira  newera-ellia  Kelaart,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  340.  Nuwara  Eliya,  Cevlon. 
1855.  Sorex  newera  Wagner,  in  Schreber,  Saugeth.  Suppl.  5;  564. 

1888.   Croeidura  macropus  Blanford,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /;  237. 

Genus  SOLISOREX  Thomas,  1924 
1924.   .S'o&orf.v  Thomas,  Spolia  Zeylan.  /j,  i:  94.  Solisorex  pearsoni  Th.om3.%. 
I  species:   Solisorex  pearsoni,  page  86 

SoUsorex  pearsoni  Thomas,  1924  Pearson's  Long-clawed  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon. 

The  presence  of  two  genera  of  long-clawed  shrews  in  Ceylon  and  nowhere  else  is 
disconcerting.  But  an  examination  of  the  characters  we  have  listed  above  m  the  key 
to  the  genera  should  indicate  that  Solisorex  cannot  be  referred  to  Feroculus  as  a  sub- 
genus. Both  seem  quite  distinct  from  Croeidura  or  Suncus. 

Solisorex  pearsoni  Thomas,  1924 

1924.   Solisorex  pearsoni  Thomas,  Spolia  Zeylan.   ij,   i:  94,  95.  Hakgala,  6,000  ft., 
near  Nuwara  Eliya,  Central  Highlands  of  Ceylon. 

Genus  DIPLOMESODON  Brandt,  1852 

1852.  Diplomesodon   Brandt,   in   Bacr   &    Helmersen,    Beitr.    Russ.   Reich.   ly:   299. 

Sorex  pulchellus  Li'-htcnstein. 

I  species :  Diplomesodon  pulchellum,  page  86 

Diplomesodon  pulchellum  Lichtenstein,   1823  Piebald  Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  "Sands  between  the  lower  Volga  and  lower 
Emba,  the  Bolshie  Barsuki  sands  (north  of  the  Sea  of  Aral),  on  the  north-west  coast  of 
the  Sea  of  Aral,  on  Dardsha  Peninsula  (south-east  coast  of  the  Caspian),  in  Kara- 
kum,  Kizil-kum,  the  sands  east  of  the  River  Chu  and  the  sandy  desert  south  of  Lake 
Balkash  between  the  Rivers  Hi  and  Aksu"  (Bobrinskii). 




1823.  Sorex  pulchellus  Lichtenstein,  in  Eversmann,  Reise  von  Orenburg  nach  Bok- 
hara, 124.  Kirghiz  Steppe,  Russian  Turkestan  (collected  i  May  1821). 

DiPLOMESODON    PULCHELLUM    PALLIDUM    Heptncr,    1 938 

1938.  Diplomesodon  pukhelhim  pallidus  Heptner,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  ^j:  165-166. 
Between  Merv  and  Amu  Daria,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Genus  ANOUROSOREX  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1870.  Anourosorex  Milne-Edwards,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  yo:  341.  (Genus  caelebs.) 
1872.  Anourosorex  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  264.  Anourosorex 
squamipes  Milne-Edwards. 

1873.  Pygmura  Anderson,  P.Z.S.  229  (footnote).  Type  not  given,  but  species  sub- 
sequently described  as  Anurosorex  assamensis  Anderson. 

1875.  Anurosorex  Anderson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  282. 

I  species:  Anourosorex  squamipes,  page  87 

Anourosorex  squamipes  Milne-Edwards,  1872  Szechuan  Burrowing  Shrew- 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  from  Shensi  south  to  Hupeh,  Sze- 
chuan, Yunnan;  Northern  and  Western  Burma,  Assam;  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China. 

Anourosorex  squamipes  squamipes  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Anourosorex  squamipes  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  264,  pi.  38,  fig.  i; 

pi.  38A,  figs.  i-ij.  Probably  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 
1875.  Anourosorex  assamensis  Anderson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  282.  Subsasugu,  Assam. 
1923.  Anourosorex  squamipes  capnias  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  100:  10.  To-mu- 

lang,  Chungtien  district,  10,000  ft.,  Yunnan,  China. 
1923.  Anourosorex  assamensis  capito  G.  Allen,  loc.  cit.  11.  Mucheng,  Salween  drainage, 

7,000  ft.,  Yunnan,  China. 
Range:  Mainland  range  of  the  species. 

Anourosorex  squamipes  yamashinai  Kuroda,  1935 

1935.  Anourosorex  squamipes  yamashinai  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  16:  288.  Taiheizan, 
5,500  ft.,  Taihokusiu,  North  Formosa. 

Genus  CHIMMAROGALE  Anderson,  1877 

1877.  Chimmarogale  Anderson,  J.  .\siat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^6,  2:  262.  Crossopus  himalavieus 

1 92 1.  Crossogale  Thomd^s,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  243.  Crossogale  sumatrana  Thomas,  from 

Sumatra  (a  race  of  C.  phaeura  Thomas  from  Borneo). 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Chimmarogale  platvcephala,  page  88 


pal.\earc:tic  and  Indian  mammals  i  758-1946 

All  named  forms  are  represented  in  the  British  Museum.  The  type  oi  styani  has 
white  undcrparts,  other  specimens  are  intermediate  between  this  and  the  normal 
type  of  dark  underparts  of  the  majority  of  the  other  specimens,  and  there  is  fairly 
clearly  only  one  valid  species  of  this  genus  in  the  mainland  of  Asia,  and  Japan.  The 
na.mei  platycephala  and  himalayica  were  both  published  in  the  year  1842,  and  it  is  not 
possible  to  say  exactly  which  was  published  first.  C.  himalayicus  was  sent  to  press 
10  October  1842,  and  according  to  notes  left  by  J.  L.  Chaworth-Musters,  was  pub- 
lished in  December  1842  "so  probably  after  plahrephala".  We  therefore  adopt 

Chimmarogale  platycephala  Temminck,  1842  Himalayan  Water-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Japan  (Kiushiu),  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  .South- 
Eastern  China  to  Fukien  and  Chekiang;  Laos,  Annam,  Tonkin  (in  Indo-China) ; 
Kashmir,  Punjab,  Sikkim  and  Northern  Burma. 

Chimmarogale  platycephala  platycephala  Temminck,  1842 

1842.  Sorex  platycephalus  Temminck,  Fauna  Japon.  /,  Mamm.:  23,  plate  V,  fig.  i. 
Near  Nagasaki  and  Bungo,  Kiushiu,  Japan.  Occurs  Hondo. 

Chimmarogale  platycephal.\  himalayica  Gray,  1842 

1842.  Crossopiis  himalayicus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  261.  Chamba,  North-Eastern 
Punjab  (from  notes  left  by  J.  L.  Chaworth-Musters).  Range:  recorded  from 
Kashmir,  Punjab,  Sikkim,  Darjeeling,  Northern  Burma,  Yunnan  (Likiang 
Range),  Laos  and  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Chimmarogale  platycephala  styani  de  \Vinton,  1899 

1899.  Chimmarogale  styani  de  \Vinton,  P.Z.S.  574.  Yangliupa,  North-Western 
Szechuan.  Has  also  been  recorded  from  Northern  Burma. 

Chimmarogale  platycephala  leander  Thomas,  1902 

1902.  Chimmarogale  leander  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  165.  Kuatun,  1,200  m., 
North-Western  Fukien,  China.  Range  includes  Chekiang,  China. 

Chimmarogale  platycephala  varennei  Thomas,  1927 

1927.   Chimmarogale  varennei  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  45.  Dakto,  Annam,  Indo-China. 

Genus  NECTOGALE  Milne-Edwards,  1870 

1870.  .Neclogale  Milne-Edwards,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  Jo:  341.  Nectogale  elegans 

I  species:  Nectogale  elegans,  page  89 



Nectogale  elegans  Milne-Edwards,  1870  Szechuan  Water-Shrew 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sikkim,  Bhutan  (B.M.),  Northern  Burma; 
Tibet  (B.M.);  Szechuan,  in  China,  also  recorded  from  Yunnan  and  Shensi. 

Nectogale  elegans  elegans  Milne-Edwards,  1870 

1870.  Nectogale     elegmu     Milne-Edwards,     C.R.     Acad.     Sci.     Paris,     yo:     341. 

Moupin,  Szechuan,  China.  Range:  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Shensi,  Northern 


Nectogale  elegans  sikhimensis  de  Winton,  1899 

i8gg.  Nectogale  sikhimensis  de   Winton,    P.Z.S.    573.    Lathong,    10,000   ft.,    Sikkim. 
Range:  Sikkim  and  Tibet. 


FAMILY:  Cynocephalidae,  page  89 

Genus:  Cynocephalus,  page  89 

Thomas  (1908)  divided  the  flying  lemurs  into  two  genera:  Cynocephalus,  based  on 
Lemur  volans  Linnaeus,  for  the  Philippine  forms  which  have  the  first  upper  incisor 
very  reduced  and  the  parietal  ridges  close  together;  and  Galeopterus,  based  on 
Galeopithecus  temminckii  Waterhouse,  for  the  Malayan  and  East  Indies  forms  which 
have  the  first  upper  incisor  not  so  reduced  and  the  parietal  ridges  widely  separated. 
Chasen  (1940)  follows  Thomas,  but  we  prefer  to  follow  Simpson  (1945)  and  include 
all  flying  lemurs  in  the  genus  Cynocephalus. 

Genus  CYNOCEPHALUS  Boddaert,  1768 

1768.  Cynocephalus  Boddaert,  Dierkundig  Mengelwerk  2:  8  (footnote  1).  Lemur  volans 

1783.  Galeopithecus  Pallas,  Acta   Acad.    Sci.    Petrop.    iy8o,    i:    208.   Lemur   volans 

(?)  1840.  Galeolemur  Lesson,  Spec.  Mamm.  261.  Galeopithecus  macrourus  Temminck, 

?  from   Ceylon.    (G.   macrourus  Temminck,    1838,   Coup  d'GEil  Faune  lies 

Sonda  et  Emp.  Jap.  ix.)  This  was  a  flying-squirrel  [Petaurista)  fide  Thomas, 

1908,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  252.  It  is  unidentifiable. 
1908.  Galeopterus    Thomas,    Ann.    Mag.    N.H.    /.•     254.    Galeopithecus    temminckii 

Waterhouse.     (G.     variegatus    temminckii     from     Sumatra.)     Valid     as     a 


I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Cynocephalus  variegatus,  page  90 



Subgenus  GALEOPTERUS  Thomas,  1908 

Cynocephalus  variegatus  Audebert,   1799      Malayan  Flyinc;  Lemur  fCobego  or 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim  and  Southern  Indo-China 
(Cochin  China),  southwards  to  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Ja\'a,  Borneo  and  many 
adjacent  small  islands. 

Cynocephalus  variegatus  variegatus  Audebert,  1799.  Extralimital) 
I  799.   Galeopithecus  variegatus  Audebert,  H.N.  Singes,  sig.  Rr.  Java. 

CvNOCEPH.\Lus  varieg.\tus  peninsulae  Tliomas,  1909 

1909.   Galeoplenis  peninsulae  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ;?.•  303.  Semangko  Pass,  Malay 

States.  Range:  Malay  Peninsula,  Tenasserim. 
Osgood  (1932)  quoted  Galeopterus  variegatus  subsp.  from  Cochin-C^hina. 

ORDER     C  H  I  R  O  P  T  E  R  A 

Special  works  of  reference  on  this  order  include: 
Allen,  G.  M.  ic)/^o.  Bats.  Cambridge,  Mass.  (Harvard  University  Press). 
DoBsON,  G.  E.  1878.  Catalogue  of  Chiroptera  in  the  British  Museum. 
Miller,  G.  S.  1907.  The  Eamilies  and  Genera  of  Bats.  Bull.  U.S.  .hfat.  Mus.,  Xo.  57. 
Andersen,  K.  1912.  Catalogue  of  the  Chiroptera  in  the  British  Museum,  i.  Megachiroptera. 
(All  published.) 

The  first  is  a  general  work  on  the  order.  The  second,  though  old,  is  still  most  useful. 
The  third  is  the  only  comprehensive  work  on  the  taxonomy  of  the  order,  with  keys 
down  to  genera,  and  the  last  is  still  the  only  comprehensive  work  on  the  Mega- 
chiroptera. Miller  seems  to  recognize  too  many  families,  and  Simpson  (1945,  180) 
takes  the  view  that  recent  specialists  recognize  too  many  genera.  Neither  of  the 
present  authors  claims  any  extensive  knowledge  of  this  order,  which  seems  very  much 
a  specialist  field.  The  listing  of  the  species  is  entirely  provisional.  Our  thanks  are  due 
to  our  colleague,  Mr.  R.  W.  Hayman,  for  his  help  with  this  order. 

FAMILIES:   Emballonuridae,  page  103 
Megadermatidae,  page  107 
Molossidae,  page  132 
Nycteridae,  page  106 
Pteropodidae,  page  91 
Rhinolophidae,  page  109 
Rhinopomatidae,  page  10 1 
Vcspcrtilionidae,  page  136 

.\nothcr  group,  the  Hipposiderinae,  was  regarded  as  a  family  distinct  from  the 
Rhinolophidae  by  Miller,  but  b>'  man\'  authors  is  considered  a  subfimilv  of  that 

For  ke\s  to  the  various  lamilies,  sec  Miller,  1907,  Eamilies  and  Genera  of  Rats. 




The  classic  work  on  this  family  is  by  Knud  Andersen  (19 12)  and  it  is  surprising 
that  it  is  entirely  overlooked  in  the  very  detailed  bibliography  given  by  Simpson, 

1945.  P-  273- 

Simpson  (p.  54)  has  attempted  some  generic  reduction  in  this  family,  but 
in  a  rather  unfortunate  manner;  for  instance,  one  genus  {"Callinycteris")  shown  by 
Andersen  to  be  nothing  but  a  synonym  oi Eonycteris  is  listed  as  valid  (p.  55),  whereas 
others  which  are  seemingly  reasonably  distinct  are  placed  as  subgenera  or  in 
the  wrong  synonymy  (for  instance,  Pterocyon  =  Eidolon,  not  Rousettus  as  listed  by 
Simpson) . 

Genera:  Cynopterus,  page  98 
Eidolon,  page  91 
Eonycteris,  page  100 
Macroglossus,  page  100 
Megaerops,  page  99 
Pteropus,  page  93 
Rousettus,  page  92 
Sphaerias,  page  100 

For  a  key  to  these  genera  see  Knud  Andersen,  1912,  Cat.  Chiroptera  B.M.  i 
This  author  also  gives  a  key  to  all  the  species  in  the  present  family  named  before  191 2. 

Subfamily     Pteropodinae 

Genus  EffiOLON  Rafinesque,  1815 

1815.  Eidolon  Rafinesque,  Analyse  de  la  Nature,  54.  Vespertilio  vampyrus  helvus  Kerr. 

For  note  on  validity  of  Eidolon  Rafinesque  and  fixing  of  type  species,  see 

K.  Andersen,  1908,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  432. 
1861.  Pterocyon  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  423.  Pterocyon  paleaceus  Peters  = 

Vespertilio  vampyrus  helvus  Kerr. 

1 88 1.  Leiponyx  Jentink,   Notes   Leyden   Mus.  j.-   60  Leiponyx  biittikoferi  Jentink  = 

Vespertilio  vampyrus  helvus  Kerr. 

1882.  Liponyx  Forbes,  Zool.  Record,  18  (for  1881),  Mamm.  13. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Eidolon  sabaeum,  page  92 

The  first-named  species  in  this  genus  is  Eidolon  helvum  Kerr,  1792,  from  Senegal, 
which  ranges  eastwards  to  Somaliland,  thence  southwards  as  far  as  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Cape  Town.  Andersen  separated  the  Arabian  representative  as  E.  sabaeum; 
it  is  closely  allied  but  is  on  average  a  smaller  form. 


Eidolon  sabaeum  K.  Andersen,  1907  Arabian  Straw-coloured  Fruit  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Arabia. 

Eidolon  sabaeum  Andersen,  1907 

1907.  Pterocvon  sabaeus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   ig:  505.  Lahej,  Aden  district, 
Southern  Arabia. 

Genus  ROUSETTUS  Gray,  1821 

1 82 1.  Rousettus   Gray,    London    Med.   Repository,    15:    299.   Plaopus  aegyptiacus   E. 

1829.   Cercopteropus   Burnett,    Quart.  J.    Sci.    Lit.    Art.    i:    269.    Pteropus   aegyptiacus 

1843.  Xantharpyia  Gray,  List  Mamm.  B.AL  xix,  37.  Pteropus  amplexicaudatus  Geoffroy. 

1843.  Eleutherura  Gray,  List  Mamm.  B.AL  xi.x,  nom.  mid. 

1844.  Eleutherura  Gray,   \'oy.   Sulphur,    /.•   29.   Pteropus  leachii  Smith,   from   South 

1852.   Cynonveteris  Peters,   Reise   nach   Mossambicjue,   Saugeth,   25.   Pteropus  collaris 

Illiger  =  Pteropus  leachii  Smith,  from  South  Africa. 
1870.   Senonycteris   Gray,    Cat.    Monkeys,    Lemurs    &    Fruiteating   Bats,    B.\l.    115. 

Pteropus  seminudus  Kelaart. 

5  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Rousettus  aegyptiacus,  page  92 
Rousettus  amplexicaudatus,  page  93 
Rousettus  arabicus,  page  92 
Rousettus  leschenaulti,  page  93 
Rousettus  seminudus,  page  93 

A  key  to  these  species  is  given  by  K.  Andersen,  191 2. 

Rousettus  aegyptiacus  E.  Geoffroy,  1810  Egyptian  Fruit  Bat 

.Approximate    distribution    of   species:    Cyprus,    Palestine,    Syria,    Egypt,    and 
Ethiopian  Africa  in  part,  south  to  Angola. 

Rousettus  aegyptiacus  E.  Geoflrny,  1810 

1810.  Pteropus  egyptiacus  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  75.-  96  (misprint),  corrected 

to  aegyptiacus  in   1818,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  H.N.  :?.•   134,  pi.  3,  fig.  2. 

Great  Pyramid,  Giza,  Egypt. 
1825.  Pteropus  geoffroyi  Temminck,   Mnn.   ^L^mm.   /.•    197.  Senegal,   and  probably 

north  coast  of  Africa. 

Rousettus  arabicus  Anderson   &   dc  \Vint(_in,  1902 

.\pproximate   distribution   of  species:    Arabia    |','\den,    Muscat),    Kishim    Island 
(Persian  Gulfj  and  Karachi.  Sind    Western  India). 



RousETTUS  ARABicus  Anderson  &  de  \Vinton,  1902 

1902.  Rousettus  arabicus  Anderson  &  de  Winton,  Zool.  Egypt,  Mamm.  86,  88,  B9-90. 
Lahej,  near  Aden,  Southern  Arabia. 

Rousettus  amplexicaudatus  E.  Geoffrey,  18 10 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  according  to  Chasen  (1940,  29)  Northern 
Siam  and  Tenasserim;  Cambodia,  Indo-China  (K.  Andersen);  also  from  Malay 
States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Philippine  Islands,  Timor,  Flores,  etc. 

Rousettus  amplexicaudatus  amplexicaudatus  Geoffrey,  1810 
1 8 10.  Pteropus  amplexicaudatus  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,   75 .•  96,  pi.  4. 
Island  of  Timor. 

Rousettus  leschenaulti  Desmarest,  1820 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Rajputana,  Bhutan  Duars, 
Burma,  Tenasserim;  Peninsula  of  India  (Western  Ghats,  Bombay,  Coorg,  etc.); 
North  Siam  (Chasen,  1940);  Tonkin,  Indo-China.  Has  been  recorded  from  Amoy, 
Southern  China;  Java. 

Rousettus  leschenaulti  leschenaulti  Desmarest,  1820 

1820.  Pteropus  leschenaulti  Desmarest,  Encycl.  Meth.  Mamm.  /.•   no.  Pondicherry, 

1835.  Pteropus  pyrivorus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^:  700.  Nepal. 
1 84 1.  Pteropus  pirivarus  Hodgson,  loc.  cit.  10:  908. 

1843.  Cynopterus  marginalus  Gray,  List  Mamm.  B.M.  38.  Not  of  Geoffroy,  1810. 
1843.  Cynopterus  affinis  Gray,  loc.  cit.  39.  Himalayas. 
1870.  Eleutherura  fuliginosa  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  Lemurs  5c  Fruiteating  Bats,   118. 

Laos  Mountains,  Siam. 
1870.  Eleutherura  fusca  Gray,  loc.  cit.  119.?  India. 
1873.  Cynonycteris  infuscata  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  \Viss.  487.  Calcutta,  India. 

Rousettus  seminudus    Kelaart,  1850 
Distribution:  Ceylon. 

Rousettus  seminudus    Kelaart,  1850 

1850.  Pteropus  seminudus  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiatic  Soc.  2:  216.  Mount  Lavinia, 

Genus  PTEROPUS  Brisson,  1762 

1762.  Pteropus  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  13,  153-155.  Pteropus  niger  (Kerr).  Hopwood 
(1947)  would  ignore  Brisson  and  date  Pteropus  from  Erxleben,  1777,  Syst. 
Anim.  130,  with  the  same  type  species. 

1799.  Spectrum  Lacepede,  Tabl.  Mamm.   15.  Pteropus  niger  (Kerr).  Not  of  Scopoli, 

1866.  Eunycteris  Gray,  P.Z.S.  64.  Pteropus  phaiops  Temminck  =  Pteropus  melanopogon 
Peters,  from  Amboina. 



Pteropus  [contd.] 

1870.  Pselaphon  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  Lemurs  &  Fruiteating  Bats,  B.M.  1 10.  Pteropus 

pselaphon  Layard,  from  Bonin  Islands. 
1899.   Sericonycteris  Matschie,   Megachiroptera  Berlin   Mus.   6,   30.  Pteropus  subniger 

(Kerr)  from  Reunion  and  Mauritius. 
1907.  Desmalopex  Miller,  Fam.  &  Gen.  Bats,  60.  Pteropus  leucopterus  Temminck,  from 

Luzon,  Philippine  Islands. 

The  genus  appears  to  need  revision ;  in  the  present  region^  the  following  si.x  species 
seem  most  likely  to  prove  valid : 

Pteropus  dasymallus,  page  94 
Pteropus  hypomelanus,  page  95 
Pteropus  Ivlei,  page  96 
Pteropus  mariannus,  page  95 
Pteropus  melanotus,  page  96 
Pteropus  vampyrus,  page  96 

Andersen  di\ided  this  large  genus  into  17  species  groups  and  82  species.  Four  of 
his  groups  occur  in  the  present  region. 

Pteropus  subniger  group 

(This  is  the  "hypomelanus  group"  of  Andersen,  but  P.  subniger  (Kerr,  1792),  from 
Reunion  Island,  east  of  Madagascar,  is  the  prior  name,  and  we  feel  that  species 
groups  should  be  named  after  the  earliest-named  species  which  they  contain.) 

Pteropus  dasymallus  Temminck,  1825  Liukiu  Islands  Flying  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Liukiu  Islands  and  Formosa. 

Pteropus  dasymallus  dasymallus  Temminck,  1825 

1824.  Pteropus  rubrkollis  Siebold,  de  Hist.  Nat.  Jap.   13.  Liukiu  Islands  (Andersen, 

1912).  Not  of  Geoffrey,  1810. 

1825.  Pteropus  dasymallus  Temminck,  Mon.   Mamm.   /.•    180,  pi.   10.  Type  locality 

restricted  to  Kuchino-Erabu,  North  Liukm  Islands  (Kuroda,  1933). 
1929.  Pteropus  vamagatai   Kishida,   Lansania,  Tokyo,   /,   8:    125.    Kuchino-Erabu, 
North  Liukiu  Islands. 

Pteropus  dasymallus  formosus  Sclater,  1873 

1873.  Pteropus  formosus  Sclater,  P.Z..S.  193,  pi.  22.  Taku,  Formosa. 

Pteropus  dasymallus  inopinatus  Kuroda,  1933 

1933.  Pteropus  dasymallus  inopinatus  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  14:  314.  Nago-Mura,  Kunjan, 
Okinawa  Island,  Liukiu  Islands. 

Pteropus  dasymallus  yayeya.mae  Kuroda,  1933 

1933.   Pteropus  dasymallus yayeyamae  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  14:  315.  Ishigaki,  Yayeyama 
group,  South  Liukiu  Islands. 



Pteropus  hypomelanus  Temminck,  1853  Small  Flying  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Cochin-China,  Siam,  Mergui  Archipelago, 
islands  off  Lower  Siam,  Straits  of  Malacca,  islands  west  of  Sumatra,  Natuna  and 
Anamba  Islands,  islands  off  Borneo;  Celebes,  Philippine  Islands,  New  Guinea. 

(Pteropus  hypomelanus  hypomelanus  Temminck,  1853.  Extralimital) 
1853.  Pteropus  hypomelanus  Temminck,  Esq.  Zool.  Cote  Guine,  61.  Ternate  Island 
(Gilolo  group,  between  Celebes  and  New  Guinea). 

Pteropus  hypomelanus  condorensis  Peters,  1869 

1869.  Pteropus  condorensis  Peters,   Mber.   Preuss.  Akad.   \Viss.   393.   Pulau   Condor 

(Condor  Island),  off  Cambodia,  Indo-China.  Range:  said  to  occur  Cam- 
bodia and  Siam  (Andersen). 

Pteropus  hypomelanus  geminorum  Miller,  1903 

1903.  Pteropus  geminorum  Miller,  Smith's  Misc.  Coll.  4^:  60.  South  Twin  Island, 

Mergui  Archipelago.  Range  includes  certain  West  Siamese  Islands  (see 

Chasen,  1940,  Bull.  Raffles  Mus.  /j.-  22). 

Pteropus  (?)  hypomelanus  satyrus  Andersen,  1908 

1908.  Pteropus  satyrus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  362.  Narcondam,  North  Anda- 
man Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal.  (Andersen  retained  this  form  as  a  species,  but 
from  descriptions  it  seems  very  close  to  hypomelanus.) 

Andersen  also  referred  the  following  to  the  present  group : 

Pteropus  faunulus  Miller,  1902 

1902.  Pteropus  faunulus  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  24:  785.  Car  Nicobar,  Nicobar 
Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Pteropus  mariannus  group 

Pteropus  mariannus  Desmarest,  1822 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  described  from  Mariana  Islands,  Western 
Pacific;  represented  in  the  Liukiu  Islands. 

(Pteropus  mariannus  mariannus  Desmarest,  1822.  Extralimital) 
1822.  Pteropus  mariannus  Desmarest,    Encycl.    Meth.    (Mamm.)    2:    547.    Mariana 
Islands,  Western  Pacific. 

Pteropus  mariannus  loochoensis  Gray,  1870 

1870.  Pteropus  loochoensis  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  Lemurs  &  Fruiteating  Bats,  B.M.  106. 

Liukiu  Islands. 
1892.  Pselaphon  luchuensis  Seitz,  Mitt.  Dtsch.  Ges.  Naturk.  Ostasiens,  5;  364.  {N.V.) 
1894.  Pteropus  keraudreni  var.  loochooensis  Fritze,  Zool.  Jb.  Syst.  y:  854.  Okinawa, 

Liukiu  Islands. 



Pteropus  mclanotus  group 

Pteropus  melanotus  Blyth,  1863  Nicobar  Flying  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nicobar  Islands,  and  as  here  understood, 
Andaman  Islands;  Xias  and  Engano  Islands;  \Vestern  Sumatra;  Christmas  Island 
(south  of  Java). 

Pteropus  melanotus  melanotus  Blyth,  1863 

1846.  Pteropus  cdulis  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  /j;  367.  Not  of  E.  Geoflroy,  1810. 
1861.  Pteropus  mcohancus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien.  42:  389,  nom.  nud. 
1863.  Pteropus  melanotus  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  20.  Nicobar  Islands, 
Bay  of  Bengal. 

Pteropus  (?)  melanotus  tytleri  Mason,  1908 

1908.  Pteropus  trtlerl  Mason,  Rec.  Ind.  Mus.  2:  162.  Rutland  Island,  South  Andaman 
Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 
On  the  status  of  this  form,  see  K.  Andersen,  1912,  Cat.  Chiropt.  i:  821.  It  does 
not  seem,  from  present  knowledge,  that  this  form  should  be  granted  the  rank  of  a 
valid  species.  According  to  Chasen,  the  other  members  of  Andersen's  melanotus 
group,  respectively  from  Nias  Island  and  Engano  Islands,  west  of  Sumatra,  and 
Christmas  Island,  south  of  Java,  are  all  races  of  P.  melanotus,  although  .Andersen 
listed  them  all  binominally. 

Pteropus  vampyrus  group 

\Ve  provisionally  follow  Andersen  in  listing  members  of  the  vampyrus  group  as 
species,  though  with  the  exception  of  P.  lylei  it  seems  more  likely,  as  Andersen  himself 
suggests  on  p.  32'-,,  that  they  are  in  reality  all  members  of  one  species  for  which  the 
first  name  is  P.  vampyrus. 

Pteropus  lylei  K.  Andersen,  1908 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Siam  (Bangkok  region)  and  Saigon,  Cochin 

Pteropus  lylei  Andersen,  1908 

1908.  Pteropus  lylei  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  367.  Bangkok,  Siam. 

Pteropus  vampyrus   Linnaeus,  1758  Malayan  Large  Flying  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  has  been  recorded  from  Tenasserim  (^ool. 
Record,  1926,  Mamm.  47);  Annam,  and  Phu  Q_uoc  Island,  Indo-China  (Osgood, 
1932)  Also  from  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Philippine  Islands,  Bali, 
Timor,  and  numerous  adjacent  small  Malaysian  islands. 

(Pteropus  vampvrus  vampyrus  Linnaeus,  1758.  Extralimital) 
1758.   Vespertilio  vampyrus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  31.  Java. 



Pteropus  vampyrus  malaccensis  Andersen,  1908 

1908.  Pteropus  vampyrus  malaccensis  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  368.  Kuala  Tem- 
beling,  Pahang,  200  ft.,  Malay  Peninsula.  Range:  Malay  States,  Sumatra, 
some  adjacent  islands;  northwards  to  Indo-China,  as  noted  above,  and 

Pteropus  giganteus  Briinnich,  1782  Indian  Flying  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India  (widely  distri- 
buted), northwards  to  Rajputana,  Cutch,  Kathiawar  and  district,  Kumaon,  Punjab; 
Nepal,  Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  Assam,  Manipur,  Pegu  in  Burma. 

Pteropus  giganteus  giganteus  Brunnich,  1782 

1782.  Vespertilio  gigantea  Brunnich,  Dyrenes  Historic,  /.•  45.  Bengal,  India. 

1825.  Pteropus  medius  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  /.•  176.  Calcutta;  Pondicherry,  India. 

1828.  Pteropus  edwardsi  I.  Geoffroy,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  i^:  699.  Bengal.  Not  of  E. 

Geoffroy,  18 10. 
1870.  Pteropus  kelaarti  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  Lemurs  &  Fruiteating  Bats,  B.M.  104. 


Range:  Ceylon,  Peninsular  India  north  to  Punjab,  and  apparently  eastwards  to 
Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  Pegu  (Wroughton,  1918). 

Pteropus  giganteus  leucocephalus   Hodgson,  1835 

1835.  Pteropus  leucocephalus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  700.  Central  region  of 

1839.  Pteropus  assamensis  M'Clelland,  P.Z.S.  148.  Assam. 

1840.  Pteropus  rubricollis  (misspelt  rubicollis)  Ogilby,  Madras  J.  Lit.  12:  146.  Assam. 

Nom.  nud.  Not  of  E.  Geoffroy,  1810. 

Range:  Nepal,  Assam,  Manipur. 

Other  forms  listed  as  species  by  Andersen  in  the  present  group : 

Pteropus  ariel  G.  Allen,  1908 

1908.  Pteropus    ariel    G.    Allen,    Bull.     Mus.     Comp.     Zool.     Harv.    52,     3:     28, 

fig.    I.   Male  Atoll,   Maldive  Islands   (south-west  of  Southern  Peninsular 


Pteropus  intermedius  Andersen,  1908 

1908.  Pteropus  intermedius  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  368.  Amherst,  Tenasserim. 
(This  seems  intermediate  between  P.  vampyrus  and  P.  giganteus, 
suggesting  that  all  these  forms  are  really  probably  only  subspecies  of 
P.  vampyrus.) 

Incertae  sedis 

Pteropus  daitoensis  Kuroda,  1921,  J.  Mamm.  2:  210.  Kita-Daitojima,  Daito  Islands, 
South-Eastern  Liukiu  Islands. 



Genus  CYNOPTERUS  F.  Cuvier,  1824 

1824.   Cynopterus  F.  Cuvier,  Dents  Mamm.  248.  Pteropus  marginatus  Geoffroy  =  Vesper- 

tilio  sphinx  Vahl. 
1828.  Pachvsoma  E.  Geoffroy,  Cours.  H.N.  Mamm.  13,  le^on  26.  Not  of  Macleay, 

1906.  Niadius  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  ig:  83.  Cynopterus  pnnceps  Miller, 

from  Nias  Island,  Western  Sumatra. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Cynopterus  brachyotis,  page  98 
Cynopterus  sphinx,  page  g8 

These  two  species  are  closely  allied,  but  occur  together.  Other  species  occur  in  the 
Malay  region. 

Cynopterus  sphinx  Vahl,  1797  Short-nosed  Fruit  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Hainan;  Peninsula  of  India,  where  it  is 
widely  distributed,  Ceylon,  Bengal,  Kumaon,  Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  Burma,  Indo- 
China,  Siam,  also  Sumatra,  Java,  Bali,  Lombok,  Timor. 

Cynopterus  sphinx  sphinx  Vahl,  1797 

1797.   Vespertilio  sphinx  Vahl,  Skr.  Nat.  Selsk  Copenhagen,  4,  i:  123.  Tranquebar, 

Madras,  India. 
1797.  Vespertilio  fibulatus  Vahl,  loc.  cit.  124.  Tranquebar,  Madras,  India. 
1803.  Pteropus  pusillus  E.  Geoffroy,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  H.N.  49.  India.  Not  valid,  as 

according  to  Sherborn  this  was  never  published. 
1810.  Pteropus  marginatus  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  75.-  97,  pi.  v.  Bengal. 

1837.  Pachvsoma  brevicaudatum  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  92.  Calcutta,  India. 
1870.  Cynopterus  marginatus  var.  ellioti  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  Lemurs  &  Fruiteating 

Bats,  B.M.  122. 
Range:    Ceylon,    Peninsula   of  India,    Kumaon,    Sikkim,    Bhutan    Duars,    Sylhct 
(Assam),  Chin  Hills  and  Shan  States,  Burma,  Northern  Siam. 

Cynopterus  sphinx  gangeticus  Andersen,  1910 

1 910.  Cynopterus  sphinx  gangeticus  Andersen,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   6:   623.   Lucknow, 

United  Provinces,  India.  Range  includes  Central  Provinces  and  Palanpur, 


Cynopterus  brachyotis   Miiller,  1838 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  has  been  recorded  from  near  Canton, 
Southern  China;  Ceylon;  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands;  Tenasserim,  Burma, 
Assam;  Siam;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and  adjacent  small  islands, 
Celebes,  Philippine  Islands. 

(Cynopterus  brachyotis  brachyotis  Miiller,  1838.  Extralimital) 

1838.  Pachvsoma   brachyotis   Miiller,   Tijdschr.    Natuur.    Gesch.  5,    i:    146.    Borneo. 

Range:  Lower  Siam,  east  to  Celebes,  Philippines. 



Cynopterus  brachyotis  scherzeri  Zelebor,  1869 

1869.  Cynopterus    marginatus    var.     {Pachysoma    scherzeri)     Zelebor,    Reise    Novara, 


13.  Car  Nicobar,  Nicobar  Islands.  Range  includes  Great  Nicobar  Island. 

Cynopterus  brachyotis  ceylonensis  Gray,  1870 

1870.  Cynopterus  marginatus  var.  ceylonensis  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  Lemurs  &  Fruit- 

eating  Bats  B.M.  122.  Ceylon. 

Cynopterus  brachyotis  brachysoma  Dobson,  1871 

187 1.  Cynopterus  brachysoma  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  105.  Andaman  Islands, 

Bay  of  Bengal. 
1873.  Cynopterus  marginatus  var.  andamanensis  Dobson,  loc.  cit.  148,  nom.  nud.  J.  Asiat. 
Soc.  Bengal,  42:  201,  pi.  xiv,  fig.  5. 

Cynopterus  brachyotis  angulatus  Miller,  1898 

1898.  Cynopterus  angulatus  Miller,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  316. 
Trang,  Lower  Siam.  Range:  Kindat  (Chindwin),  Western  Burma, 
Tenasserim,  Siam  (Nan,  Bangkok,  Chiengmai,  etc.),  Cambodia  and 
Annam,  Natuna  Islands  and  Anamba  Islands,  various  small  islands  off 

Cynopterus  brachyotis  hoffeti  Bourret,  1944 

1944.  Cynopterus  brachyotis  hoffeti  Bourret,  Notes  Trav.  Ecole  Sup.  Sci:  Hanoi,  j:  4. 
Cho-Bo,  near  Hanoi,  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Genus  MEGAEROPS  Peters,  1865 

1841.  Megera  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  274.  Pachysoma  ecaudatum  Temminck. 
1 84 1.  Megaera  Temminck,  loc.  cit.  359.  Not  of  Wagler,  1830,  or  Robineau-Devoidy, 

1865.  Megaerops  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  256.  Megaera  ecaudata  Temminck. 

Osgood  has  recorded  this  principally  Malaysian  genus  from  Indo-China.  Simpson 
(1945)  would  refer  it  to  Ptenochirus,  Peters,  1861,  from  which  it  seems  reasonably 

I  species :  Megaerops  ecaudatus,  page  99 

Megaerops  ecaudatus  Temminck,  1837  Temminck's  Fruit  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo;  recorded 
from  Annam,  in  Indo-China,  by  Osgood  (1932). 

Megaerops  ecaudatus  Temminck,  1837 

1837.  Pachysoma  ecaudatum  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  94.  Padang,  Western 



Genus  SPHAERIAS  Miller,  1906 

1906.   Sphaerias   Miller,    Proc.   Biol.   Soc.    Washington,    ig:   83.   Cynoplerus  hlanfordi 

I  species:  Sphaerias  hlanfordi,  page  100 

Sphaerias  blanfordl  Thomas,  iSgr  Blanford's  Fruit  Bat 

.\ppniximate  distribution  of  species:  Karin  Hills,  Burma,  and  Siam  according  to 

Sphaerias  blanfordi  Thomas,  1891 

1891.   CynopUrus  hlanfordi  Thomas,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Geneva,  i>,  10:  884,  921- 
922,  pi.  XI,  figs.  1-2.  Lcito,  Cheba,  Karin  Hills,  1,000  m.,  Burma. 

Subfamily     Macroglossinae 

Genus  EONYCTERIS  Dobson,  1873 

1873.   Eonycteris  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  148.  Alacroglossus  spelaeus  Dobson. 
1889.  Callinvcteris  ^entmk,  Notes  Lcyden  Mus.  //.•  209.  Callinycteris  rosenbergii  ]cn- 
tink,  from  Clclebes. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Eonycteris  spelaea,  page  1 00 

Eonycteris  spelaea  Dobson,  1871  Dobson's  Long-tongued  Fruit  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Burma,  Indo-China,  Siam,   Malay  States, 
Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Luzon  (Philippine  Islands). 

Eonycteris  spelaea  Dobson,  1871 

1871.  Macroglossiis  spelaeus  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  105,  106.  Farm  Caves, 
Moulmein,  Tenasserim.  Range  includes  Nan  in  Siam,  Tonkin,  Laos, 
Cochin-China  in  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo. 

Genus  MACROGLOSSUS  F.  Cuvier,  1824 

1824.   Macrnglossiis  C'uvier,  Dents  Mamm.  248.  Pternpus  minimus  Geoffroy. 

1840.  Kiodolus  Blyth,  in  Cuvier,  Anim.  Kingd.  69.  New  name  for  Maeroalossus,  under 

the  impression  that  it  was  preoccupied  by  Maeroglossum  Scopuli,  1777. 
1848.  Rhynchocyon  Gistel,  Naturg.  Thierr.  ix.  Not  of  Peters,  1847. 
1 89 1.   Carporvtctcris  Lydekker,  in  Flower  &  Lydekkcr,  Mamm.  Living  &  Extinct,  654. 

New  name  for  Macroglossiis  Cuvier. 
1902.   Odontonycteris ]cn\.mk.  Notes  Leyden  Mus.  2^:  140.  Odonto/mleris  wnr//  Jentink 

=  Macroglossiis  lagochiliis  Matschie,  from  Burn,  Moluccas. 

I  species  in  the  area  cosercd  by  this  list : 
Macroglossiis  minimus,  page  loi 



Macroglossus  minimus  E.  Geoffroy,  1810  Small  Long-tongued  Fruit  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java, 
Bali,  and  a  few  adjacent  islands.  (Tate  also  quotes  it  from  Darjeeling.) 

(Macroglossus  minimus  minimus  Geoffroy,  1810.  Extralimital) 

1810.  Pleropus  minimus  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  N.H.  Paris,  i^:  97.  Java. 

Macroglossus  minimus  sobrinus  Andersen,  igii 

191 1.  Macroglossus  minimus  sobrinus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  y:  642.  Gunong  Igari, 
Perak,  2,000  ft.,  Malay  States.  Range:  northwards  to  Tenasserim. 

sub-order     Microchiroptera 

Genus:  Rhinopoma,  page  loi 

Genus  RHINOPOMA  Geoffroy,  1818 

1818.  Rhinopoma  Geoffroy,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  2:   113.  Vesperlilio  microphyllus 

1 82 1.  Rhynopoma   Bowdich,   Anal.   Nat.   Class.    Mamm.   30.    Vesperlilio   microphyllus 


3  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Rhinopoma  hardwickei,  page  102 
Rhinopoma  kinneari,  page  102 
Rhinopoma  microphjllum,  page  102 

Formerly,  as  by  Dobson  and  Blanford,  all  known  forms  were  referred  to  a  single 
species,  R.  microphyllum,  although  Dobson  stated  that  the  Asiatic  representatives 
differed  in  certain  respects  from  the  African  ones.  See  particularly  Thomas,  1903, 
Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  11:  496,  and  WYoughton,  1912,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  21:  767. 
Wroughton  gave  a  key  to  the  known  forms.  Thomas,  in  erecting  cystops,  apparently 
failed  to  compare  it  with  hardwickei.  It  seems  clear  that  in  Egypt  there  are  two  species 
(a  larger  and  a  smaller)  occurring  together.  It  also  seems  clear  from  W'roughton's  key 
that  there  are  two  groups  of  species,  a  larger  (rare)  group  and  a  smaller  group  (or 
species)  which  occurs  throughout  much  of  the  range  of  the  genus,  at  least  as  far  as 
this  list  is  concerned.  The  prior  name  for  the  smaller  species  is  R.  hardwickei.  Accord- 
ing to  Wroughton,  this  and  its  allies  differ  from  the  large  microphyllum  group  both  in 
an  external  and  in  a  cranial  character,  but  it  is  very  difficult  to  believe  that  there  are 
in  reality  four  distinct  species  of  smaller  Rhinopoma,  and  the  smaller  named  species 
are  here  provisionally  made  representative  races  of  the  first-named  hardwickei.  The 
large  Indian  R.  kinneari  is,  from  descriptions,  larger  than  the  Egyptian  R.  micro- 
phyllum, and  widely  separated  from  it  geographically.  Another  equally  large  species 
has  been  described  from  Sumatra. 



Rhinopoma  microphyllum  Brunni-ch,  1782  Larger  Rat-tailed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Arabia,  Egypt,  Palestine,  perhaps  Persia. 

Rhinopoma  microphyllum  Brunnich,  1782 

1782.   Vesperlilio  microphyllus  Brunnich,  Dyrenes  Hist.  /.•  50,  pi.  6,  figs.   1-4.  Arabia 
and  Egypt. 

Rhinopoma  kinneari  \Vroughton,  1912 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Cutch,  Kathiawar,  Nimar  and  Bengal,  India. 

Rhinopoma  kinneari  VVroughton,  19 12 

1 91 2.  Rhinopoma  kinneari  VVroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  21,  3:  767.  Bhuj,  Cutch, 


Rhinopoma  hardwickei  Gray,  1831  Lesser  Rat-tailed  Bat 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species,  as  here  understood:  Peninsular  India,  known 
from  Rajputana,  Allahabad,  Khandesh,  Dharwar,  Sind,  Cutch,  Palanpur,  Kathia- 
war, Gwalior,  Central  Provinces,  Bellary,  Bengal;  (Kashmir  (Dobson)  and  Burma 
(Blanford)  ) ;  Lower  Siam;  Arabia,  Palestine  and  Persia;  Egypt  and  the  Sudan,  west 
to  Asben  region,  south  to  Lake  Rudolf. 

Rhinopoma  hardwickei  hardwickei  Gray,  1831 

1 83 1.  Rhinopoma  hardwickii  Gray,   Zool.   Misc.   37.   India.  Range:   Indian  range  of 
species  above,  and  Lower  Siani. 

Rhinopom.\  hardwickei  cystops  Thomas,  1903 

1903.  Rhinopoma  cystops  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.■  496.  Luxor,  Egypt.  Range: 
EgN'pt  and  Sudan,  westwards  to  Asben. 

Rhinopoma  hardwickei  muscatellum  Thomas,  1903 

1903.  Rhinopoma  muscatellum  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  498.  Wadi  Bani  Ruha, 
Muscat,  Arabia. 

Rhinopoma  hardwickei  arabium  Thomas,  19 13 

1913.  Rhinopoma  cystops  arabium  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  12:  89.  W'asil,  Yemen, 

4,000  ft.,  Arabia.  R^nge:  to  Midian  (North-Western  Arabia)  and  Palestine. 

Rhinopoma  hardwickei  seianum  Thomas,  191 3 

191 3.  Rhinopoma  muscatellum  seianum  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  12:  90.  Seistan,  Persia. 

Rhinopoma  hardwickei  pusillum  Thomas,  1920 

1920.  Rhinopoma  pusillum  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  25.  Sib,  South-Eastern 




Genera:  Coleura,  page  103 

Emballonura,  page  103 
Taphozous,  page  104 

A  key  to  these,  and  all  genera  of  Microchiroptera,  will  be  found  in  Miller,  1907, 
Families  &  Genera  of  Bats  (Emballonuridae  key,  p.  85). 

Genus  EMBALLONURA  Temminck,  1838 

1838.  Emballonura  Temminck,  Tijdschr.  Natuur.  Gesch.  5;  22.  Emballonura  monticola 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Emballonura  monticola,  page  103 

Emballonura  monticola  Temminck,  1838  Sheath-tailed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Northern  Siam  (Bangkok, 
quoted  by  Chasen,  1940).  Malay  States,  Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  and  certain  ad- 
jacent small  islands.  Philippine  Islands,  according  to  Dobson. 

Emballonura  monticola  Temminck,  1838 

1838.  Emballonura  monticola  Temminck,  Tijdschr.  Natuur.  Gesch.  ^:  25,  pi.  ii,  figs. 

1-2.  Java. 
(?)  1891.  Emballonura  semicaudata  Blanford,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  2:  345.  ?  Not 

ofPeale,  1848. 
1898.  Emballonura peninsularis  Miller,  Free.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  323.  Trang, 

Lower  Siam. 
Range:  as  above. 

Genus  COLEURA  Peters,  1867 
1867.  Coleura  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  479.  Emballonura  afra  Peters. 
I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Coleura  gallarum,  page  103 

The  first-named  species  in  this  genus  is  C.  afra  Peters,  1852,  from  Portuguese  East 
Africa.  The  South  Arabian  form  is  very  like  it  apparently,  but  from  descriptions  is 
a  little  smaller  in  forearm  and  upper  toothrow  measurements. 

Coleura  gallarum  Thomas,  1915  Aden  Sheath-tailed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Somaliland,  Sudan  and  Congo,  to  Aden 
district.  Southern  Arabia. 

Coleura  gallarum  gallarum  Thomas,  1915 

1915.  Coleura  gallarum  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i^:  576.  Zeyla,  British  Somaliland. 
Ranges  to  Aden  district.  South- Western  Arabia. 



Genus  TAPHOZOUS  GcofTroy,  1818 

t8i8.    Taphoznus   Geoffroy,    Description    de    I'Egypte,    2:    113.    Taphozous  perfnratus 

1838.   Saccnlaimus  Tcniminrk,  Tijclscln'.   Natuur.  Gesch.  5:  6.    Ttiphnzoi/s  snccninimus 

1866.   Saccolaimus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  92.  Taphozous  saccolaimus  Teniminck. 

Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1876.   Taphonvcleris  V)oh%on,  P.Z.S.  i8j'^:  548.  Taphozous  saccolaimus  Tcrammck. 
1922.  Liponrcferis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  267.  Taphozous nudiventris  Cretzschmar. 

Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

7  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Taphozous  kach'hensis,  page  106 
Taphozous  longimamis,  page  104 
Taphozous  melanopogon,  page  105 
Taphozous  nudiventris,  page  105 
Taphozous  perforatus,  page  104 
Taphozous  saccolaimus,  page  106 
Taphozous  theobaldi,  page  105 

\Ve  agree  with  Simpson  that  Saccolaimus  and  Liponycteris,  often  given  generic  rank, 
mav  well  be  regarded  as  subgenera.  Miller,  in  his  Families  &  Genera  of  Bats,  referred 
all  these  groups  to  a  single  genus,  and  Tate,  1941,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1141 :  i,  in  a 
review  of  the  Eastern  members  of  the  genus,  seems  to  come  to  the  same  conclusion. 
Dobson  ''1878,  379)  gives  a  key  to  the  species. 

Subgenus   TAPHOZOUS  Geoffroy,  1818 

Taphozous  perforatus  E.  Geoffroy,  1818  Tomb  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt,  southwards  to  Sudan  and  Kenya; 
Arabia;  Cutch  and  Kathiawar,  in  India. 

Taphozous  perforatus  perforatus  E.  Geoffroy,  1818 

1818.   Taphozous  perforatus  Geoffroy,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  2:  126.  Egypt.  Range: 
also  listed  from  Cutch  and  Kathiawar,  India,  by  \Vroughton  (1918). 

T.\PHOzous  PERFORATUS  Hi^EDiNus  Thomas,  1915 

1915.   Taphozous  perforatus  haedinus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  62.  Chanler 

Falls,    Northern    Guaso    Nyiro,    Kenya,    East   Africa.    Range:    to   Aden, 

Southern  Arabia,  and  district. 

Taphozous  longimanus   Hardwicke,  1825 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India,  where  it  appears 
to  be  quite  widely  distributed,  northwards  to  Palanpur,  Bengal,  thence  to  Burma, 
Tenasserim,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  probably  Flores,  whence  Dobson 
described  a  variety. 



Taphozous  longimanus  longimanus  Hardwicke,  1825 

1825.   Taphozous  longimanus  Hardwicke,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  i^:  525.  Calcutta, 

Bengal,  India. 
1841.   Taphozous  fulvidus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  10:  975.  Darjeeling,  North- 

Eastern  India. 

1 84 1.  Taphozous  brevicaudus  Blyth,  loc.  cit.  976.  Travancore,  India. 

1842.  Taphozous  canton  Blyth,  loc  cit.  11:  784.  Calcutta,  India. 
Range:  Indian  range,  as  listed  above. 

Taphozous  tnelanopogon  Temminck,  1841  Black-bearded  Tomb  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Java,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo  (prob- 
ably represented  in  Philippine  Islands),  Laos,  in  Indo-China,  Tenasserim,  Burma, 
also  widely  distributed  in  Peninsula  of  India,  south  at  least  to  Western  Ghats; 
Yunnan,  China. 

Taphozous  melanopogon  melanopogon  Temminck,  1841 

1 84 1.  Taphozous  melanopogon  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  287.  Bantam,  Western 
Java.     Range:  Java,  also  Indian  localities  as  above,  Yunnan  and  Laos. 

1841.   Taphozous  bicolor  Temminck,  loc.  cit.  290.  India. 

(?)  1913.  Taphozous  solifer  Hollister,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  26:  157.  Thought 
to  be  from  Pekin,  Chihli,  China.  See  G.  Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  & 
Mongolia,  /.■  160,  for  a  note  on  this  form.  Allen  thought  there  was  a  mistake 
in  the  locality  and  that  it  probably  came  from  some  more  tropical  locality, 
perhaps  the  Philippines.  It  was  said  to  be  very  close  to  T.  philippinensis, 
Waterhouse,  1845,  which  probably  represents  melanopogon. 

Taphozous  theobaldi  Dobson,  1872 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim;  Nimar  (Central  Provinces 
district,  India);  Indo-China  (Bourret,  1944);  Malay  States;  Java. 

Taphozous  theobaldi  theobaldi  Dobson,  1872 

1872.   Taphozous  theobaldi  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  152.  Tenasserim. 

Taphozous  theobaldi  secatus  Thomas,  1915 

1915.  Taphozous  theobaldi  secatus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  60.  Asirgarh, 
Nimar,  Central  Provinces,  India. 

Subgenus  LIPONl'CTERIS  Thomas,  1922 

Taphozous  nudiventris  Cretzschmar,  1830  vel  1831        Naked-bellied  Tomb  Bat 
Approximate  chstribution  of  species:  Palestine.,  Arabia;  Egypt;  Sudan. 

Taphozous  nudfventris  Cretzschmar,  1830  vel  1831 

1830    vel  1 83 1.   Taphozous  nudiventris  Cretzschmar  in  Riippell,  Atlas  Reise  Nordl. 

Afrika,  Saugeth.  70,  fig.  27b.  Giza,  Egypt. 
1841.   Taphozous  nudiventer  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  280. 



Taphozous  kachhensis   Dobson,  1872 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  India,  from  Sind,  Cutch,  Palanpur,  Kathia- 
war,  also  parts  of  the  Peninsula  (Bellary,  Mysore,  Khandesh) ;  Bengal  and  Sikkim; 
Burma;  Malay  States;  Iraq. 

Taphozous  kachhensis  kachhensis  Dobson,  1872 

1872.   Taphozous  kachhensis  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  41,  2:  221.  Cutch,  India. 
Range:  Indian  range,  as  above,  excluding  Burma. 

Taphozous  kachhensis  magnus  Wettstein,  191 3 

1913.   Taphozous  magnus  Wettstein,  Ann.  Naturh.  (Mus.)  Hofmus.  Wien,  2y:  466, 

pi.  XX,  figs.  1-6.  Basra,  Euphrates,  Iraq. 
191 5.   Taphozous   kachhensis    babylonicus    Thomas,   J.    Bombay    N.H.    Soc.    24:    58. 

Euphrates  River,  Iraq. 

Taphozous  kachhensis  nudaster  Thomas,  19 15 

191 5.   Taphozous  kachhensis  nudaster  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  59.  Pagan,  near 
Mt.  Popa,  Burma. 

Subgenus  SACCOLAIMUS  Lesson,  1842 

Taphozous  saccolaimus  Temminck,-  1838  Pouch-bearing  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India,  to  Bengal, 
perhaps  Burma;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java. 

(T.^PHOzous  SACCOLAIMUS  s.^ccoLAi.MUs  Tcmmiuck,  1838.  Extralimital) 
1838.    Taphozous  saccolaimus  Temminck,  Tijdschr.  Natuur.  Gesch.  j.'  14.  Java. 

Taphozous  saccolaimus  crassus  Blyth,  1844 

1844.   Taphozous  crassus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ij:  491.  Mirzapore,  Allahabad, 

United  Provinces,  India. 
(?)  1844    Taphozous  pulcher  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  /jj;  492.  Madras,  India. 
Range:  Mainland  range  as  above,  and  Sumatra. 

FAMILY     N  Y  C  T  E  R  I  D  A  E 

Genus:  Nycteris,  page  106 

Genus  NYCTERIS  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy,  1 795 

1795.  Nycteris  Cuvier  c&  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Encyclop.  2:  186,  nom.  nud.  Vespertilio 
hispidus  Schreber.  Name  validated  by  Opinion  iii  of  International  Com- 
mission on  Zoological  Nomenclature. 

1803.  Nicteris  Desmarest,  Nouv.  Diet.  H.N.  i§:  501. 

1838.  Petalia  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  494.  Nycteris  javanicus  Geoffroy. 

1866.  Nyclerops  Gray,  P.Z.S.  83.  Nycterops  pilosa  Gray  =  Vespertilio  hispidus  Schreber. 



2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  Hst: 
Nycteris  javanica,  page  107 
Nycteris  thebaica,  page  107 

On  this  genus  see  Andersen,  1912,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  546;  Dobson,  1878,  Cat. 
Chiroptera  B.M.  162  (key  to  species);  Tate,  1941,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1140,  7. 

The  first  named  species  in  this  genus  is  apparently  M.  hispida  Schreber,  1774,  from 
Senegal,  which  is  described  as  having  relatively  shorter  ears  than  the  two  species 
which  come  into  the  region  now  under  discussion.  Dobson  distinguishes  these  two 
principally  by  the  fact  thai  in  N.javanica  the  second  lower  premolar  is  two-thirds  the 
size  of  the  first  and  lies  in  the  toothrow,  whereas  in  N.  thebaica  the  tooth  is  minute, 
and  is  internal  to  the  toothrow;  and  by  the  shape  of  the  tragus. 

Nycteris  javanica  Geoffroy,  1813  Javan  Slit-faced  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Malay  States,  Java,  Borneo, 

(Nycteris  javanica  jav.anica  E.  Geoffroy,  181 3.  Extralimital) 
1813.  Nycteris  javanicus  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  N.H.  Paris,  20:  20.  Java. 

Nycteris  javanica  tragata  Andersen,  191 2 

igi2.  Petalia  tragata  Andersen,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   10:  546.  Bidi  Caves,  Sarawak, 
Borneo.  Range  includes  Malay  States  and  Tenasserim. 

Nycteris  thebaica  Geoffroy,  18 18  Egyptian  Slit-faced  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  recorded  from  the  Island  of  Corfu  (Greece) 
and  Palestine;  Arabia;  Egypt,  Sudan,  Kenya,  Angola. 

Nycteris  thebaica  thebaica  Geoffroy,  1818 

1818.  Nycteris  thebaicus  E.  Geoffroy,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  2:   119,  pi.  i.  No.  2. 

1840.  Nycteris  albiventer  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  /.•  439.  Nubia,  Sudan. 

Recorded  from  Palestine  as  a  valid  race  by  Aharoni,  1944,  Bull.  Zool.  Soc. 

Egypt,  6:  26. 
Range:  Egypt,  Palestine,  Corfu,  Northern  Arabia. 

Nycteris  thebaica  adana  Andersen,  191 2 

1912.  Petalia  thebaica  adana  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  548.  Myba,  near  Aden, 
Southern  Arabia. 

Genus:  Megaderma,  page  108 



Genus  MEGADERMA  E.  Geoflroy,  1810 

18111.   Mesiaderma    GcoflVoN',    Ann.    Mus.    H.N.    Paris,    /j:    190.    I'espniilin   spasma 

1847.   Eucheira  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  B91.  Megadcrma  schistacea  Hodgson 

=  Megaderma  Ivra  Geoflroy.  Not  of  Westwood,  1836. 
1866.  Spasma  Gray,  P.Z.S.  83.  Vespertilio  spasma  Linnaeus. 
1872.  Lvroderma  Peters,  Mber.   Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.   195.  Megaderma  lyra  Geoflroy. 

\"alid  as  a  subgenus. 

2  species:  Megaderma  lyra,  page  109 

Megaderma  spasma,  page  108 

We  follow  Chasen'  and  Simpson  in  regarding  Lvroderma  as  of  subgeneric  rather 
than  generic  value.  The  two  species  differ  in  the  shape  of  the  noseleaf  and  also  in  the 
width  of  the  skull;  excellent  figures  are  given  in  Dobson  (1878,  pi.  10). 

Subgenus  MEGADERMA  Geoffrey,  18 10 

Megaderma  spasma  Linnaeus,  1758  Malay  False  Vampire 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India,  Burma,  Tenas- 
serim,  Cambodia  (Indo-China),  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and 
various  small  adjacent  islands,  Celebes,  Philippine  Islands,  Ternate  (Moluccas). 

(Megaderma  spasma  spasma  Linnaeus,  1758.  Extralimital) 

1758.   Vespertilio  spasma  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  ed.  10,  /:  32.  Ternate. 

Megaderma  spasma  horsfieldi  Blyth,  1863 

1863.  Megaderma  horsfieldii  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  23.  India. 
Range:  Peninsula  ol' India. 

Megaderma  spasma  medium  Andersen,  1918 

1918.   Megaderma   spasma   medium   Andersen,   Ann.    Mag.   N.H.    2:    383.    Singapore 
Island.  (Ranges  to  Tenasserim.) 

Megaderma  spasm.^  majus  .'\ndcrsen,  1918 

1918.   Megaderma  spasma   majus  Andersen,   Ann.    Mag.   N.H.   2:   383.    Kin,    Lower 
Chindwin,  Burma. 

Megaderma  spasma  minus  Andersen,  1918 

1918.   Megaderma  spasma  minus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  2:  383.  Cambodia,  Indo- 
China.  Range  includes  Siam. 

Megaderma  spasma  ceylonense  Andersen,  19 18 

1918.   Megaderma  spasma  ceylonense  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  384.  Trincomalee, 



Subgenus  LYRO DERMA  Peters,  1872 

Megaderma  lyra  Geoffroy,  18 10  Indian  False  Vampire 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  Kwantung,  Fukien,  etc.,  in 
Southern  China;  India,  including  Bengal,  Palanpur,  Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  several 
localities  in  the  Peninsula,  south  at  least  to  Mysore  and  Western  Ghats  CBlanford 
gave  Kashmir  to  Cape  Comorin  and  Ceylon,  west  to  Karachi^i ;  Shan  States,  Burma; 
Malay  States. 

Megaderma  lyra  lyra  Geoffroy,  18 10 

1810.  Megaderma  lyra  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.X.  Paris,  /j.-   190.  India.  1?  East 

coast,  Madras.) 
1839.    Vesperlilio    (Megaderma)    carnatica    Elliot,    Madras  J.    Lit.    10:    96.    Dharwar, 

Southern  Mahratta,  India. 
1844.   Megaderma  spectrum  \Vagner,  in  Hiigels  Kashmir,  569,  pi.  Kashmir. 
1847.  Megaderma  schistacea  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  889.  Xorth-Eastern 

Bengal,  India. 

Range:  Burma,  Bhutan  Duars,  Sikkim,  Bengal,  Kumaon,  Palanpur,  Khandesh, 
Central  Provinces,  Bellarv',  Mysore  (India). 

Megaderma  lyra  sinensis  Andersen  &  \Vroughton,  1907 

1907.  Eucheira  sinensis  Andersen  &  ^V^oughton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  jg:   136.  Amoy, 

Fukien,  China. 
1930.  Megaderma  spasma  Shih,  Bull.  Biol.  Dept.  Sun.  Yat-sen  Univ.  9,   i.  Not  of 

Linnaeus,  1758.  (South-\Vestern  border  of  Hunan,  China.) 
Range:  Chinese  range  of  species  as  above,  and  Malay  States. 

Megaderma  lyra  c.aurin.a  Andersen  &  ^\'roughton,  1907 

1907.  Eucheira  lyra  caurina  Andersen  &  Wroughton,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  ig:  136.  Surat 
district,  India.  Range  includes  Dharwar,  Kanara  and  Western  Ghats, 
Peninsular  India. 


Genera:  Asellia,  page  130 

Aselliscus,  page  130 
Coelops,  page  131 
Hipposideros,  page  123 
Rhinolophus,  page  1 1 1 
Triaenops,  page  131 

Of  these  genera,  all  hut  Rhinolophus  belong  to  the  subfamily  Hipposiderinae,  which 
Miller,  1907,  Families  a?  Genera  of  Bats,  made  a  distinct  family.  The  two  groups  are 
closely  allied  and  frequently  referred,  as  here,  to  a  single  family. 


Subfamily     Rhinolophinae 

Genus  RHINOLOPHUS  Lacepcdc,  1799 

1790.  Rhinolopkus  Lacepedc,  Tabl.  Mamm.   15.  Vespertilio  ferrum-equinum  Schreber. 
1836.  Rkinocrepis  Gervais,  Diet.  Pittoresque  H.X.  4,  2:  617.  Vespertilio  ferrum-eqmnum 

1847.  Aquias  Gray,  P.Z.S.  15.  Rhinolopkus  luctiis  Temminck  and  Rhinolopkus  trifoliatus 


1866.  Phrllotis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  81.  Not  of  W'aterhouse,   1857.  Rkliiolnpkus  philippinensis 

Watcrliouse.  • 

1867.  Coelopkvllus  Peters,  P.Z.S.  1866':  427.  Rkinolophus  cnelophvllus  Peters. 

1 90 1.   Euryalus    Matschie,    S.B.    Ges.    Naturf.    Fr.    Berlin,    225.   Rhinolopkus   mehelyi 

1934.  Rhinophvllotis  Iredale  &  Troughton,  Mem.  Austral.  Mus.  6:  92.  Rhinolopkus 

meoapkyllus  Gray,  from  .Australia.  (Nom.  nud.) 

The  most  recent  reviews  of  part  of  this  very  large  genus  are  Tate,  1939,  Amer.  Mus. 
Nov.  No.  1036,  and  1943,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1219.  These  papers  deal  with  the 
Oriental  members  of  the  genus,  and  slightly  modify  the  arrangements  of  Andersen, 
1905,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  243,  281,  289  and  648;  1905,  P.Z-S-  2:  75,  121 ;  and  1918, 
Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  374.  Andersen  recognized  six  groups  of  species  m  Rkinolophus,  one 
of  which  appears  to  be  extralimital,  and  one  of  which,  the  macrotis  group,  Tate 
apparently  merges  with  the  Indus .  group.  We  entirely  agree  with  Tate  that  the 
''simplex''  group  of  Andersen  flater  called  "'megaphyllus"  group)  must  be  called  the 
ferrumequinum  group ;  the  last  is  the  type  species  and  much  the  earliest  name  in  the  genus. 

In  the  present  region,  the  following  21  species  seem  most  likely  to  prove  valid: 
Rkinolophus  acrotis,  page  1 13  Rkinolopkus  macrotis,  page  122 

Rhinolopkus  affinis,  page  1 1 3  Rhinolopkus  malayanus,  page  1 1 5 

Rkinolopkus  blasii,  page  120  Rkinolopkus  mekelyi,  page  120 

Rkinolopkus  clivosus,  page  1 12  Rkinolophus  monoceros,  page  1 19 

Rkinolopkus  coelophvllus,  page  123  Rkinolophus  pearsoni,  page  122 

Rkinolopkus  cornutus,  page  1 1 7  Rkinolophus  rex,  page  1 23 

Rhinolopkus  euryale,  page  119  Rhinolopkus  rouxi,  page  114 

Rhinolopkus  ferrumequinum,  page  11  i        Rkinolophus  subhadius,  page  119 
Rkinolopkus  hipposideros,  page  i  15  Rkinolophus  tkomasi,  page  i  14 

Rhinolopkus  lepidus,  page  1 1 8  Rkinolopkus  trifoliatus,  page  1 2 1 

Rkinolopkus  luctus,  page  1 2 1 

Rhinolopkus  ferrumequinum  group 

Tate  (1939)  lists  four  subgroups  which  come  into  the  region  now  under  discussion, 
typified  by  ferrumequinum,  affinis,  rouxi  and  borneensis  (Rkinolophus  horneensis  Peters, 
1 86 1,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  709,  Labuan,  North  Borneo).  In  the  present  region, 
of  the  species  listed  above  only  R.  malayanus  belongs  to  the  borneensis  subgroup; 
Osgood  recorded  this  species  from  Indo-China.  The  two  principally  Ethiopian  species, 
R.  clivosus  and  R.  acrotis,  are  nearest  ferrumequinum,  and  /?.  tkomasi  is  near  rou.xi. 


Rliinolophus  ferrumequinum  Schreber,  1774  Greater  Horseshoe  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  France,  Spain  and  Portugal,  Italy, 
Switzerland,  Holland,  Germany,  Hungary,  Greece,  Corsica  and  Sardinia;  Crimea, 
Caucasus,  Russian  Turkestan;  Japan,  Korea,  China  (states  of  Chihli,  Shantung, 
Shensi,  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Fukien) ;  Asia  Minor,  Persia,  Syria,  Palestine;  Kashmir, 
Kumaon,  Nepal,  Sikkim;  Algeria,  Morocco. 

Rhinolophus  FERRUMEquiNUM  FERRUMEQUINUM  Schreber,  1774 

1774.  Vespertilio  ferrum-equinum  Schreber,  Saugeth,  /;  pi.  62,  upper  figs,  (text,  p.  174). 

1776.  Vespertilio  equinus  Miiller,  Natursyst.  Suppl.  Regist.  Band,  20.  France. 

1777.  Vespertilio  solea  Zimmermann,  Spec.  Zool.  Geogr.  Quad,  452.  Not  available, 

see  Bull.  Zool.  Nomencl.  4,  1950:  547. 
1779.   Vespertilio  perspicillatus  Blumenhach,  Handb.  Naturgesch.  75  (part). 
1785.   Vespertilio  ungula  Boddaert,  Blench.  .\nim.  /.•  71.  Burgundy,  France. 
1792.   Vespertilio  ferrum-equinum  major  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  99.  Not  of  Kerr,  loc.  cit.  97. 

1798.   Vespertilio  hippocrepis  Schrank,  Fauna  Boica,  /.•  64.  Renaming  oi ferrum-equinum. 
1813.  Rhinolophus  unihastatus  Geoffrey,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  20:  257.  France. 
(?)  1829.  Rhinolophus  unifer  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.■  104,  nom.  nud. 
1863.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  var.  germanicus  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau  Ver.  Naturk.  18: 

522.  Wiesbaden,  Germany. 
1863.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  var.  italicus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  523.  Italy. 
1885.  Rhinolophus  unihastatus  \-a.T.  homorodalmasiensisDada.Y,  Orv.  Term.  Ert.  Kolosvar, 

10:  274.  Homorod-Almas  Caves,  Hungary. 
1887.  Rhinolophus  unihastatus  var.  homodorensis  Daday,  Ert.  Term.  Korebol,  Budapest, 

16,  7:  13.  Renaming  oi  homorodalmasiensis. 

1904.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  obscurus  Cabrera,   Mem.   Soc.  Esp.   H.N.  2:   2^J. 

Valencia,  Spain. 

1905.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  typicus  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  2:  113. 

191 1.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  colchicus  Satunin,  Izv.  Kauk.  Otd.  Russ.  Geog.  Obsc. 
21:  47-48.  [N.V.)  Abkhazia  (Southern  Russia).  (Satunin,  1914,  Mitt. 
Kaukas.  Mus.  8:  89.) 

Range:  Continental  Europe,  as  listed  above,  eastwards  to  Russia;  Algeria.  (The 
form  obscurus  is  recognized  as  valid  by  Andersen  and  by  G.  Allen  (1939),  from 
Spain,  Balearic  Islands,  Algeria,  Morocco.) 

Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  Nippon  Temminck,  1835 

1835.  Rhinolophus  nippon  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  30a.  Japan.  Range  includes 
Fukien,  Shantung,  Szechuan,  etc.,  in  China;  Hokkaido,  Hondo,  Shikoku 
Kiushiu,  Tsushima,  ?  Riukiu  Islands,  Japan. 

Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  tragatus  Hodgson,  1835 

1835.  Rhinolophus  tragatus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  699.  Nepal. 
1863.  Rhinolophus  brevitarsus  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  24,  nom.  nud. 
Range  includes  Sikkim;  and  Yunnan,  China. 


Rhinolophus  FERRUMEquiNUM  PROxiMus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolnphus  ferrum-eqiiinum  proximiis  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  ic/Oj,  2:  112.  Gilgit, 


1905.  Rhinolophus  Jtrriim-cquinum  regains  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  2;  112.  Mussoorie, 
Kumaon,  Northern  India. 

Rm.xoLOPHUs  FERRUMEQUINUM  iNSUL.\Nus  Banett-Hainilton,  19 10 
1910.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  insulanus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j.-  292. 
Cheddar,  Somersetshire,  England. 

Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  irani  Cheesman,  1921 

1 92 1.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  irani  Cheesman,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  35. 
Shiraz,  5,200  ft.,  Persia. 

Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  mikadoi  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Rhinolophus  ferrum-equinum  mikadoi  Ognev,  J.  Mamm.  8:  142.  Yokohama, 
Hondo,  Japan. 

Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  quelpartis  Mori,  1933 

1933.  Rhinolophus  quelpartis  Mori,  J.  Chosen  N.H.  Soc.  16:  i,  4.  Ki-nei,  Quelpart 
Island,  off  Korea. 

Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  korai  Kuroda,  1938 

1938.  Rhinolophus  ferrumequinum  korai  Kuroda,   List  Jap.   Mamm.   f|i    (in  full,   92). 

Southern  Korea. 
1 93 1.  Rhinolophus  nippon  pachyodonlus  Kishida  6c  Mori,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  43,  379, 

nom.  nud.  Korea. 

Rhinolophus  bocharicus  Kastschenko  &   Akimov,  1917 

iqi7.  Rhinolophus  hoeharicus  Kastschenko  &  Akimov,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St. 
Petcrsb.  22:  221.  Murghab  River,  South  Russian  Turkestan.  Considered  a 
subspecies  o[  R.  ferrumequinum  by  Ognev,  1928,  Mamm.  of  E.  Europe,  N. 
Asia,  /.•  397;  but  Kuzyakin,  in  Bobrinskii  (1944),  lists  it  as  a  full  species, 
from  South-Eastcrn  Turkmenia,  districts  of  Tashkent,  Samarkand,  near 
Kokand,  and  district  of  Termez,  migrating  to  Afghanistan  in  the  winter. 

Rhinolophus  clivosus  Crctzschmar,  1B28 

Appro.ximatr  distribution  of  species:  Red  Sea  coasts  of  Arabia  and  African  coast 
of  Gulf  of  Aden. 

Rhinolophi^s  CLivost  s  Crctzschmar,  1828 

1828.  Rhinolophus    elirosus    Crctzschmar,    in    Ruppcll,    Atlas    Reise    Nordl.    Afrika, 

Saut;cth.  47.  Mohila,  Red  Sea  coast,  approximately  27°49'  N.,  35°3o'  E., 



Rhinolophus  acrotis  Heuglin,  1861 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt,  Southern  Arabia,  Eritrea,  the  Sahara 
(in  part).  (B.M.  specimens  of  this  species  from  Hadramaut,  Southern  Arabia,  and 
from  Yemen,  South-\V'estern  Arabia.) 

(Rhinolophus  acrotis  acrotis  Heuglin,  1861.  Extrahmital) 

1861.  Rhinolophus  acrotis  Heuglin,  Nova  Acta  Leop.  Carol.  2g,  8:  4,    10.   Keren, 

Rhinolophus  .acrotis  andersoni  Thomas,  1904 

1904.  Rhinolophus  andersoni  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   14:   156.  Eastern  Desert  of 

Egypt,  about  22°  N.,  35°  E. 

Rhinolophus  acrotis  brachygnathus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  acrotis  brachygnathus  Andersen,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.    /j;   73.   Giza, 


Rhinolophus  acrotis  schwarzi  Heim  de  Balsac,  1934 

1934.  Rhinolophus  acrotis  schwar~i  Heim  de  Balsac,  Bull  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  y:  483. 
Djanet,  Tassah  des  Azdjers,  about  24°4o'  N.,  9°25'  E.,  Algerian  Sahara. 

Rhinolophus  afiinis  Horsfield,  1823 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  China  (Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Fukien, 
Chekiang,  etc.),  Hainan;  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Bhutan  Duars,  Darjeeling,  Burma  (from 
Pegu  to  Chindwin,  at  least);  Tonkin,  Indo-China;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java, 
Natuna  and  Anamba  Islands. 

(Rhinolophus  afflnis  affinis  Horsfield,  1823.  Extralimital) 

1823.  Rhinolophus  affinis  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Java  (6),  pi.  figs,  a,  b.  Java. 

Rhinolophus  affinis  him.'^layanus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus   affinis   himalayanus   Andersen,    P.Z.S.    igo^,    2:    103.    Mussoorie, 

Kumaon,  North-Western  India.  Ranges  eastwards  to  Burma  (part)  and 

China  (Hunan,  Szechuan,  Yunnan). 

Rhinolophus  affinis  macrurus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  affinis  macrurus  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  /5105,  2:   103.  Taho,  Karennee, 

South-Eastern  Burma.  Range  includes  Fukien  and  Chekiang,  Southern 

China  and  Tonkin. 

Rhinolophus  affinis  tener  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  affinis  tener  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  2:  103.  Pegu,  Burma. 

Rhinolophus  affinis  hainanus  J.  Allen,  1906 

1906.  Rhinolophus  hainanus  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  22:  482.  Pouten,  Island 

of  Hainan. 



Rhinolophus  andamanensis  Dobson,  1872 

1872.  Rhinolophus  andamanensis  Dobson,  J.   Asiat.   See.   Bengal,   41,   2:   337.   South 

Andaman  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal.  This  is  very  like  R.  affinis  and  may  be  a 

representative  of  it. 

Rhinolophus  rouxi  Temminck,  1835 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India,  Nepal,  Dar- 
jeeling,  China  (states  of  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Fukien,  Chekiang). 

Rhinolophus  rouxi  rouxi  Temminck,  1835 

1835.  Rhinolophus  rouxii  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  :?.•  30b.  Pondicherry  and  Calcutta, 

1850.  Rhinolophus  rubidus  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiat.  See.  2:   209.  Kaduganava, 


1 85 1.  Rhinolophus  fulvidus  Blytii  (error  for  rubidus  Kelaart),  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20: 


1852.  Rhinolophus  cinerascens  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faunae  Zeyl.  13.  Fort  Frederick,  Ceylon. 
1852.  Rhinolophus  rammanika  Kelaart,  loc.  cit.   14.  Amanapoora  Hill,   Kaduganava, 

Range:  Ceylon,  Nilgiri  Hills,  Dharwar,  Kanara,  Nepal,  Darjeeling,  etc. 

Rhinolophus  rouxi  sinicus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  rouxi  sinicus  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  2:  98.  Chinteh,  Anhwei,  Southern 
China.  Range:  Chinese  range  of  the  species. 

Rhinolophus  thomasi  Andersen,  1905 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  Yunnan,  Tonkin. 

Rhinolophus  thomasi  thomasi  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  thomasi  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  iQOfj,  2:  100.  Karin  Hills,  South-Eastern 

Rhinolophus  thomasi  latifolius  Sanborn,  1939 

1939.  Rhinolophus  thomasi  latifolius  Sanborn,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  24:  39.  Muong 
Moun,  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Rhinolophus  thomasi  septentrionalis  Sanborn,  1939 

1939.  Rhinolophus  thomasi  septentrionalis  Sanborn,   Field   Mus.    Publ.   Zool.    24:   40. 
Nguluko,  27 '5'  N.,  ioo"i5'  E.,  north  of  Likiang,  Yunnan,  China. 

Tate  lists  the  fillDwing  little-known  species  in  the  rouxii  subgroup. 

Rhinolophus  petersi  Dobson,  1872 

1872.  Rhinolophus  prtcrsii  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,   41,   2:   337.   No  locality. 

Perhaps  Irum  India.  Blanford,  1891,  listed  it  from  Mussoorie,  and  Coonoor 

in  the  Nilgiii  Hills. 



Rhinolophus  malayanus  Bonhote,  1903 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Lower  Siam  and  Indo-China  (Tonkin). 

Rhinolophus  malayanus  Bonhote,  1903 

1903.  Rhinolophus  malayanus  Bonhote,  Fasc.  Malayenses,  Zool.  /;  15.  Biserat,  Jalor, 

Malay  Peninsula. 

Other  named  form: 

Rhinolophus  chaseni  Sanborn,  1939 

1939.  Rhinolophus  chaseni  Sanborn,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  24:  38.  Pulau  Condor 

(Condor   Island),    off  Southern   Indo-China.    From   description,    nearest 


Rhinolophus  hipposideros  group 

Andersen  originally  called  this  the  "midas  group",  but  subsequently  adopted  the 
above  name  (correctly  so,  since  hipposideros  antedates  by  more  than  a  hundred  years). 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  Bechstein,  1800  Lesser  Horseshoe  Bat 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  Ireland,  France,  Spain,  Portugal, 
Switzerland,  Italy,  Sardinia,  Corsica,  Malta,  Germany,  Poland,  Hungary,  Russia 
(Southern  Ukraine,  Caucasus);  South  Russian  Turkestan;  Asia  Minor,  Persia, 
Cyprus,  Arabia;  Kashmir;  Morocco;  Sudan,  Eritrea. 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  hipposideros  Bechstein,  1800 

1792.  Vespertilio  ferrum-equinum  minor  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  99,  not  minor  Kerr,  loc.  cit. 

97.  France. 
1800.  Vespertilio  hipposideros  Bechstein,  in  Pennant,  Uebers.  Vierf  Thiere,  2:  629. 

1813.  Rhinolophus  bihastatus  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  20:  259.  Neighbour- 
hood of  Paris,  France. 
(?)  18 1 6.  Phyllorhina  minuta  Leach,  Syst.  Cat.  Mamm.  &  Birds  B.M.  5,  nom.  nud. 
(?)  1829  Rhinolophus  bifer  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  104,  nom.  nud. 
1840.  Rhinolophus  bifer  B\^L\nviUe ,  Osteographie,  Vespertilio,  31. 
1863.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  var.  typus  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau  Ver.  Naturk,   18:  530. 

Wiesbaden,  Germany. 
1863.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  var.  alpinus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  Alps. 
1870.  Rhinolophus  eggenhbffner  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  61,   i:    151.  MS. 

synonym  of  bihastatus. 
1885.  Rhinolophus  bihastatus  var.  kisnyiresiensis  Daday,  Orv.  Term.  Ert.  Kolozsvar,  10: 

274.  Kis-Nyires,  Szolnok  Dobaka,  Hungary. 
1887.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  var.  trogophilus  Daday,  Ert.  Term.  Korebol,  Budapest, 

16,  7:  8.  Renaming  oi  kisnyiresiensis. 

1904.  Rhinolophus  euryale  helvetica  Bretscher,  Vischr.  Naturf  Ges.  Zurich,  4g:  256. 

Baar,  Zug,  Switzerland. 

1905.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  tjpicus  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  igo§,  2:  141. 




(?)  1920.  Rhinolophus  anomalus  Sodcrlund,   Zool.   Anz.  5i\-    122.    Wildbad   Gastcin, 

Salzburg,  Austria. 
(?)  1920.  Rhinolophiis  intnrnedius  Sodcrlund,  loc.  at.  124.  Wildbad  Gastein,  Salzburg, 

(?)  1943.  Rhinolophus  moravicus  Kostron,  Acta  Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Moravia,  Brno,  75,  9:  13. 

Moravia,  Czechoslovakia.  See  also  Kostron,   1946,  Casopis  Vlast.  Spolkn. 

Mus.  Olmutz,  f)^:  i-ii. 
(?)  1943.  Rhinolophus  hipponderoi  intermedius  Laurent,  Bull.  Soc.  Z.  France,  68:   188. 

Not  of  Sodcrlund,  1920.  Geneva,  Switzerland. 
Range:  Continental  Europe,  north  of  the  Alps,  through  Armenia  to  North-Western 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  minutus  Montagu,  1808 

1808.    Vespcrtilio  minutus  Montagu,  Trans.   Linn.   Soc.   London,  g:    163.   Wiltshire,  Ranges  to  Ireland. 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  minimus  Heuglin,  1861 

1861.  Rhinolophus   minimus   Heuglin,   Nova   Acta    Leop.    Carol.    2g,    8:    6.    Keren, 

Eritrea,  North-Eastcrn  Africa. 
1863.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  var.  pallidus  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau  \'er.  Naturk.   18:  531. 

Mediterranean  region. 

1904.  Rhinolophus  phasma  Cabrera,  Mem.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  2:  252.  Madrid,  Spain. 
Range:   Mediterranean  region   (quoted   by   Miller  from  Spain,   Portugal,   France, 

Switzerland,  Italy,  Corsica,  Sardinia,  Malta,  Cyprus);  also  Eritrea  and  Senaar, 
Sudan  (G.  Allen);  recorded  from  Arabia  (Taif)  by  Morrison-Scott  (1939). 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  midas  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  wiWaj  Andersen,  /905,  2:  138.  Jask,  Persian  Gulf  Range:  Gilgit  to 

Cyprus,  according  to  Andersen  (1918),  who  appears  to  treat  this  form  as  a 
subspecies  in  his  key  (p.  378)  where  its  status,  and  that  of  the  other  named 
forms  recognized,  seems  not  very  clear. 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  m.«iJORi  Andersen,  1918 

1918.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  majori  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  -^11,  378.  Patri- 
nionio.  Northern  Corsica. 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  escaler,^e  Andersen,  19 18 

1918.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  escalerae  Andersen,  .'\nn.   Mag.   N.H.   2:   378.   Ha-ha, 
Mogador,  Morocco. 

Rhinolophus  hipposideros  vespa  Laurent,  1937 

1937.  Rhinolophus  hipposideros  vespa  Laurent,  Bull.  Soc.  H  N.  Afr.  N.  28:  157    Korifla, 

Rhinolophus  pusillus  group 
Andersen  first  called  this  the   "lepidus  group"   (1905),  subsef|uently  the  pusillus 
group.  Tate  prefers  the  first,  and  lists  one  of  its  subgroups  as  the  ''minor  subgroup". 



But  minor  Horsfield,  1823,  from  Java,  is  preoccupied  by  minor  Kerr,  1792  =  hippo- 
sideros,  and  so  cannot  be  used  in  this  group.  R.  pusillus  Temminck,  1834,  is  the  next 
available  name  for  minor  Horsfield  [nee  Kerr)  and  appears  to  be  the  earliest  name  in 
the  group.  The  type  locality  for  pusillus  is  Java,  and  we  believe  this  species  to  be 
wholly  extralimital  to  our  list,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  under  the  name  "minor" 
it  was  listed  by  earlier  authors  from  Darjeeling  and  Siam.  The  few  skins  examined 
from  Java  are  all  unusually  dark  in  colour  and  easily  distinguished  from  such  species 
as  cornutus  or  blythi,  which  represent  the  group  on  the  mainland,  and  the  latter  of 
which  is  likely  to  occur  in  Darjeeling  and  Siam.  But  we  suggest  that  there  is  very  little 
evidence  that  blythi  is  in  reality  a  species  distinct  from  cornutus,  as  we  suspect  the 
dental  details  given  by  Andersen  to  separate  blythi  may  not  be  constant,  and  there  is 
no  difference  in  size  (as  judged  by  forearm  length)  between  the  two  supposed  species 
when  all  races  are  taken  into  account. 

Tate  divided  the  Oriental  members  of  this  group  into  three  subgroups,  typified  by 
pusillus  {"minor"),  lepidus  and  subbadius,  and  in  addition  to  these,  the  three  well-known 
European  species,  blasii,  euryale  and  mehelyi  belong  here.  These  have  been  compared 
with  the  Oriental  species  by  Andersen.  R.  monoceros  belongs  to  the  subbadius  sub- 

The  reference  oi  R.  pusillus  is  Temminck,  1834,  Tijdschr.  Nat.  Gesch.  Phys.  i:  29 

Rlunolophus  cornutus  Temminck,  1835  Little  Japanese  Horseshoe  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Japan ;  Liukiu  Islands;  Szechuan,  Fukien, 
Kwantung,  Hainan,  etc.,  in  China;  Indo-China;  Siam;  Kumaon,  India;  and 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  cornutus  Temminck,  1835 

1835.  Rhinolophus  cornutus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  37.  Japan.  Range  includes 
Hokkaido,  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiushiu,  Iki  Islands,  Tsushima. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  pumilus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  cornutus  pumilus  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  igo§,  2:  127.  Okinawa,  Liukiu 
Islands.  Range  includes  Szechuan  and  Kwantung,  China. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  perditus  Andersen,  19 18 

1918.  Rhinolophus  perditus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  376.  Ishigaki,  Southern 
Liukiu  Islands. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  blythi  Andersen,  1918 

1918.  Rhinolophus  blythi  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  376,  377.  Almora,  5,500  ft., 
Kumaon,  Northern  India. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  szechwanus  Andersen,  1918 

1 9 18.  Rhinolophus  blythi  szechwanus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  376,  377.  Chunking, 

Szechuan,  China.  Range:  Szechuan,  Hupeh,  Yunnan,  Burma,  Darjeeling, 




Rhinolophus  cornutus  calidus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Rhinolophus  blj'thi calidus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85 ;  i.  Yenping,  Fukien, 

South-Eastern  China.  Ranges  to  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  orii  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Rhinolophus  cornutus  orii  Kuroda,  New  Manim.  Riukiu  Islands,  4.  San-Mura, 

Tokunoshima,  300  ft.,  Liukiu  Islands. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  miyakonis  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Rhinolophus  miyakonis  Kuroda,  New.   Mamm.   Riukiu   Islands,  5.   Nishisato, 
Miyakojima,  Liukiu  Islands. 

Rhinolophus  cornutus  parous  G.  Allen,  1928 

1928.  Rhinolophus  blythi  parcus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  317:  2.  Nodoa,  Island 
of  Hainan. 

Andersen  regards  the  following  member  of  the  pusillus  subgroup  as  a  distinct 
species : 

Rhinolophus  gracilis  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  gracilis  Andersen,  P.Z.S.  2:  129.  Malabar  coast,  India. 

Rhinolophus  lepidus  Blyth,  1844 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan  and  Yunnan,  China;  Central 
Provinces,  Ganges  Valley,  Kumaon,  Bengal,  etc.,  in  India;  Mt.  Popa,  Pagan  and 
Chindwin  River,  Burma. 

Rhinolophus  lepidus  lepidus  Blyth,  1844 

1844.  Rhinolophus  lepidus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat,  Soc.  Bengal,  ij:  486.  ?  Calcutta.  Range: 
India,  as  above. 

Rhinolophus  lepidus  shortridgei  Andersen,  igi8 

1918.  Rhinolophus  lepidus  shortridgei  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  376,  377.  Pagan, 

Burma.   Range  includes  Chindwin,  Burma;  also  Szechuan  and  Yunnan, 


The  following  species,  probably  belonging  to  the  lepidus  subgroup,  have  also  been 

Rhinolophus  monticola  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  monticola  Andersen,   P.Z.S.   igo§,   2:    124.   Mussoorie,   Kumaon, 
North-Western  India. 

Rhinolophus  feae  Andersen,  1907 

1907.  Rhinolophus  feae  Andersen,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  j:  474.  Biapo,  Karin 
Hills,  Burma. 


Rhinolophus  OSGOOD!  Sanbom,  1939 

1939.  Rhinolophus  osgoodi  Sanborn,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  24:  40.  Nguluko,  27°5'  N., 
ioo°i5'  E.,  north  of  Likiang,  Yunnan,  China. 

Tate  Hsts  the  following  in  the  lepidus  subgroup,  but  according  to  Andersen's  key 
(1918)  they  belong  to  the  garoensis  (=  subbadius)  subgroup. 

Rhinolophus  cognatus  cognatus  Andersen,  1906 

1906.  Rhinolophus  cognatus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  3,  2:  181.  Port 
Blair,  South  Andaman  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Rhinolophus  (?)  cognatus  famulus  Andersen,  19 18 

1918.  Rhinolophus  famulus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  377.  North  Central  Island, 
Andaman  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Rhinolophus  subbadius  Blyth,  1844 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nepal,  United  Provinces  (India)  and  Assam; 
Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Rhinolophus  subbadius  Blyth,  1B44 

1841.  Rhinolophus  subbadius  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  10:  908,  nom.  nud. 

1844.  Rhinolophus  subbadius  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  13:  486.  Nepal. 

1872.  Rhinolophus  garoensis  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  41,  2:  337.  Garo  Hills, 

Assam.  Andersen  ( 1918)  lists  garoensis  as  a  valid  form,  but  does  not  compare 

it  with  subbadius.  Wroughton  listed  it  as  a  synonym. 

Rhinolophus  monoceros  Andersen,  1905 
Distribution:   Formosa. 

Rhinolophus  monoceros  Andersen,  .1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  monoceros  AndeTstn,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  2:  131.  Baksa,  Formosa. 

Rhinolophus  euryale  Blasius,  1853  Mediterranean  Horseshoe  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Portugal,  Spain,  France,  Italy,  Sardinia, 
Austria,  Yugoslavia,  Greece;  south-east  coast  of  Black  Sea,  Caucasus,  and  South- 
West  Russian  Turkestan  (Turkmenia) ;  Syria,  Palestine  (Asia  Minor,  according  to 
Kuzyakin) ;  Morocco,  Algeria,  Egypt. 

Rhinolophus  euryale  euryale  Blasius,  1853 

1853.  Rhinolophus  euryale  Blasius,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  ig,  1:  49.  Milan,  Italy. 

1904.  Euryalus  toscanus  Andersen   &    Matschie,   S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.   Fr.  Berlin,   77. 

Caverna  di  Parignana,  Mt.  Pisani,  Italy. 
1904.  Euryalus  atlanticus  Andersen  &  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  St.  Paterne,  Indre-et-Loire, 

1904.  Euryalus  cabrerae  Andersen  &  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  78.  Alcala  de  Henares,  Madrid, 




Rhixolophi's  euryale  barbarus  Andersen  &   Matschic,  1904 

ig04.   Einvalus  barbarus  Andersen   &    Matschie,   S.B.   Ges.   Naturf.    Fr.   Berlin,   79. 

Tans;iers,  Morocco. 
I?)  1867.  Rhirwlophus  algiriis  Loche,  Expl.  Sci.  dc  TAl^crie,  Zool.  Mamm.  8;^,.  Altreria. 

Ranges  eastwards  to  Tunis. 

Rhinolophus  euryai.e  meridionalts  Andersen  &   Matschie,  1904 
1904.   Eurvalus  mcridtonalis  Andersen  &  Matschic,  S.B.  Ges.  Xaturf.  Fr.  Berhn,  70. 
Algeria  ("probably  a  mountain  form"). 

Rhinolophus  eury.\le  jud.mcus  Andersen   &    Matschic,  1904 
1904.   Eiirvalus  jiidaiais  Andenen  &  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  80.  Cave 
of  Adullam,  Jerusalem,  Palestine.  Range:  to  Egypt. 

Rhinolophus  euryale  nordmanni  Satunin,  191 1 

191 1.  Rhinolophus  eurvale  nordmanni 'S)3.t\in\n,  Izv.  Kavkaz.  Otd.  R.G.O.  21:  47.  (N.V.) 
Pa\lovsk,  Sukhum  district,  Transcaucasia. 

Rhinolophus  mehelyi  Matschie,  1901 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Spain,  Southern  France,  Sardinia,  Rumania, 

Rhinolophus  mehelyi  Matschie,  1901 

1901.  Rhinolophus  mehelvi  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf  Fr.  Berlin,  225.  Bucharest, 

1904.  Rhinolophus  carpelanus  Cabrera,  Mem.  Soc.  Esp.  ?i.N.  2:  254.  Madrid,  Spain. 

Rhinolophus  blasii  Peters,  1866 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Greece,  Cyprus,  Italy  (whence  recorded  in 
1931);  Palestine;  Transcaucasia  and  Turkmenia  (South-\\'est  Russian  Turkestan); 
Asia  Minor  (according  to  Kuzyakin) ;  North  Africa  (Dobson) ;  and  in  G.  Allen's 
Checklist  African  Mamm.,  but  without  details. 

Rhinolophus  blasii  Peters,  1866 

1857.  Rhinolophus  divosus  Blasius,  Siiugeth.  Deutschlands,  33.  Not  of  Cretzschmar, 

1828.  (Italy,  Sicily,  Istria,  Dalmatia.) 
1866.  Rhinolophus  blasii  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  17.  New  name  for  divosus 

Blasius  nee  Cretzschmar. 
1910.  Rhinolophus  hlasiusi  Trouessart,  Faunc  Mamm.  dT.urope,  9. 

Rhinolophus  luelus  group 

Andersen  (1911-))  originally  called  this  the  philippinensis  group  (based  on  R.  philippi- 
nensis  \Vaterhouse,  1843,  P-Z-^-  68,  from  Luzon),  but  later  ( 1918)  he  renamed  it  the 
luetus  group.  Strictly,  it  should  be  known  as  the  trifoliatus  group,  as  Irifoliatus  ante- 
dates luelus  bv  one  vear.  However,  in  order  not  to  introduce  further  nomenciatural 


muddle,  we  retain  the  name  luctus  for  the  group.  Tate,  1943,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov. 
No.  1 2 19,  has  considerably  altered  Andersen's  arrangement  of  this  group.  Tate 
divides  the  group  into  three  sections,  typified  by  luctus,  trifoliatus  and  philippinensis;  to 
the  section  typified  by  the  latter  he  apparently  refers  macrotis,  coelophjUus  and  rex. 

Rhinolophus  trifoliatus  Temminck,  1834  Trefoil  Horseshoe  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Darjeeling,  Tenasserim,  South-Western  Siam, 
Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and  adjacent  small  islands. 

Rhinolophus  trifoliatus  trifoliatus  Temminck,  1834 

1834.  Rhinolophus  trifoliatus  Temminck,  Tijdschr.  Natuur.  Gesch.  /.•  24,  pi.  i,  fig.  6. 

The   following  very   little   known   form   is   listed   near  trifoliatus   by  Tate,   but 
Wroughton  regarded  it  as  unidentifiable. 

Rhinolophus  mitratus  Blyth,  1844 

1844.  Rhinolophus  mitratus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  75.-  483.  Chaibassa,  Orissa, 

Rliinolophus  luctus  Temminck,  1835  Great  Eastern  Horseshoe  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Burma,  Nepal,  Sikkim,  United 
Provinces,  Peninsular  India,  Ceylon;  Fukien  (in  South-Eastern  China),  Hainan,  and 
probably  represented  Formosa;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo. 

Tate  (1943)  appears  to  regard  all  named  forms  as  subspecies,  but  we  have  retained 
R.  pearsoni  as  distinct  because  it  seems  to  occur  with  luctus,  and  it  differs  from  it  in  size. 

Rhinolophus  luctus  luctus  Temminck,  1835 

1835.  Rhinolophus  luctus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  24,  pi.  30.  Java.  Occurs  to 
Tenasserim,  according  to  Wroughton;  this  might  be  the  form  Rhinolophus 
morio  Gray,  1842,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  257,  from  Singapore,  a  valid  race 
according  to  Chasen  (1940). 

Rhinolophus  luctus  perniger  Hodgson,  1843 

1843.  Rhinolophus  perniger  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  12:  414.  Nepal.  Range 
includes  Kumaon,  Sikkim;  Chin  Hills  and  Shan  States,  Burma. 

Rhinolophus  luctus  lanosus  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  lanosus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  248.  Kuatun,  North- 
W'estern  Fukien,  China. 

Rhinolophus  luctus  beddomei  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  beddomei  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  253.  Wynaad,  Madras, 
India.  Range;  Peninsula  of  India. 



Rhinolophus  luctos  sobrinus  Andersen,  1918 

1918.  Rhinolophus  heddomei  sobrinus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  378.  Kala  Oya, 
North  Central  Pro\'incc,  Ceylon. 

Rhinolophus  luctus  spurcus  G.  Allen,  1928 

1928.  Rhinolophus  lanosus  spurcus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  317:  3.  Nodoa, 
Island  of  Hainan. 

Rhinolophus  (?)  luctus  formosae  Sanborn,  1939 

1939.  Rhinolophus  formosae  Sanborn,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  24:  41.  Formosa. 

Rhinolophus  pearsoni  Horsfield,  1851 

Approximate    distribution    of  species:    Kumaon,    Darjeeling,    Assam    (Dobson); 
Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Fukien,  in  China;  Indo-Clhina  (Tonkin). 

Rhixolophus  pearsoni  pearsoni  Horsfield,  1851 

1851.  Rhinolophus  pearsoni  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  E.  Ind.  Co.  33.  Darjeeling, 

North-Eastern  India. 
1872.  Rhinolophus  larvatus  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  248,  pi.  37a,  fig.  i; 

pi.  37c,  fig.  I.  Not  of  Horsfield,  1823.  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 
1872.  Rhinolophus  yunanensis  Dobson,  J.   Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,    41,    2:    336.   Hotha, 

Yunnan,  China. 
Range :  as  above,  except  Tonkin  and  Fukien. 

Rhinolophus  pearsoni  chinensis  Andersen,  1905 

1905.  Rhinolophus  pearsoni  chinensis  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  289.  Kuatun, 
Fukien,  South-Eastern  China.  Range:  to  Tonkin. 

Rhinolophus  macrotis  Blyth,  1844  Large-eared  Horseshoe  Bat 

Approximate   distribution  of  species:   Szechuan   and   Fukien,   China;   Kumaon, 
Nepal;  Indo-China;  Sumatra;  Philippine  Islands  (Tate). 

Rhinolophus  macrotis  macrotis  Blyth,  1844 

1844.  Rhinolophus  macrotis  Biyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  i^:  485.  Nepal. 

Rhinolophus  m.\crotis  siamensis  Gyldenstolpe,  1916 

1916.  Rhinolophus  macrotis  siamensis  Gyldenstolpe,  K.  Svenska  Vetensk.  Akad.  Handl. 
^j,  2:  12.  Doi  Par  Sakeng,  North-Western  Siam.  Range:  to  Tonkin,  Indo- 

RiiiNOLOPHrs  macrotis  episcopus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Rhinolophus  episcopus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85:  2.  VVanhsicn,  Szec- 
huan, China.  (Tate  (1943)  makes  this  a  race  oi macrotis.) 

Rhinolophus  macrotis  caldwelli  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Rhinolophus  episcopus  caldwelli  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85:  3.  Yuki, 
Fukien,  China.  Range:  to  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 



Rhinolophus  coelophyllus  Peters,  1867 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  Siam,  Malay  States. 

Rhinolophus  coelophyllus  coelophyllus  Peters,  1867 

1867.  Rhinolophus  coelophyllus  Peters,  P.Z.S.  1866:  426,  pi.  35.  Salween  River,  Burma. 

(Known  from  Moulmein  and  Tsagine  in  Upper  Burma,  Malay  States,  and 

Chiengmai,  Siam  (Tate).) 

Rhinolophus  coelophyllus  shameli  Tate,  1943 

1943.  Rhinolophus  coelophyllus  shameli  Tate,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1219:  3.  Koh  Chang 
(Island),  Siam. 

Rhinolophus  rex  G.  Allen,  1923 

.\ppro.\imate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan  and  Kweichow,  China. 

Rhinolophus  rex  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Rhinolophus  rex  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85:  3.  Wanhsien,  Szechuan, 

Subfamily     Hipposiderinae 

Genus  mPPOSIDEROS  Gray,  1831 

183 1.   Hipposideros  Gray,  Zool.  Misc.  37.  Vespertilio  speoris  Schneider. 

1837.  Phyllorhina  Bonaparte,  Fauna  Ital.,  pt.  21  :  3.  Rhinolophus  diadema  E.  Geoffroy. 

1866.   Gloionycteris  Gray,  P.Z.S.  82.  Phyllorhina  armiger  Hodgson. 

1866.  Speorifera  Gray,  P.Z.S.  82.  Hipposideros  vulgaris  Blyth  —Rhinolophus  laruatus 

1866.  Chrysonycteris  Gray,  P.Z.S.  82.  Hipposideros  fuhms  Gray. 

1866.  Rhinophylla  Gray,  P.Z.S.  82.  Phyllorhina  labuanensis  Tomes.  Not  of  Peters,  1865. 

1866.  Macronycteris  Gray,  P.Z.S.  82.  Rhinolophus  gigas  Wagner,  from  Angola. 

1 87 1.  Doryrhina  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  314.  Phyllorhina  cyclops  Temminck, 
from  the  Gold  Coast. 

1 87 1.  Sideroderma  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  324.  Phyllorhina  fuliginosa  Tem- 
minck, from  \Vest  Africa. 

1871.  Ptychorhina  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  \V'iss.  325.  Rhinolophus  caffer  Sundevall. 

1871.  Cyclorhina  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  326.  Phyllorhina  obscura  Peters, 
from  Luzon,  and  P.  doriae  Peters,  from  Borneo. 

1 87 1.  Thyreorhina  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  327.  Phyllorhina  coronata  Peters, 
from  Mindanao,  Philippine  Islands. 

1871.  Synodesmotis  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  329.  Phyllorhina  megalotis  Heug- 
lin,  from  Eritrea. 

1888.  Hipposiderus  Blanford,  P.Z.S.  i88j:  637  (Emendation). 

This  genus  is  revised  in  some  detail  by  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  j8: 
353-393,  who  divides  the  genus  into  1 1  species  groups,  six  of  which  occur  in  the 
present  region. 

I  123 

PALAEARC;TIC  and  IXDIAN  mammals   1758-1946 

In  the  present  region,  the  following  1 1  species  seem  most  likely  to  prove  valid: 

Hippoiideros  armigcr,  page  128 
Hipposideros  bicolor,  page  126 
Hipposideros  coffer,  page  129 
Hipposideros  cineraceus,  page  127 
Hipposideros  diadema,  page  125 
Hijiposideros  galcritus,  page  1 29 
Hipposideros  lankadiva,  page  125 
Hipposideros  larvatus,  page  124 
Hipposideros  pomona,  page  127 
Hipposideros  pratti,  page  129 
Hipposideros  speoris,  page  1 24 

Hipposideros  speoris  group 

H.  speoris  is  the  earliest  name  in  the  genus.  Tate  (1941,  377,  378)  compares  the  two 
species  referred  here. 

Hipposideros  speoris  Schneider,  1800  Schneider's  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

,\pprnxiniatc  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India.  Has  also  been 
recorded  (possibly  erroneously)  from  Java,  Borneo,  Timor. 

Hipposideros  speoris  speoris  Schneider,  1800 

1800.    Vespertilio  speoris  Schneider,   in   Schreber's   Saugeth.,   pi.    59b.   Tranquebar, 

India.  (Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  y8:  377.) 
1 83 1.  Rhinolophus  diikhunensis  Sykes,  P.Z.S.  99.  Deccan,  India. 
1838.   Hip/iiisideros  apiculatus  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  492.  ^[adras,  India. 
1838.  Hipposideros  penicillatus  Gray,  loc.  cit.  493.  Madras,  India. 
1850.  Hipposideros  tcmpletonii  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiat.  Soc.  2:  208.  Ceylon. 
i8'^2.   Hipposideros  aureus  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeylan,  18.  Ceylon. 
1852.  Hipposideros  hlvthi  Kelaart,  loc.  cit.  20. 
Range:  Ceylon;  Dharwar,  Kanara,  Mysore,  Coorg,  etc.,  in  Peninsular  India. 

Hipposideros  speoris  puixhellus  Andersen,  1918 

19 1 8.   Hipposideros  speoris  pulcliellus  Andersen,  .\nn.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  383.  Vijayanagar, 
Bellary,  India. 

Hipposideros  larvatus   Horsfield,  1823 

.VpprDximate  distribution  of  species:  Hainan;  Assam,  Burma;  Indo-China;  Malay 
States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo. 

Hipposideros  l.^rvatus  larvatus  Hursfield,  1823 

1823.  Rhinolophus  larvatus  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Java,  No.  6,  pi.  9.  Java.  Recorded 

from  Tonkin,  Indo-China,  by  Osgood;  Chasen,  however,  seems  to  restrict 

this  form  to  Java. 




1874.  Phyllorhina  leptophylla  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^j,  2:  234.  Khasi  Hills, 


1906.  Hipposideros  poutensis ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.  H.  22:  483.  Pouten,  Island 
of  Hainan. 

HiPPOSIDEROS  LARVATUS  gr.'>lNdis  G.  Allen,  1936 

1936.  Hipposideros  larvatus  grandis  G.  Allen,  Rec.  Ind.  Mus.  ^5,  3:  345.  Akanti,  Upper 
Chindwin,  500  ft.,  Burma.   ("Not  improbably  a  synonym  of  leptophylla" 



1942.  Hipposideros  larvatus  alongensis  Bourret,  C.  R.  Conseil  Rcch.  Sci.  Indochine, 
ig42,  2:  27.  Bay  d'Along,  Indo-China. 

Hipposideros  diadema  group 

The  subgeneric  name  Phyllorhina  is  available  here,  if  subgeneric  division  is  required. 
The  two  well-known  species  referred  here  are  discussed  by  Tate  (1941);  see  also 
Andersen,  19 18,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  381. 

Hipposideros  diadema  E.  Geoffroy,  1813  Large  Malay  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Burma,  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Java, 
Sumatra,  Borneo,  and  some  adjacent  small  islands,  Celebes,  Philippine  Islands; 
perhaps  represented  in  New  Guinea,  Queensland,  Solomon  Islands,  etc. 

(HiPPOSIDEROS  DIADEMA  DIADEMA  E.  Geoffroy,  1813.  Extralimital) 

1813.  Rhinolophus  diadema  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  20:  263,  pi.  6.  Island  of 
Timor.  Range  includes  Java. 

Hipposideros  diadema  masoni  Dobson,  1872 

1872.  Phyllorhina  masoni  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  41,  2:  338.  Moulmein,  Burma. 
Range  includes  Annam,  Indo-China. 

Hipposideros  lankadiva  Kelaart,  1850 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India. 

Hipposideros  lankadiva  lankadiv.\  Kelaart,  1850 

1850.  Hipposideros  lankadiva  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiat.  Soc.  2:  216.  Kandy,  Ceylon. 

Hipposideros  lankadiva  indus  Andersen,  1918 

1918.  Hipposideros  indus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   2:   382.  Gersoppa,  Kanara, 
Peninsular  India. 



HiPPOSiDEROS  LANKADivA  MixTUs  Andersen,  1918 

1918.  Hipposideros  Indus  mixtus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  382.  Kolar,  Eastern 
Mysore,  India. 

Hipposideros  lan'Kadiva  u.mtus  Andersen,  191 8 

1918.  Hipposideros  indus  unitus  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  382.  Mundra,  Sanger, 
Central  Provinces,  1,600  ft.,  India. 

Other  named  species  in  the  diadema  group  (it  is  possible  that  nicobarensis  represents 
diadema  and  that  schistaceus  represents  lankadiva) : 

Hipposideros  nicobarensis  Dobson,  1871 

1871.  Phrllorhina  nicobarensis  Dobson,  J.   Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,   ^o,   2:   262.   Nicobar 
Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Hipposideros  schistaceus  Andersen,  1918 

1918.  Hipposideros   schistaceus    Andersen,    Ann.    Mag.    N.H.    2:    382.    Vijayanagar, 
Bcllary,  India. 

Hipposideros  bicolor  group 

Revision:  Andersen,  1918,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  379.  Several  species  are  admitted, 
all  of  which  seem  closely  allied  to  each  other.  H.  cineraceus,  the  smallest  in  size, 
appears  valid.  Tate  (1941,  363)  lists  gentilis  and  allied  forms  as  races  of  bicolor,  but 
Chasen,  1940,  Bull.  Raffles  Mus.  i§:  44,  regards  bicolor  and  gentilis  as  species  occur- 
ring together.  We  suggest  pomona  is  the  earliest  name  for  the  races  currently  referred 
to  gentilis.  There  seems  little  evidence  that  the  Indian  fulvus  is  in  reality  more  than 
western  subspecies  of  bicolor. 

Chrrsonrcteris  Gray  is  available  if  subgcncric  division  is  required. 

Hipposideros  bicolor  Temminck,  1834  Bicoloured  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

.\pproximatc  distribution  of  species:  Nicobar  Islands,  Condor  Island  (off  Cochin- 
China) ;  Lower  Siam,  Sumatra,  Java;  as  here  understood,  also  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of 
India  ("where  widely  distributed),  Sind,  Cutch,  Rajputana,  Kathiawar;  Sikkim, 
Bhutan  Duars,  Burma  fChindwin  to  Shan  States,  Mt.  Popa),  Tenasserim;  Formosa 


Hipposideros  bicolor  bicolor  Temminck,  1834 

1834.  Rhinolophus  bicolor  Temminck,  Tijdschr   Natuur.  Gesch^  /,  i:  19,  pi.  i,_fig.  3. 

.^njer  coast.  North- Western  Java  (Tate) 
Siam,  Sumatra,  Java. 

Range:  Condor  Island,  Lower 



HipposiDEROs  (?)  BicoLOR  FULVus  Gray,  1838 

1838.  Hipposideros  fulvus  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  492.  Dharwar,  India. 

1838.  Hipposideros  murinus  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  492.  Madras,  India. 

1839.  Rhinolophus  fulgens  Elliot,  Madras  J.  Lit.  10:  99.  Dharwar,  India. 
1859.  Phyllorhina  aurita  Tomes,  P.Z.S.  76.  India. 

Range:  Peninsula  of  India,  as  far  north  as  Nasik,  Bombay. 

Hipposideros  (?)  bicolor  ater  Templeton,  1848 

1848.  Hipposideros  ater  Templeton,  J.  Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,   77,    i:   252.   Colombo, 

1850.  Hipposideros  atratus  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiat.  Soc.  2:  208.  Colombo,  Ceylon. 

Substitute  for  ater. 

Hipposideros  bicolor  nicobarulae  Miller,  1902 

1902.  Hipposideros  nicobarulae  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  24:  781.  Little  Nicobar 
Island,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Hipposideros  (?)  bicolor  pallidus  Andersen,  1918 

1 91 8.  Hipposideros  fulvus  pallidus  Andersen,   Ann.    Mag.  N.H.  2:  381.  Junagadh, 
Kathiawar,  India.  Range:  Kathiawar,  Cutch,  Sind,  Rajputana,  India. 

Hipposideros  pomona  Andersen,  1918 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Coorg,  India,  and  if  gentilis  is  correctly 
allocated  here,  Burma;  Fukien,  Yunnan,  in  China;  Hainan,  Indo-China;  Siam, 
Malay  States,  islands  west  of  Sumatra  (Nias  and  Engano),  Java,  Banka. 

Hipposideros  pomona  pomona  Andersen,  1918 

1 918.  Hipposideros  pomona  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  380,  381.  Haleri,  North 
Coorg,  Southern  India. 

Hipposideros  pomona  gentilis  Andersen,  191 8 

1 918.  Hipposideros  gentilis  Andersen,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   2:   380,   381.   Thayetmyo, 
Burma.  Ranges  to  Tonkin  and  Annam,  in  Indo-China. 

Hipposideros  pomona  sinensis  Andersen,  191 8 

1918.  Hipposideros  gentilis  sinensis  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  380,  381.  Foochow, 
Fukien,  Southern  China.  Range  includes  Yunnan  and  Hainan. 

Hipposideros  cineraceus  Blyth,  1853 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Punjab,  India;  Burma;  Raheng,  in  Siam; 
Tonkin,  in  Indo-China;  Malay  States,  Rhio  Archipelago,  Borneo,  Anamba  Islands. 

Hipposideros  cineraceus  cinEraceus  Blyth,  1853 

1853.  Hipposideros  cineraceus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  22:  410.  Near  Pind  Dadan 
Khan,  Salt  Range,  Punjab.  Range:  as  above. 



1872.  PhvUorhina  micropus  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  256.  Dehra  Dun,  near 
Simla,  Xorth-\\'cstern  India. 

The  species  //.  amhoinensis  Peters,  1871,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  323,  from 
Amboina  Island  (Moluccas),  which  Tate  says  is  probably  a  synonym  of  aruensis 
Gray,  i8-,8,  P.^S.  107,  Aru  Islands,  off  New  Guinea,  was  recorded  from  parts  of 
India  by  earlier  authors:  Blanford  (1891),  Dobson  (1878)  and  Wroughton  (1918).  It 
is  unlikely  that  an  Australasian  bat  would  occur  in  islands  off  New  Guinea,  India, 
and  nowhere  eke.  Dobson  placed  micropus  in  the  synonymy  oC  amhoinensis,  and  it  is 
most  likely  that  ■'amhoinensis"  of  the  earlier  writers  on  Indian  Chiroptera  is  the 
species  now  called  cineraceus. 

Hipposideros  armiger  group 
The  subgencric  name  Gloionvcteris  is  available  for  this  group. 

Hipposideros  armiger  Hodgson,  1835  Great  Himalayan  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  \"unnan,  Fukien  and  adjacent 
states  in  .South-Eastern  C:hina;  Formosa,  Liukiu  Islands;  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Assam, 
Burma  iChin  Hills,  Shan  States,  Mt.  Popa,  etc.);  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China;  Malay 

Hipposideros  armiger  ar.miger  Hodgson,  1835 

1835.  Rhmolophus  armiger  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  699.  Nepal.  Ranges  from 
Kumaon  to  Burma,  Tonkin,  Yunnan  and  Szechuan,  China. 

Hipposideros  armiger  swinhoei  Peters,  1871 

1871.  Phrllorhina  swmhoii  Peters,  in  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  i8jo:  616.  Amoy,  Fukien,  China. 
Ranges  to  Kiangsu  and  Chekiang,  South-Eastern  China.  ("Seems  to  be  in- 
distinguishable Irom  armiger"  (Tate,  1941,  390).) 

Hipposideros  (?)  armiger  turpis  Bangs,  1901 

K)Oi.   Hipposideros  turpu  Bangs,  Amer.  Nat.  35:  561.  Ishigaki,  South  Liukiu  Islands. 

Hipposideros  armiger  debilis  Andersen,  190b 

ir)o6.  Hipposideros   armiger  dehilis   Andersen,    .^nn.    Mag.    N.H.    ij:    37.    Province 

Welleslev,  Malay  Peninsula.  Perhaps  extra limital  to  this  list,  but  according 

to  Tate  reaches  Siam. 

Hipposideros  armiger  terasensis  Kishida,  1924 

1924.  Hipposideros  armiger  terasensis  Kishida,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  j6:  42.  Formosa. 
l.^'.r.)  "Seems  to  be  indistinguishable  from  armiger"  (Tate,  1941,  390). 

Hipposideros  armiger  tranninhensis  Bourret,  1942 

1942.  Hipposideros  tranninhensis  Bourret,  C.R.  Conseil  Rcch.  Sci.  Indochine,  ig42,  2: 
20.  Jarres,  Tran-Ninh,  Indo-China. 



Hipposideros  galeritus  group 

Tate  refers  H.  coffer,  from  Africa,  to  the  present  group,  and  for  this  the  name 
Ptychorhina  is  available  if  subgeneric  division  is  required. 

Hipposideros  galeritus  Cantor,  1846 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Bengal,  Southern  Bombay,  Palanpur, 
Central  India;  ?  Assam,  ?  Burma;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  and  certain  small 
adjacent  islands. 

Hipposideros  galeritus  galeritus  Cantor,  1846 

1846.  Hipposideros  galeritus  Cantor,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  75.-  183.  Penang,  Malay 
States.  Tate,  1947,  Mamm.  E.  Asia,  quotes  it  from  Burma  and  Assam. 

Hipposideros  galeritus  brachyotus  Dobson,  1874 

1874.  Phyllorhina  brachyola  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ./j,  2:  237.  Central  India. 

Range:  Ceylon,  Bengal,  Kanara,  Palanpur,  Central  India.  Tate  (1941,  367) 

suggests  it  is  a  race  oi  galeritus. 

Hipposideros  caffer  Sundevall,  1846  South  African  Lesser  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Morocco,  and  south  of  the  Sahara,  from 
Eritrea  and  Kenya,  and  from  Gabon  district,  at  least,  southwards  to  South-West 
Africa,  Natal,  the  Transvaal,  and  Pondoland  in  Eastern  Cape  Province.  South- 
western Arabia,  vide  Hayman,  1941,  in  Brit.  Mus.  Exp.  S.W.  Arabia,  1937-8, 
Chiroptera,  2. 

(Hipposideros  caffer  caffer  Sundevall,  1846.  Extralimital) 
1846.  Rhinolophus  caffer  Sundevall,  Ofvers.  Vetensk.  Akad.  Forh.  Stockholm,  j,  4: 
118.  Near  Durban,  Natal,  South  Africa. 

Hipposideros  caffer  tephrus  Cabrera,  1906 

1906.  Hipposideros  tephrus  Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  6:  358.  Mogador,  Morocco. 

For  notes  on  the  characters  of  the  caffer  subgroup,  see  Tate  (1941,  366). 
Hipposideros  pratti  group 

Hipposideros  pratti  Thomas,  1891  Pratt's  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  states  of  Szechuan,  Fukien,  Chekiang; 
Shan  States,  in  Burma;  Siam;  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China;  Malay  States. 

Hipposideros  pratti  pratti  Thomas,  1891 

1891.  Hipposiderus  (sic)  pratti  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  527.  Kiatingfu,  Szechuan, 
China.  Range:  China,  as  above,  and  Tonkin. 



1913.  Hipposideros  Ijlei  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  12:  88.  Chiengdao  Cave,  50 
miles  north  of  Chlengmai,  Northern  Siam.  Range:  Burma,  Siam,  Malay 

Genus  ASELLIA  Gray,  1838 

1838.  Ast-llia  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  493.  Rhinolophus  tridens  Geoffroy. 

The  subsidiary  genera  of  Hipposiderinae,  Asellia,  Aselliscus,  Triaenops,  Coelops,  and 
a  few  others,  were  reviewed  by  Tate,  1941,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1140.  Asellia  is 
restricted  by  Tate  to  A.  tridens  only. 

I  species:  Asellia  tridens,  page  130 

Asellia  tridens  E.  Geoffroy,  1813  Trident  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sind,  India;  Arabia,  Iraq,  Palestine;  Egypt, 
Algeria,  Morocco;  southwards  in  Africa  to  Somaliland  and  Zanzibar.  Blanford  also 
quoted  it  from  Southern  Persia. 

Asellia  tridens  tridens  E.  Geoffroy,  1813 

1 81 3.  Rhinolophus  tridens  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  20:  265.  Egypt.  Range: 
Egypt  to  Zanzibar  (G.  Allen). 

Asellia  tridens  murraiana  J.  Anderson,  1881 

1881.   Phyllorhina   tridens  var.    murraiana   Anderson,    Cat.    Mamm.    Ind.    Mus.    113. 
Karachi,  Sind,  Western  India. 

ASELLI,\    TRIDENS    DILUTA    K.   AndcrSCU,    I918 

1918.  Asellia  tridens  diluta  Andersen,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  •^'ji^.  El  Golea,  Algerian 
Sahara.  Range  includes  Biskra,  Northern  Algeria. 

Asellia  tridf.ns  pallida  Laurent,  1937 

1937.  Asellia  tridens  pallida  Laurent,   Mammalia,   /.•    iii.  Oued  Tatta,  Anti-Atlas, 
South-Western  Morocco. 

Genus  ASELLISCUS  Tate,  1941 

1941.  Aselliscus  Tate,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1140:  2.  Rhinolophus  tncuspidatus  Tcm- 
minck,  from  Amboina  (Moluccas). 

\Vhen  Tate  erected  this  genus  he  suggested  that  the  species  stolic^kanus  (Dobson, 
1 87 1,  from  Penang)  and  trifidus  should  be  referred  to  it.  He  also  compared  with  them 
the  species  ^'Triaenops''  or  '^Asellia"  wheeleri,  and  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  latter 
was  closely  related  to  stoltczkanus,  and  that  in  skull  characters  wheeleri  represents  a 
"quite  advanced  Hipposiderine  near  Aselliscus'\  As  wheeleri  seems  distinct  from  both 


Asellia  and  Triaenops,  it  is  tentatively  referred  here.  See  also  Dorst,  1948,  Mammalia, 
12:  16.  We  do  not  know  whether  wheeled  is  a  valid  species  or  a  race  of  one  of  the 
earlier-named  species  just  quoted. 

?  2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Aselliscus  trifidus,  page  131 
Aselliscus  wheeleri,  page  131 

Aselliscus  trifidus  Peters,   1871 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma. 

Aselliscus  trifidus  Peters,  1871 

1 87 1.  Phyllorhina  trifida  Peters,  P.Z.S.  513.  Burma. 

Aselliscus  wheeleri  Osgood,  1932 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Indo-China;  Kweichow,  in  Southern  China; 
Northern  Burma. 

Aselliscus  wheeleri  Osgood,  1932 

1932.   Triaenops  wheeleri  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  18:  224.  Muong  Moun, 
Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Genus  TRIAENOPS  Dobson,  1871 
1871.   Triaenops  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  40,  2:  455.  Triaenops  persicus  Dobson. 
I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Triaenops  persicus,  page  131 

Triaenops  persicus  Dobson,  1871  Persian  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Persia,  Arabia,  south  to  Aden,  Egypt. 

Triaenops  persicus  Dobson,  1871 

1 87 1.   Triaenops  persicus  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  40,  2:  455,  pi.  18.  Shiraz, 
about  4,750  ft.,  Persia.  Range:  to  Aden  and  Egypt. 

Genus  COELOPS  Blyth,  1848 

1848.  Coelops  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ly,  i:  251.  Coelops  frithii  Blyth. 
191 1.  Chilophylla  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  38:  395.  Chilophylla  hirsuta  Miller, 
from  Mindoro,  Philippine  Islands. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Coelops  frithi,  page  132 

From  descriptions  it  seems  that  there  is  not  likely  to  be  more  than  one  species  in 
the  area  now  under  consideration. 



Coelops  frithi  BIyth,  1848  Tailless  Leaf-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  oi'  species:  Szcchuan  and  Fukien,  China;  Formosa; 
Bengal;  Tonkin  and  Annani,  Indo-China;  Java,  and  perhaps  Malay  Peninsula  (if 
rohinsorii  Bonhote,  1908,  is  a  race  o^ frithi). 

Coelops  frithi  frithi  Blyth,  1848 

1848.   Coelopi  frithii  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ij:  251.  Sundarbans,  Bengal,  India. 

Coelops  frithi  inflatus  Miller,  1928 

1928.   Coelops  injlata  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  \Vashington,  41:  85.  Ycnpingfu,  2,000  ft. 
Fukien,  South-Eastern  China.  Range:  to  Indo-China. 

CoELOP.s  frithi  sinicus  G.  Allen,  1928 

1928.  Coelops  sinicus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  317:  4.  Two  miles  north-east  of 
Wanhsicn,  Szechuan,  C'hina. 

Coelops  frithi  for.mos.'vnus  Horikawa,  1928 

1928.   Coelops  formosnrms  Horikawa,  Trans.  N.H.   Soc.   Formosa,   j8,  No.  98:   339. 
Kuraru,  in  Koshun,  Formosa. 


Genera:   Ulnmops,  page  136 
Til  da  I  i  da,  page  1 32 

Genus  TAD  ARID  A  Rafincsque,  181 4 

1 8 14.   Tadarida  Rafincsque,  Precis  Som.  55.  Cephalotes  Icniolis  Rafincsque. 

1818.  Js'yclinomus  E.  Geoflroy,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  i\-  1 14.  Nyctiiwmus  aenyptiacus 

1 82 1.  Nvctinoma  Bowdich,  Anal.  Nat.  Class.  Mamm.  28. 

1 82 1.  .Nyctinomes  Gray,  London  Med.  Repos.  75.-  299. 

1822.  Nyctinomia  Fleming,  Philos.  Zool.  2:  178. 

1825.  Dinops  Savi,  N.  Giorn.  Lett.  Pisa,  Sci.  10:  229.  Dinops  cestoni  Sa\i  =  Cephalotes 

temotis  Rafincsque. 
1830    vcl  1 83 1.   Dvsnpes  Cretzschmar,  in  Rtippcll,  Atlas  Rcisc  nordl.  Afrika,  Saugeth. 

69.  Not  of  Illiger,  1811. 
1842.   Mops  Lesson,  Nouv.  Tabl.  Rcgn.  Anim.   18.  \[ops  indiais  Lesson  =  Dysopes 

mops  F.  Cuvier,  from  Sumatra.  Valid  as  a  subgenus 
1865.  Mormopterus  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  258.  Nyctinomus  jugidaris  Peters, 

from  Madagascar  =  Vespertilio  acetabulosus  Hermann  from  Mauritius.  Valid 

as  a  subgenus. 
1874.   Chaerephon  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^j,  2:  144.  Nyctinomus johorensis  Dob- 
son,  from  johore,  Malay  States.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1902.  Nyctinomops    Miller,    Proc.   Acad.    Nat.    Sci.    Philadelphia,    393.    Nyctinomus 

Jemorosaeca  Merriam,  from  California. 



1917.  Lophomops  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  ^j:  460.  Chaerephon  {Lophomops) 

chapmi  ].  Allen,  from  the  Belgian  Congo. 
191 7.  AllomopyJ.   Allen,  Bull.   Amer.   Mus.   N.H.  jj:   470.   Chaerephon   (Allomops) 

osborni  J.  Allen,  from  the  Belgian  Congo. 
1934.  Philippinopterus  Taylor,   Philippine   Land    Mamm.    314.    Philippinopterus  lanei 

Taylor,  from  the  Philippine  Islands. 
1934.  Micronomus   Iredale   &   Troughton,    Mem.   Austral.   Mus.   6:    100.   Molossus 

norfolcensis  Gray,  from  Norfolk  Island  (Australasia).  (Nom.  nud.) 
1934.  Austronomus  Iredale  &  Troughton,  loc.  cit.  Molossus  australis  Gray,  from  New 

South  Wales,  Australia.  (Nom.  nud.) 

This  genus  was  formerly  called  Njctinomus  by  virtually  all  zoologists,  but  Tadarida 
antedates.  Thomas  &  Hinton,  1923,  P-Z-S-  251,  would  separate  Nyciinomus  (type 
aegyptiacus)  from  Tadarida  (type  teniotis)  on  account  of  the  presence  of  four  or  six  lower 
incisors  respectively.  Miller,  however,  did  not  consider  this  of  even  subgeneric  value. 
It  is  customary  to  divide  this  genus,  which  has  a  nearly  world-wide  range,  into  half  a 
dozen  or  more  "genera".  Tate,  1941,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  1142,  has  shown  that 
the  chief  character  used  by  Miller,  1907,  Families  &  Genera  of  Bats,  244,  in  his  key  to 
the  genera,  to  divide  the  genera  into  groups  is  not  strictly  constant  in  Chaerephon. 
Thomas,  19 13,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Sac.  22:  89-91,  rearranged  the  genera  and  compli- 
cated the  classification  by  yet  further  generic  splitting.  We  cannot  help  feeling  that 
Simpson  (1945)  is  correct  in  stating  that  the  groups  Chaerephon,  Mops  and  Mormopterus, 
which  we  have  included  above  as  of  subgeneric  value,  can  well  be  included  in  the 
genus  Tadarida.  Simpson  also  included  Otomops  in  the  genus  Tadarida,  but  we  adopt 
Mr.  R.  W.  Hayman's  suggestion  {in  lilt.)  that  Otomops  should  be  retained  as  a  full 
genus  on  account  of  its  remarkable  cranial  characters  and  striking  external  features. 

5  species  of  Tadarida  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Tadarida  aegvptiaca,  page  134 
Tadarida  plicata,  page  135 
Tadarida  pumila,  page  1 35 
Tadarida  teniotis,  page  133 
Tadarida  tragata,  page  135 

For  key  to  species,  see  Dobson,  1878,  Cat.  Chiroptera,  420. 

Subgenus  TADARIDA  Rafinesque,  1814 

Tadarida  teniotis  Rafinesque,  1814  European  Free-tailed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Portugal,  France,  Italy,  Sicily,  Greece — has 
been  recorded  from  Switzerland;  according  to  Kuzyakin,  in  the  U.S.S.R.  it  only 
occurs  in  Transcaucasia  and  in  Russian  Turkestan  (near  Bokhara);  Korea;  Fukien, 
Chihli  and  Yunnan,  China;  and  has  been  recorded  from  Japan  and  Formosa. 
Trouessart  quoted  it  from  Persia,  and  Bodenheimer  (1935)  from  Palestine;  Egypt. 
In  addition,  Ognev  (1927)  quoted  it  from  Vladivostock. 



Tadarida  teniotis  teniotis  Rafincsque,  1814 

1814.  Cephalotes  teniotis  Rafinesque,  Precis.  Som.  12.  Sicily. 

1825.  Dinops  cestoni  Savi,  N.  Giorn.  Lett.  Pisa,  Sci.  10:  235.  Pisa,  Italy. 
1840.  Dvsopes  savii  Schinz,  Europ.  Fauna,  /.•  5.  Substitute  for  cestoni. 

1 87 1.  Dinops  cestonii  var.  nigrogriseus  Schneider,  N.  Denkschr.  Schweiz.  Gcs.  Naturw. 

2./,  4:  5.  Basel,  Switzerland. 
1 89 1.  Nyctinomus  taeniotis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  182. 

1897.  Dvsopes  midas  Schulze,  Helios,  Berlin,  /./.•  95.  Not  of  Sundevall,  1842. 
Range:  Italy,  Sicily,  Greece,  Portugal,  Caucasus,  Turkestan. 

Tadarida  teniotis  ruppelli  Temminck,  1826 

1826.  Dvsopes  riipelii  (sic)  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  /.•  224,  pi.  18.  Egypt. 

Flower,  1932,  Notes  on  Recent  Mammals  of  Egypt,  P.^S-  369,  does  not  list  the 
species.  G.  Allen  ( 1939)  includes  it  in  the  African  list  as  Mopi  riippelli,  with  a  note  that 
"there  seems  no  doubt  that  this  name  must  replace  midas  Sundevall"''!  1842,  from  the 
Anglo-Egyptian  Sudan).  There  are  no  specimens  in  the  British  Museum,  but  in  our 
copy  of  Temminck's  work  Thomas  has  noted  "=  teniotis".  Allen  does  not  include 
Tadarida  teniotis  in  his  African  list.  Mr.  R.  W.  Hayman,  who  has  compared  the  skulls 
of  teniotis  and  midas  with  Temminck's  description  and  figures  of  riippelli,  informs  us 
that  there  is  no  doubt  that  Thomas  was  right  and  that  Allen  was  wrong  in  listing 
midas,  which  is  a  true  Mops,  as  a  synonym  q(  riippelli. 

T.'^DARIDA    TENIOTIS    INSIGNIS    Blyth,    1 86 1 

1861.  Nvctinomus  insignis  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  50.-  90.  Amoy,  Fukien,  China. 
1870.   Dvsopes  (Molossus)  rueppelii  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  619.  Not  of  Temminck,  1826. 
1920.   Tadarida  latouchei  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  fj:  283.  Chiiigwantao,  coast  of 

North-Eastern  Chihli,  China. 
1 93 1.    Tadarida  septentrionalis  Kishida,  in  Kishida  &  Mori,  Z.  Mag.  Tokyo,  ^5.'  379, 

nom.  nud.  (J^.V.).  N.  Korea. 
Range:  Fukien  and  Chihli,  in  China;  Korea  and  Ussuri  region;  Japan  (Abe,  1944). 

Tadarida  teniotis  coecata  Thomas,  1922 

1922.   Tadarida  teniotis  coecata  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  392.  Mekong  Valley, 
about  28^20'  N.,  7,000  ft.,  Yunnan,  China. 

Tadarida  aegyptiaca  E.  Geoffroy,  1818 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Egypt;  Kenya  (Hollister,  1918) ;  Sind,  Cutch, 
Poona,   Rajpiitana,   P.ilanpur,   Kalliiawar,   Mysore,  Dharwar  and  Deccan,   India; 
Znluland  and  Cape  Province  (Roberts). 
Tadarida  aegyptiaca  aegyptiaca  E.  Geoffroy,  1818 

1 818.  Nvctinomus  aegvptiacus  Geoffroy,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  2:  128,  pi.  2,  No.  2. 

1826.  Dvsopes  geoffrovi  Temminck,    Mon.    Mamm.    /.•    226,   pi.    19.   Substitute   for 




The  following  also  appear  to  be  subspecies : 

Tadarida  aegyptiaca  sindica  Wroughton,  191 9 

1919.   Tadarida  sindica  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay.  N.H.  Soc.  26:  732.  Kashmor,  Upper 
Sind  Frontier,  India. 

Tadarida  aegyptiaca  thomasi  Wroughton,  1919 

1919.   Tadarida  thomasi  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  26:  732.  Bhuj,  Cutch, 

Tadarida  aegyptiaca  gossei  Wroughton,  19 19 

1919.   Tadarida  gossei  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  27;  733.  Sassoon  Hospital, 
Poona,  India. 

Tadarida  tragata  Dobson,  1874 

Appro-ximate  distribution  of  species:  Calcutta  and  Malabar,  India.  (Wroughton 
(1919)  stated  that  all  but  one  specimen  in  the  B.M.  from  India  for  this  subgenus 
belong  to  the  aegyptiaca  section.) 

Tadarida  tragata  Dobson,  1874 

1874.  J^yctinomus  tragatus  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  43,  2:  143.  Calcutta,  India. 

Subgenus  CHAEREPHON  Dobson,  1874 

Tadarida  plicata  Buchannan,  1800  Wrinkle-lipped  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Rajputana,  Peninsula  of  India,  Ceylon, 
Tenasserim;  Hainan;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Java;  probably  represented 
in  the  Philippine  Islands  and  Northern  Australia. 

Tadarida  plicata  plicata  Buchannan,  1800 

1800.   Vespertilio  plicatus  Buchannan,  Trans.   Linn.   Soc.   London,  5:   261,   pi.    13. 

Bengal,  India. 
1820.  Nyctinomiis  bengal ensis  DesTmLTest,  Encyclop.  Meth.  (Mamm.),  /.•  116. 
1830.  Dysopes  murinus  Gray,  Illustr.  Ind.  ZooL,  pt.  3,  pi.  i. 

Tadarida  plicata  insularis  Phillips,  1932 

1932.  Chaerephon  plicatus  insularis  Phillips,  Spolia  Zeylan.  16:  334.  Kumbalgamuwa, 

3,000  ft.,  near  Mulhalkelle,  30  miles  south-east  of  Kandy,  Central  Province, 


Tadarida  pumila  Cretzschmar,  1830  vel  1831 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  three  specimens  in  B.M.  from  Sabiya, 
1 7°  10'  N.,  42°3o'  E.,  Arabia.  South  of  Sahara,  known  from  Eritrea,  Southern  Sudan, 
Uganda,  Kenya,  Angola,  Portuguese  East  Africa,  Transvaal,  Bechuanaland,  etc. 



Tadarida  piMiLA  PLMILA  Cit'tzschmai",  1830  \el  1831 

1830  \cl  1831.  Dvsopes  fiiimihis  Crctzsclimar,  in  Ruppcll  Atlas,  Rcisc  Noidl.  Alrika, 
Saugfth.  69,  pi.  2~ .  Massawa,  Eliitrcii.  Ranges  to  Araliia,  as  above. 

Genus  OTOMOPS  Thomas,  191 3 
1913.   Olomops  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  X.H.  See.  22:  91.  Nvctinoinus  wroiig/Uoni  Thomas. 
I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  hst: 
Otomopi  wrouijhtoni,  page  136 

Ototnops  wroughtoni  Thomas,  19 13  Wroushton's  Free-tailed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kanara,  Southern  India. 

Otomops  wroughtoni  Thomas,  19 13 

1913.  Nvctinomus  wroiighloni  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  X.H.  Soc.  22:  87.  Barapede  Cave, 
near  Talewadi,  Kanara,  Indi.i. 

Cheiromdes  (Horsfield,  1824,  ^.  Res.  Java),  with  species  Cheiromcles  torquatus  Hors- 
field,  1824,  loc.  cit.,  Penang,  Malay  States  (the  Naked  Bat),  was  recorded  from 
Indo-China  by  Wagner  (1855)  and  from  some  part  of  Siam  by  Boitard  (1842),  but 
has  not  to  our  knowledge  been  collected  in  any  part  of  the  region  now  under  discus- 
sion in  recent  years,  and  is  most  likely  extralimital  to  this  list. 

Distribution:  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Celebes,  Philippine 

FAMILY     \-  E  S  P  E  R  T  I  L  I  O  X  I  D  A  E 

Genera:  Barhastella,  page  175  .Nyctalus,  page  158 

Discopus,  page  151  Njcticeius,  page  176 

Eptesicus,  page  153  Otonyckris,  page  180 

Glischropus,  page  173  Pipisirellus,  page  161 

Harpiocephalus,  page  187  Plecotiis,  page  180 

Hesperoplenus,  page  173  Scotomanes,  page  177 

Kcnvoula,  page  187  Scotophilus,  page  178 

Mimoptcrus,  page  182  Tylonrcluis,  page  174 

Murina,  page  184  I'espertUio,  page  151 
Mrolis,  page  137 

This  family  is  world-xside  in  distribution  and  one  of  the  largest  in  the  class 
Mammalia.  Dobson  (1878)  gave  a  key  to  most  of  the  species  then  known,  but  the 
nomenclature  and  generic  arrangement  of  this  work  is  now  out  of  date.  Miller,  1907, 
Families  &  Cenera  of  Bats,  re\ised  the  genera  (and  oversplit  them  considerably);  for 



key,  see  pp.  197-200.  Simpson  (1945)  has  attempted  some  reduction  of  Miller's  long 
list  of  genera,  but  in  our  opinion  has  gone  rather  too  far,  and  he  lists  Nyctalus  Bowdich, 
1825,  in  Pipislrellus  Kaup,  1829,  although  Myctalus  (which  is  in  any  case  a  distinct 
genus)  antedates  by  four  years.  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  j8:  567-597,  has 
reviewed  the  Oriental  members  of  the  Miniopterinae,  Kerivoulinae  and  Murininae, 
and  1942,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  80:  221-297,  the  Oriental  Vespertilioninae;  see 
also  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  y8:  537,  on  Eurasian  Myoiis.  On  the  European 
species,  see  Miller,  191 2,  Catalogue  of  the  Mammals  of  Western  Europe,  165. 

Subfamily     Vespertilioninae 

Genus  MYOTIS  Kaup,  1829 

1829.  Myotis  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  106.  Vespertilio  myotis  Borkhausen. 

1829.  Nystactes  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  108.  Not  of  Gloger,  1827.  Vespertilio 

bechsteinii  Kuhl. 

1830.  Leuconoe  Boie,  Isis,  Jena,  256.  Vespertilio  daubentonii  Kuhl.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1 841.  Selysius  Bonaparte,  Faun.  Ital.  /.•  Introd.  3.  Vespertilio  mystacinus  Kuhl.  Valid 

as  a  subgenus 

1 841.  Capaccinius  Bonaparte,  loc.  cit.  i:  Indice  Distrib.  i.  Vespertilio  capaceinii  Bona- 


1842.  Trilatitus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   10:  258.  Included  three  species:  hasseltii 

Temminck,  from  Java;  macellus  Temminck,  from  Borneo;  and  blepotis  (a 

Miniopterus) . 
1849.   Tralatitus  Gervais,  Diet.  Univ.  H.N.  13:  213,  modification  of  Trilatitus. 
1856.  Brachyotus  Kolenati,  Allg.  Dtsch.  Naturh.  Ztg.  2:   131.  Not  of  Gould,   1837. 

Vespertilio  mystacinus  Kuhl. 
1856.  Lotus  Kolenati,  Allg.  Dtsch.  Naturh.  Ztg.  2:    131.   Vespertilio  nattereri  Kuhl 

(Tate,  1 941).  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

1866.  Tralatitius  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  90,  modification  oi  Trilatitus. 

1867.  Pternopterus  Peters,   Mber.   Preuss.  Akad.   VViss.   706.    Vespertilio   [Pternopterus) 

lobipes  Peters  ?  =  Vespertilio  muricola  Gray. 
1870.  Exochurus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  62:  75.  (Based  on  macrodactylus 

Temminck,  horsfieldii  Temminck,  from  Java,  and  macrotarsus  Waterhouse, 

from  the  Philippine  Islands.) 
1870.  Aeorestes  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  62,  i :  427.  (Based  on  villosissimus, 

albescens  Geoffroy,  and  nigricans  \Vied,  the  last  two  from  South  America.) 
1870.  Comastes  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  62,   i:  565  (included  Vespertilio 

capaceinii  Bonaparte  and  Vespertilio  dasycneme  Boie). 
1899.  Euvespertilio  Acloque,  Faune  de  France,   Mamm.  38   (included  emarginatus, 

murinus  =  myotis,  mystacinus,  nattereri  and  bechsteinii). 
1910.   Chrysopteron  ]enx.\uk.  Notes  Leyden  Mus.  32.-  74.  Kerivoula  weberi },  from 

Celebes.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
191 7.  Rickettia  Bianchi,  .'Vnnu.  Klus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  21:  Ixxxii.   Vespertilio 

(Leuconoe)  ricketti  Thomas.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1917.  Dichromyotis  Bianchi,  .Vnnu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  21:  Ixxviii.  Vesper- 
tilio formosus  Hodgson. 


I'ALAEARCrnC  AND   INDIAN  MAMMALS    1 758-1946 

Mvoris  [conld.] 

iQiy.   Paramxotis  Bianchi,  Amiu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petcrsb.  21:  Ixxix.  New  name 

for  Nystactes  Kaup,  1829,  preoccupied.  Vespertilio  bechsteinii  Kuhl.  Valid  as  a 


It  is  also  probable  that  Pizonyx  Miller,  1906  (North  America)  and  Cisltigo  Thomas, 
19 1 2  (Africa)  should  be  referred  to  this  genus  as  subgenera. 

For  a  very  able  review  of  this  genus,  see  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.Ii.  y8: 
537.  Tate  recognizes  seven  subgenera  which  are  adopted  here.  It  is  not  quite  clear 
how  many  species  should  be  retained  in  the  region  now  under  discussion,  but  Tate's 
paper  and  other  works  suggest  that  the  following  20  are  most  likely  to  be  valid,  in 
the  area  covered  by  this  list : 

Myotis  adversus,  page  149  Mrotii  Jrater,  page  142 

Mvotis  altarium,  page  142  Myotis  ifconnikovi,  page  141 

Myotis  bechsteini,  page  143  Myotis  macrodactylus,  page  150 

Myotis  blythi,  page  145  Myotis  myotis,  page  144 

Myotis  capaccinii,  page  148  Myotis  mystacinus,  page  138 

Myotis  dasycneme,  page  150  Myotis  nattereri,  page  143 

Myotis  daubentoni,  page  147  Myotis  pequinius,  page  149 

Myotis  davidi,  page  149  Myotis  ricketti,  page  150 

Myotis  emarginatus,  page  141  Afyotis  sicanus,  page  146 

Myotis  formosus,  page  146  Myotis  siligorensis,  page  142 

We  suggest  that  blythi  is  the  prior  name  for  the  European  oxygnathus. 

Subgenus  SELYSIUS  Bonaparte,  1B41 

In  the  present  subgenus  Tate  recognizes  three  sections,  typified  by  M.  mystacinus, 
M.  emarginatus  and  M.  siligorensis,  and  does  not  allocate  M.  Jrater  (which  seems  very 
distinct).  There  is  little  doubt  that  from  descriptions  M.  altarium  is  a  valid  species. 
Tate  listed  .\I.  ikonnikovi  as  a  race  of  mystacinus,  but  it  is  retained  following  Kuzyakin, 
because  it  seems  to  occur  with  mystacinus  in  North-Eastern  Asia.  Where  the  two  occur 
together,  ikonnikovi  averages  smaller  than  mystacinus. 

Myotis  mystacinus   Kuhl,  18 19  Whiskered  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  Ireland,  Sweden,  Norway,  Belgium, 
France,  Spain,  Switzerland,  Germany,  Denmark,  Poland,  Holland,  Bohemia,  Hun- 
gary, Rumania,  Bulgaria  ("entire  Continent  of  Europe"  according  to  Miller). 
Russia,  north  to  about  62-63 'N  .,  south  to  the  Black  Sea  and  Caucasus,  Russian 
Turkestan,  eastwards  across  Siberia  to  the  Ussuri  region,  Sakhalin,  Kamtchatki. 
Japan,  Mongolia,  Chinese  Turkestan,  Formosa,  Korea;  China,  states  of  Szechuan, 
Shansi,  Chihli,  Yunnan,  Fukien;  Persia  (Ognev),  Afghanistan  (Kuzyakin) ;  Kashmir, 
Punjab,  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  Tenasserim;  Laos,  in  Indo-China;  repre- 
sented .Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo. 

Our  listing  of  this  species  is  based  on  that  of  Tate,  1941- 



Myotis  mystacinus  mystacinus  Kuhl,  1819 

1819.  Vespertilio  mystacinus  Kuhl,  Ann.  Wetterau  Ges.  Naturk.  4,  2:  202.  Germany. 

1 82 1.   Vespertilio  collaris  Schinz,   Das  Thierreich  von  Cuvier,   /.-    177.   Mt.  Blanc, 

Haute-Savoie,  France. 
1834.  Vespertilio  humeralis  Baillon,  Mem.  Soc.  £mul.  Abbeville,  18^;}:  50.  Abbeville, 

Somme,  France. 
1837.   Vespertilio  schinzii  Brehm,  Ornis,  j.-  27.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 

1843.  Vespertilio  schrankii  Wagner,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  g,  2:  25.  ?  Munich,  Germany. 
1863.  Brachyotus  mystacinus  var.  nigricans  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau  Ver.  Naturk.  18:  444. 

Wiesbaden,  Nassau,  Germany. 
1863.  Brachyotus  mystacinus  var.  rufofuscus  Koch,  lac.  cit.,  same  locality. 
1863.  Brachyotus  mystacinus  var.  aureus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  445.  Breisgau,  Germany. 
1869.   Vespertilio  mystacinus  var.  nigricans  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.■  92.  Switzerland. 
1869.   Vespertilio  lugubris  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.•  93.  Alternative  for  nigricans 

1 87 1.   Vespertilio  mystacinus  var.  nigrofuscus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  ^Viss.  Wien,  65,  i: 

217.  Renaming  oi  schinzii  Brehm. 
Range:  Europe. 

Myotis  mystacinus  brandti  Eversmann,  1845 

1845.  Vespertilio  brandtii  Eversmann,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  18,  i :  505.  Foothills  of 

Ural  Mountains,  U.S.S.R. 
1905.   Vespertilio  mystacinus  sibiricus  Kastschenko,  Observations  on  mammals  from 
W^.  Siberia  &  Turkestan,  in  Trans.  Tomsk  Univ.  27,  i :  25.  Siberia. 

Myotis  mystacinus  muricola  Gray,  1846 

1 841.   Vespertilio  muricola  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J.N. H.  2:  212,  nom.  nud. 

1846.  Vespertilio  muricola  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson  Coll.  B.M.  4.  Nepal. 

(?)  1867.   Vespertilio    (Pternopterus)    lobipes   Peters,   Mber.   Preuss.   Akad.   Wiss.   706. 

Akyab,  Arakan,  Burma. 
Range:  Nepal  to  Bhutan  Duars,  Tenasserim  and  Laos. 

Myotis  mystacinus  caliginosus  Tomes,  1859 

1859.  Vespertilio  caliginosus  Tomes,  P.Z.S.  73.  India.  Range:  known  from  Simla  and 

1 87 1.  Vespertilio  blanfordi  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  214.  Himalayas. 

Myotis  mystacinus  nipalensis  Dobson,  1871 

1844.  Vespertilio  pallidiventris  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J.N. H.  4:  286,  nom.  nud. 

1871.  Vespertilio  nipalensis  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  214.  Katmandu,  Nepal. 
(?)  1926.  Myotis  meinertzhageniThomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  609.  Junction  ofNubra 

and  Shyok  Rivers,  Ladak,  Kashmir. 

Myotis  mystacinus  moupinensis  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Vespertilio  moupinensis  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  253,  pi.  37a,  fig.  2; 

pi.  37c,  fig.  4.  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China.  Ranges  to  Yunnan  and  Fukien, 

K  139 

PAi.Ai-.ARcrnc;  and  indian  mammals  1758-1946 

Myotis  mvstacinus  MONTivAGus  Dobsoii,  1874 

1874.   Vi-spnlilio  montivagus  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bcnsral,  _/jj,  2  :  237.  Hotlia,  Yunnan, 
China.  Ranajes  to  Chihii,  Fukicn  (part),  China. 

Myotis  mysiwcini's  PRZEVVALSKn   Bubrinskii,  192G 

1926.  Mvotis  mrslncima pizeivahkii  Bobrinskii,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  95.  \'allcy  of 

Moldja    River,     northern    slope    of    Kotan    Tagh,     Southern    Sinkiang. 
RansTC :  to  Shansi,  China,  and  Russian  Asia. 

Myotis  mystacim's  gracilis  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Mrotis  mnlacimis  ortuilis  Ognev,  J.   Mamm.   8:    145.  Vladivostock,  Eastern 

Siberia.  Range  includes  Lake  Baikal  district  to  Sakhalin,  Kamtchatka,  also 
Korea,  Hokkaido,  Hondo,  Kurile  Islands. 

Myotis  mystacinus  transcaspicus  Ogncv  &  Hcptncr,  1928 

1928.  Mvolis    mystacinus    transcaspicus    Ognev    &     Hcptncr,    Zool.    Anz.    75.-    260. 

Mikhailovskoi,  Kopet  Dag,  Transcaspia. 

Myotis  mystac;inu.s  kukunoriensis  Bobrinskii,  1929 

i()29.   Mratis  niYStacinus  kukunoriensis  Bobrinskii,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petcrsb. 

o^;;    221.    Balekut-Gomi,    Hwang   Ho,   south   of  Kukunor,   Xorth-Eastcrn 


Myotis  mystacinus  latirostris  Kishida,  1932 

1932.   Myotis  latirostris  Kishida,  Lansania,  4,  40:  153.  (N.V.)  Central  Formosa. 
1935.   Myotis   muricola   orii   Kuroda,  J.    Mamm.    r6:    290.    Taihezan,    Taihokusiu, 
Northern  Formosa. 

Myotis  my.stacinus  sogdianus  Kuzyakin,  1934 

1934.  Mvolis  mystacinus  sogdianus  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  pj:  321,  329. 

Tashkent,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Myotis  mystacinus  pamirensis   Kuzyakin,  1935 

1935.  Myotis  mvstacinus  pamirensis  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  44:  431,  436 

)as('hul-Kul  Lake,  Pamir  Mountains    South-East  Russian  Turkestan). 

Myotis  .mystacinus  aurascens  Kuzyakin,  1935 

1935.   Myotis  mystacinus  aurascens  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  44:  432,  437. 
Knrkushin,  \'ladika\kaz,  Northern  Caucasus. 

Myotis  my.stacinus  bui.garicus  Hcinrich,  1936 

I(I3().   Myotis  mystacinus  bulgaricus  Heinrich,  Mitt.  Naturw.  List.  Sofia,  f):  38.  East  of 
Plovdiv,  Bulgaria. 

Mvoiis  mystacinus  hajastanicus  Argyropulo,  njii) 

I93().   Mrotn  mvstaciuNS  hajastanicus  Argyropulo,  Zool.  Pap.  Piinl.  Inst.  Erivan,  /.■  27. 
S(  hiirdsa  (Nadcshino),  Lake  Sevanga,  Armenia. 



Myotis  ikonnikovi  Ognev,  191 2 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  from  the  Russian  Altai  and  North-Eastern 
Mongolia,  east  to  Sakhalin,  north  to  Southern  Yakutia,  and  includes  Korea, 
Manchuria  and  Hokkaido. 

Myotis  ikonnikovi  Ognev,  1912 

1912.  Myotis  ikonnikovi  Ognev,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  16:  477.  Iman 
district,  Ussuri  Valley,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Myotis  emarginatus  Geoffroy,  1806  Geoffroy's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Holland,  France,  Germany,  Switzerland, 
Italy,  Hungary',  Greece,  Crimea,  Transcaucasia,  Russian  Turkestan,  Palestine, 
Persian  Baluchistan. 

Myotis  e.margin.^tus  emargin.^tus  E.  Geoffroy,  1806 

1806.   Vespertilio  emarginatus  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  8:   198.  Charlemont, 

Givet,  Ardennes,  France. 
1844.   Vespertilio  rufescens  Crespon,  Faune  Meridionale,  /.•  20.  Near  Nimcs,  Gard, 

France.  Not  of  Brehm,  1829. 
1853.   Vespertilio   ciliatus   Blasius,    Arch.    Naturgesch.    79,    i  :    287.    Near    Cologne, 

1856.  Vespertilio  sehrankii  Kolenati,  AUg.  Dtsch.  Naturh.  Ztg.  2:  178,  nom  mid.  Not  of 

Wagner,  1843. 
1880.   Myotis  ciliata  var.   budapestiensis  Margo,    Magvar  orv.   es   termeszetvisg.   xx, 

nagygyiil.  munk,  255.  Budapest,  Hungary. 
1890.    Vespertilio  neglectus  Fatio,  Arch.  Sci.  Geneve,  24:  512.  Valavran,  near  Geneva, 


Range:  Europe,  as  above,  east  to  the  Caucasus. 

Myotis  em.a.rgin.'^tus  desertorum  Dobson,  1875 

1875.   Vespertilio  desertorum  Dobson,  in  Blanford,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   16:  309.  Jalk, 

Persian  Baluchistan. 
1920.  Myotis  lanceus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  26:  933,  misprint,  corrected  to 

lanaceus  Wroughton,   1920,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  316.  Dizak  district, 

3,820  ft.,  Persian  Baluchistan. 

Myotis  em.\rginatus  turcom.\nicus  Bobrinskii,  1925 

1925.   Myotis  emarginatus  turcomanicus  Bobrinskii,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.   Moscou,  ^4:  358. 
Murgab  Valley,  Turkmen-Kala,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Myotis  emarginatus  saturatus  Kuzyakin,  1934 

1934.  Myotis  lanaceus  saturatus  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  Soc.  N.H.  Moscou,  ^j:  320,  329. 
Tashkent,  Russian  Turkestan. 



The  two  following  named  species  seem  allied  to  emarginatus.  Tate  placed  the  second 
in  subgenus  Mvotis,  but  the  measurements  he  gives  are  too  small  for  that  subgenus. 

Myotis  peytoni  W'roughton  &  Ryley,  1913 

1913.  Mxotis  pntoni  \\'roughton  &  Ryley,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  22:  13.  Gersoppa 
Falls,  1,300  ft.,  Kanara,  Southern  India. 

Myotis  pri.mula  Thomas,  1920 

1920.  Mrolii  primula  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  X.H.  Soc.  2y:  248.  Pashok,  3,500  ft.,  near 
Darjeeling,  Xorth-Eastern  India. 

Myotis  altariutn  Thomas,  191 1 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  China;  and  has  also  (1949)  been 
recorded  from  Kweichow,  China. 

Myotis  .\ltarium  Thomas,  191 1 

1911.  Mrolis  altarium  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  3;  P.Z.S.  161.  Omei  Shan  (Omi  San), 
Szechuan,  China. 

Myotis  siligorensis  Horsfield,  1855 

Approximate  distribution  of  species;  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Sikkim;  Fukien,  Southern 
China;  Tonkin,  Indo-China;  Siam. 

Myotis  siligorensis  siligorensis  Horsfield,  1855 

1855.   Vespertilio  siligorensis  Horsfield,  Ann.   Mag.   X.H.    /6'.-    102.   Siligori,   Xepal. 

{W'roughton  gave  Darjeeling.) 
(?)  1855.    Vespertilio  darjilingensis  Horsfield,  loc.  cit. 
Range:  includes  Kumaon,  Sikkim. 

Myotis  siligore.n'sis  sowerbyi  Howell,  1926 

1926.  Mvotis  sowerbyi  Howell,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  29-  'S^-  Venpingfu, 
Fukien,  3,000  ft..  Southern  China.  G.  Allen  referred  this  to  laniger  as  a 
synonym  (which  it  is  not,  according  to  Tate  and  Osgood)  and  quoted  that 
form  from  Yunnan,  Fukien,  Hainan. 

Myotis  siligorensis  alticraniatus  Osgood,  1932 

1932.  Myotis  siligorensis  alticraniatus  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool  18:  232.  Muong 
Moun,  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

.Myotis  siligorensis  thaianus  Shamel,  1942 

1942.   Myotis  siligorensis  thaianus  Shamel,  J.  Mamm.  2j:  323.  Chiengmai,  Siam. 

Myotis  frater  G.  Allen,  1923 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Fukien,  South-Eastern  China;  and  most 
likely  represented  in  Koiea,  the  Southern  Ussuri  district  of  Eastern  Siberia,  the 
Krasnoiarsk  district  fSiberia)  and  Tadjikistan  I'Russian  Turkestan). 



Myotis  frater  frater  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Alyotis  frater  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85:  6.  Yenping,  Fukien,  South- 
Eastern  China. 

Myotis  (?)  frater  longicaudatus  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Mvotis  longicaudatus  Ognev,  J.  Mamm.  8:  145.  Vladivostock,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Range:  to  Korea,  and  the  Siberian  localities  listed  above.  The  published 

measurements  are  very  similar  to  those  o{ frater. 

Subgenus  ISOTUS  Kolenati,  1856 

Myotis  nattereri  Kuhl,  181 8  Natterer's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Britain,  Ireland,  France,  Switzerland,  Spain, 
Italy,  Holland,  Denmark,  Sweden,  Norway,  Poland,  Germany;  Crimea,  Caucasus, 
a  few  places  in  Russia  (including  near  Leningrad,  Kirov  (formerly  Vyatka)  ) ; 
Kopetdag  (South-\Vestern  Turkestan),  Sayan  Mountains,  Southern  Yakutia,  Amur 
Valley,  east  to  Vladivostock;  Japan,  Korea  and  Manchuria  (Kuzyakin). 

Myotis  nattereri  nattereri  Kuhl,  18 18 

1818.   Vespertilio  nattereri  Kuhl,  Ann.  Wetterau  Ges.  Naturk.  ^,  i :  33.  Hanau,  Hessen, 

1863.  Isotus  nattereri  var.  typus  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau.  Ver.  Naturk.  18:  430.  Wiesbaden, 

1863.  Isotus  nattereri  var.  spelaeus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  Erdbach,  Nassau,  Germany. 

1904.  Myotis  escalerai  Cabrera,  Mem.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  2:  279.  Foyos,  near  Valencia, 

Range:  Europe. 

Myotis  nattereri  bombinus  Thomas,  1905 

1905.  Myotis  nattereri  bombinus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo§,  2:  337.  Tano,  Miyasaki  Ken, 

Kiushiu,  500  ft.,  Japan. 

Myotis  nattereri  amurensis  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Myotis  nattereri  amurensis  Ognev,  J.   Mamm.   8:    144.  Amur  River,   Eastern 
Siberia.  Ranges  to  Northern  Korea. 

Myotis  nattereri  tschuliensis  Kuzyakin,  1935 

1935.  Myotis  nattereri  tschuliensis  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  .^4:  434,  437. 
Tschuli  (Chuli),  Kopet-dag  Mountains,  South-\Vest  Russian  Turkestan. 

Subgenus  PARAMYOTIS  Bianchi,  1916 

Myoris  bechsteini  Kuhl,  1818  Bechstein's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Spain, 
Switzerland,  Germany,  Hungary,  Sweden,  Poland,  Lithuania,  Ukraine,  Caucasus 
and  North-Western  Transcaucasia 


l'ALA[v\RCTIC  AND  INDIAN   MAMMALS    1 738-1946 

Myotis  bechsteini  Kuhl,  181 8 

1818.   Vespertilio  bechstcinii  Kuhl,  Ann.   Wcttcrau.   Gcs.   Naturk.   ^,    i:   30.   Hanau, 

Hcsscn,  Germany. 
1902.   Vespertilio  ghidinii  Fatio,  Rev.  Suisse  Zool.  10:  401.  See  also  Fatio,  1905,  Arch. 

Sci.  Geneve,  ig:  511.  Lugano,  Ticino,  Switzerland. 
1906.  Myotis  bechstcinii  favonicus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:    220.    La   Granja, 

northern  side  of  Sierra  de  Guadarrama,  Segovia,  Spain. 

Subgenus  MYOTIS  Kaup,  1829 

We  provisionally  suggest  that  Myotis  blythi  (Tomes)  is  the  first  name  for  a  species 
hitherto  called  oxvgnathiis  which  is  much  like  M.  myotis  but  occurs  with  it  fairly 
extensively  in  Europe  and  averages  smaller  in  size.  From  these  two  species  M. 
siccirit/s  scenes  quite  distinct,  both  cranially  and  dentally. 

Myotis  myotis   Burkhausen,  1797  Large  Mouse-eared  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  Switzerland,  Itah',  Sardinia,  Spain, 
Portugal,  Germany,  Poland,  Hungary,  Rumania;  Southern  Sweden,  and  has  once 
been  recorded  from  England.  Eastwards  to  the  Soviet  Carpathians  (Kuzyakin); 
Shensi,  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Chekiang  and  Fukien,  China;  Persia  and  Afghanistan. 

As  here  listed,  this  is  equivalent  to  the  largest  members  of  Myotis  [sensu  stncto)  as 
listed  by  Tate,  1941,  p.  548. 

Myotis  myotis  myotis  Borkhausen,  i7f)7 

1774.    ]'cspertilii>  minimis  Schreber,  Saugeth.  /;    1G5,  and  of  Dobson,  Blanfird,  and 

earlier  authors,  but  not  of  Linnaeus,  1758. 
1797.    Vespertilio  myotis  Borkhausen,  Deutsche  Fauna,  /.•  80.  Thuringia,  Germany. 
1797.    Vespertilio  tnyosotis  (E.A.)  Compend.  Bibliothek,  21  ( Zoologe  5-1?) :  46.  (This 

work  does  not  appear  to  be  available  in  London,  and  the  reference  is  quoted 

as  given  by  .Sherborn.  Other  authors  have  rjuoted  it  as  of  Borkhausen  and  as 

of  Bechstein,  with  dates  1797  or  1800.) 
1827.    Vesficrtdio  siihmurimis  Brehm,  Ornis,  j.-  23.  Renthcndorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 
1844.    Vespertilio  latipennu  Crespon.  Faune  Meridionale,   /.■   17.  Near  .\imcs.  Card, 

1863.   Myotis  nuiiiiiiis  var.  typiis  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau  \'er.  Naturk.  18:  415.  Wiesbaden, 

Nassau,  Germany. 
1863.   \tyotis  murviu\  \ar.  alpinus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  St.  Gothard,  Uri,  Switzerland. 
1886.   Myotis    muniiii    \pclaea    Bielz,    Verb.    Mitt.    SiebenbUrgischen    Ver.    Nalurw. 

Hermaiinst.idt,  ^6'.-  83.  Homorod-Almas  Cave,  Hungary   .Nee  Kiich,   1863. 

Range:   Europe. 

Myoiis  myotis  {hinensis  Tomes,  1857 

l8-,7.    Ve\/iertilio  ehiiien\i\    Fomcs,   P.Z.S.   52.   Soutliern   C^hina.   Range:   \'unnau   to 
1  ukien. 



Myotis  myotis  omari  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  Mrotis  myotis  omari  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  2:  521.  Derbent,  50  miles  west  of 
Isfahan,  6,500  ft.,  Persia.  (Ognev  also  recorded  it  from  Kopet-Dag,  South- 
West  Russian  Turkestan.) 

Myotis  myotis  ancilla  Thomas,  1910 

1910.  Myotis  myosotis  ancilla  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  25;  P.Z.S.  636.  Shangchow, 
South-Eastern  Shensi,  China. 

Myotis  myotis  risorius  Cheesman,  1921 

1 92 1.  Myotis  myotis  risorius  Cheesman,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  sy:  575.  Shiraz,  5,200  ft. 

Myotis  myotis  luctuosus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Myotis  chinensis  luctuosus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85:  5.  Wanhsien, 
Szechuan,  China. 

Myotis  blythi  Tomes,  1857 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species,  as  here  understood:  Spain,  Switzerland, 
Austria,  Italy,  Sardinia,  Malta,  Montenegro,  Greece,  Crete;  U.S.S.R.  localities  in- 
clude Moldavia,  Crimea,  Caucasus,  Turkmenia,  ^Veste^n  Tianshan,  Hissar-Alai 
Mountains  and  Turanskaya  Lowlands.  Kuldja  (Western  Chinese  Turkestan) 
according  to  Ognev.  Rajputana,  Punjab  and  perhaps  Kashmir.  Asia  Minor  and 
Palestine  (according  to  Kuzyakin,  in  Bobrinskii).  Algeria,  Tunis,  Morocco. 

Myotis  blythi  blythi  Tomes,  1857 

1857.   Vespertilio  blythii  Tomes,  P.Z.S.  53.  Nasirabad,  Rajputana,  India.  Ranges  to 
Simla,  Northern  India. 

Myotis  (?)  blythi  dobsoni  Trouessart,  1878 

1873.  Vespertilio  murinoides  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^2,  2:  205.  Not  of  Lartct, 

1 85 1.  Chamba,  3,000  ft.,  North- Western  Himalayas. 
1878.  Vespertilio  dobsoni  Trouessart,  Rev.  Zool.  Paris,  6:  248.  New  name  for  murinoides 

Dobson,  preoccupied.  Synonym  oi  blythii,  according  to  Wroughton. 

Blanford  listed  the  form  Vespertilio  africanus  Dobson,  1875,  '^i  synonymy  with  blythi, 
but  it  is  thought  to  have  come  from  Gabon,  \Vest  Africa.  (See  G.  M.  Allen,  1939, 
Checklist  African  Mammals.) 

Myotis  (?)  blythi  oxygnathus  Monticelli,  1885 

1885.  Vespertilio  oxygnathus   Monticelli,   Ann.   Accad.   Aspir.   Nat.    /;   82.    Matcra, 
Basilicata,  Italy. 

Range:  Europe,  Turkestan,  North-\Vest  Africa  and  South-\Vestern  Asia,  as  listed 



Myotis  sicarius  Thomas,  191 5 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sikkim,  India. 

Myotis  sicarius  Thomas,  1915 

1915.   Mwtis  sicarius  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  23:  608.  Northern  Sikkim. 

Subgenus  CHRTSOPTERON  ]cnUnk,  1910 

Myotis  formosus  Hodgson,  1835  Hodgson's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Fukien  and  adjacent  states  in  Southern 
China,  Nepal,  Punjab,  Kumaon  (Blanford  also  quoted  it  from  Sikkim,  Bengal, 
Assam);  Korea,  Formosa,  Southern  Japan. 

Myotis  formosus  formosus  Hodgson,  1835 

1835.  Vespertilio  formosa  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  700.  Nepal.  Range  in- 
cludes Kumaon  and  Punjab. 

1863.  Kcrivoula  pallida  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  34.  Chaibassa, 
Orissa,  India. 

1 87 1.   Vesper lilio  auratus  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  40,  2:  186.  Darjeeling,  India. 

Myotis  formosus  rufoniger  Tomes,  1858 

1858.  Vespertilio  rufo-niger  Tomes,  P.Z.S.  79,  pi.  60.  Shanghai,  Kiangsu,  China. 
Range  includes  Fukien,  China. 

Myotis  (?)  formosus  andersoni  Trouessart,  1897 

1881.  Vespertilio  dobsoni  Anderson,  Cat.  Mamm.  Ind.  Mus.  143.  Purneah,  Bengal. 
Not  of  Trouessart,  1878. 

1897.  Vespertilio  andersoni  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  129.  New  name  for  dobsoni  Ander- 
son, preoccupied. 

Myotis  formosus  tsuensis  Kuroda,  1922 

1922.  Myotis  tsuensis  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  3:  43.  Izugahara,  Tsushima  Island,  Southern 
Japan.  iStatus/(/c  Kuroda.) 

Myotis  formosus  watasei  Kishida,  1924 

1924.  Myotis  watasei  Kishida,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  36:  30-49,  127-139.  {M.V.). 
Terason,  Formosa. 

Myotis  formosus  chofusukei  Mori,  1928 

1928.  Mvolis  chofusukei  Mori,  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.  //.■  389.  Kaishu,  Kokaido,  Korea. 

Subgenus  LEUCONOE  Boie,  1830 

Tate  (194 1,  550)  divides  this  subgenus  into  five  sections,  typified  by  daubentoni, 
capaccinii,  davidu  adversus  and  dasycneme.  There  are  several  other  standing  species.  Of 



these,  A/,  peqiiinius  is  from  descriptions  certainly  valid.  Another  early  name,  M.  macro- 
dactylus,  is  regarded  as  a  subspecies  of  M.  capaccinii  by  Kuzyakin,  in  Bobrinskii  (1944), 
but  as  noted  by  Thomas  (1906,  P-Z-S.  1903,  2:  337)  this  is  an  error.  Mr.  R.  W. 
Hayman  states  that  in  the  extensive  series  in  the  British  Museum  the  tibia  and 
adjacent  membrane  are  not  furred,  thereby  differing  from  capaccinii.  Tate  placed  the 
species  tentatively  in  his  adversus  section,  and  Mr.  Hayman  states  M.  macrodactylus 
differs  from  M.  adversus  and  M.  daubentoni  by  the  attachment  of  the  wing  membrane, 
which  is  high  on  the  tibia  in  macrodactylus,  not  so  in  the  other  two  species  just 

Myotis  daubentoni  Kuhl,  18 19  Daubenton's  Bat.     Water  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Britain,  Ireland,  Norway,  Sweden,  France, 
Switzerland,  Holland,  Denmark,  Spain,  Italy,  Germany,  Rumania,  Poland;  Russia 
and  Siberia,  eastwards  to  Kamtchatka,  Sakhalin  and  Ussuri  region,  its  northern  limit 
runs  close  to  the  Goth  parallel,  and  its  southern  limit  from  Southern  Ukraine, 
Southern  Volga,  Northern  Kazakstan,  the  Altai.  Tate  quotes  it  from  Japan  and  the 
Kurile  Islands.  Manchuria,  Mongolia,  Fukien  (?  Yunnan  and  Hainan),  China; 
Bodenheimer  quotes  it  from  Palestine. 

Myotis  daubentoni  daubentoni  Kuhl,  18 19 

1819.   Vespertilio  daubentonii  Kuh.  Ann.  Wetterau.  Gcs.  Naturk.  ./,  2:   195.  Hanau, 
Hessen-Nassau,  Germany. 

1839.  Vespertilio  aedilis  jenyns,  Ann.  Nat.  Hist,  j:  73.  Aukland  St.  Andrew,  Durham, 

1844.   Vespertilio  lanatus  Crespon,  Faune  Meridional.  /.•  15.  South  of  Nimes,  Gard, 

1 87 1.  Vespertilio  capucinellus  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  6j,  i :  206.  ?  Bavaria. 
1 87 1.  Vespertilio  minutellus  Fitzinger,  loc.  cit.  ?  Bavaria. 

1871.  Vespertilio  daubentonii  albus  Fitzinger,  loc.  cit.  210.  Renaming  oi  aedilis  ^enym. 
1890.   Vespertilio  staufferi  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  j,  3me  suppl.  aux  Mamm.  6. 

Lucerne,  Switzerland. 
Range:  Europe. 

Myotis  daubentoni  volgensis  Eversmann,  1840 

1840.  Vespertilio  volgensis  Eversmann,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  24.  Ural  Mountains, 

Eastern  Russia. 
1912.  Myotis  petax  Hollister,  Smiths  Misc.  Coll.  60:  6.  Kosh-Agatch,  Chuiskaya 
steppe,  7,300  ft.,  Altai  district,  Siberia. 

Myotis  (?)  daubentoni  laniger  Peters,  1871 

1 87 1.   Vespertilio  laniger  Peters,  in  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  i8yo:  617.  Amoy,  Fukien,  China. 

Myotis  daubentoni  ussuriensis  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Myotis  daubentonii  ussuriensis  Ognev,  J.  Mamm.  8:   146.  Near  Vladivostock, 
Eastern  Siberia.  Ranges  to  Sakhalin,  Korea. 


I'Al.Al.ARCTR:  AND   INDIAN   MAMMALS   1738-194G 

Myotis  daubenton'i  loukashkini  Shamel,  1942 

10)42.   Myotis   pelax    loukashkini    Sham(?l,    Proc.    Biol.    Soc.    \\'ashiiit;ton,    jj.'     103. 
Wutaliciu  liich.  Third  Lake,  Hcilunt;kiano-  Province,  Xorllicrn  Manchuria. 

Myotis  capaccinii  lionapartc,  1837  Long-fine;crcd  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  France,  Spain,  Italy,  Switzerland, 
.Sardinia,  Transylvania,  Bulgaria;  Lower  Amu-Darya,  Russian  Turkestan;  besides 
this  Kuzyakin  cjuotcs  the  species  from  the  southern  Maritime  Province  of  Siberia 
(under  the  name  .\/.  c.  macrodaclvlus;  but  macrodactvliis  is  not  capaccinii,  see  above  under 
subgenus  Lcnconoc);  Morocco,  Algeria. 

.Myotis  cap.\cci.\ii  capaccinii  Bonaparte,  1837 

1837.   Vespeiiilio  capaccinii  Bonaparte,  Faun.  Ital.  /,  fasc.  20.  Sicily. 

1840.  Vespertilto  mcgapodms  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  .'.•  189.  Sardinia. 

1 84 1.  Vcspertilio  dasypus  de  Selys  Longchamps,  Atti  dclla  scconda  Riun.  dcgli  Sci. 

Italiani,  Torino,  1840:  247.  Sardinia. 
(?)  1844.    Vespeiiilio  pelluccns  Crespon,  Faune  Meridionalc,   /.•    16.  Cave  near  Pont- 

du-Gard,  Gard,  France. 
(.')  i860.  Brachyotus   hlaui   Kolcnati,  Jh.   Miihr.   Schl.   Ges.  Ackerbau,   i8^c):    102. 

Swabia,  Southern  Bavaria,  Germany. 
1878.    Vcspertilio  majori  Xinni,  Atti  R.   1st.  Veneto,   4,  i:   721.   Substitute  for  blasii 

Forsyth  .Nlajor,  1877,  Atti  Soc.  Tosc.  Sci.  Nat.  Pisa,  jj.-  108. 
Range:  Europe,  Morocc(j  and  Algeria. 

Myotis  cAP;\cciNn  burf.schi  Heinrich,  1936 

1936.   Leuconoe  capaccinii  bureschi  Heinrich,  Mitt.  Naturw.  Inst.  Sofia,  9.'  38.  Karamler, 
StraiidjaT5alkan,  800  ft.,  Bulgaria. 

The  two  following-named  species  are  allied  to  M.  capaccinii,  and  possibly  represent  it. 

Myotis  fimbriaius  Peters,  1871 

1 87 1.  Vespertilio Jimhriatus  Peters,  P.Z.S.  l8jn:  G17.  Amoy,  Fukien,  China. 

1926.   Myntis  hirsutns  Howell,   Proc.   Biol.   Soc.   Washington,  ^9.-    139.    ^'enpingfu, 
Fukien,  2,000  ft.,  China. 

.Myotis  lo.n'cipfs  Dobson,  1873 

(?)  1855.   -Uj'f'''*  theobaldi  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  r^.-  363.  Caves  near  Matar 

Xag,  north  of  Islamabad,  Kashmir.  Thomas,   1915,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc. 

-",•;    (no,   agues   with   Blanford    lliis  form  should  be  considered  un- 


1872.  I'espeititio  macropus  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  209.  Not  of  Gould,  1854. 

Caves  of  Bhima  Devi,  6,000  ft.,  Kashmir. 

1873.  Ve^pertilm  lon<;ipes  Dobson,  Proc.  .'Xsiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  1  10.  Renaming  nl' macropus, 

'?,!   187-,.    I'npntilio  meoalopus  Dobson,  Ann.  -Mag.  .N.H.  16:  261.  ?  Kashmir.  Dobson 
ga\e  the  loiality  as  Gaboon,  West  Africa,  but  Thomas,   1915,,!.  Bombay 
N.H.  Soc.  ^"j.-  610,  said  the  type  was  identical  with  a  cotype  (A'loni^ipes  and 
certainly  did  not  come  from  Gaboon. 



Myotis  pequinius  Thomas,  1908 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Chihii,  China. 

Myotis  pequinius  Thomas,  1908 

1908.  Afyotis  (Leuconoe)  pequinius  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  637.  Thirty  miles  west  of  Pekin, 
ChihH,  600  ft.,  China. 

Myotis  davidi  Peters,  1869 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Chihii,  and  apparently  Hainan  and  Kiangsi, 

Myotis  davidi  Peters,  1869 

1869.  Vespertilio  davidii  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  402.  Pekin,  Chihii,  China. 

Myotis  adversus  Horsfield,  1824 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Malay  States,  Java,  probably  Borneo, 
Sumatra,  ?  Celebes,  ?  Australia;  for  status  of  type  specimens  and  immediate  allies, 
see  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  j8:  551.  Siam.  ?  Ceylon  (the  form  quoted  from 
Ceylon  by  Wroughton  (1918)  as  "hasselti",  forearm  40  mm.  in  the  key,  cannot  be 
hasselti,  as  Tate  shows  this  to  have  been  based  on  a  small  form,  with  forearm  32  mm.). 
Possibly  also  represented  in  Formosa,  Tibet,  the  Andaman  Islands  and  Southern 

The  listing  of  this  species  is  provisional. 

(Myotis  adversus  adversus  Horsfield,  1824.  Extralimital) 
1824.    Vespertilio  adversus  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Java,  (8).  Java. 

Myotis  (?)  adversus  dryas  Andersen,  1907 

1907.  Myotis  dryas  Andersen,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  5.-  33.  Port  Blair,  South 

Andaman  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Myotis  (?)  adversus  taiwanensis  Arnbiick-Christie-Linde,  1908 

1908.  Aiyotis  taiwanensis  Arnbiick-Christie-Linde,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  235.  Takao, 

Anping,  Tainan,  Formosa.  Range:  has  also  been  recorded  from  Tibet. 

Myotis  (?)  adversus  peshwa  Thomas,  1915 

1915.  Leuconoe  peshwa  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2^:  61 1.  Poona,  Bombay,  India. 

Myotis  adversus  continentis  Shamel,  1942 

1942.  Myotis  adversus  continentis  Shamel,  J.  Mamm.  23:  323.  Bangkok,  Siam. 

Myotis  (?)  adversus  (?)  subsp. 

1918.  Leuconoe  hasselti  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  25.-  598.  (Not  hasselti  Tem- 

minck,   1840,  from  Java.)  Ceylon,  quoted  by  Wroughton  from  Northern, 

Central  and  Eastern  Provinces. 


PALAF,ARC:TIC:  and   IMJIAX  mammals   1758-194G 

Tate  thought  the  ftillowing  form  should  be  referred  to  the  adversus  section  of 
Leuconoe,  but  Chaworth-Mustcrs,  in  a  paper  he  was  preparing  on  the  bats  of  Arabia, 
shortly  before  his  death,  made  the  suggestion  that  dogalensis  was  based  on  a  young 
specimen  of  the  African  Myotis  bocagei  Peters,  1870,  which  Tate  (p.  552)  refers  to 
subgenus  Selysius. 

Myotis  dogalensis  Monticelli,  1887 

1887.    Vespertilio  dogalensis  Monticelli,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  j.-  518.  Aden, 

Myotis  macrodactylus  Temminck,  1840 
Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Japan. 

Myotis  m.^crodactylus  Temminck,  1840 

1840.   Vespertilio  macrodactylus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  231,  pi.  58,  figs.  3,  4,  5. 
Japan.  Known  from  South  Kuriles,  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiushiu. 

Myotis  dasycneme  Boic,  1825  Pond  Bat 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Holland,  Belgium,  Northern  France  (Kuzya- 
kin),  Denmark,  Sweden,  Poland;  Russia,  between  49"  and  60"  N.,  eastwards  across 
^Vestern  Siberia  to  the  Yenesei. 

Myotis  dasyc.n'  dasycneme  Boie,  1825 

1823.   Vespertilio  mystacinus  Boie,  Isis,  Jena,  965,  not  of  Kuhl,  1819. 

1825.   Vespertilio  dasycneme  Boie,   Isis,  Jena,    1200.  Dagbieg,  near  Wiborg,  Jutland, 

Denmark.  Renaming  oi  mystacinus  Boie,  preoccupied. 
1839.    Vespertilio  limnophilus  Temminck,    Mon.   Mamm.   2:    17G,   pi.   48,   figs,    i,   2. 


Myotis  dasycneme  m.'^jor  Ognev  &  Worobiev,  1923 

1923.   Myotis  dasycneme  major  Ognev  &  Worobiev,  Fauna  Terr.  Vert.  Govt.  Voronesh, 
98.  Voronesh,  Russia. 

Subgenus  RICKETTIA  Bianchi,  1916 

Myotis  ricketti  Thomas,  1894  Rickctt's  Big-footed  Bat 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  states  of  Fukien,  .\nhwei.  Shantung. 

Myotis  rk;ketti  Thomas,  1894 

(?)  1869.    Vespertilio  {Leuconoe)  pilosa  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  \Viss.  403.  Thought 

to  be  from  Uruguay,  South  America.  G.  Allen  (1938,  224)  uses  this  name, 

but  is  not  followed  by  Tate  (1941). 
1894.   Vespertilio   {Leuconoe)   ricketti  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.    14:   300.   Foochow, 

Fukien,  China. 


Incertae  sedis 

1863.  Myotis  ?  berdmorei  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  35,  based  on  descrip- 
tion without  name  in  Blyth,  1859,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  28:  293,  of  a  bat 
from  Schwegyin,  Burma.  ?  Unidentifiable;  see  Blanford,  1891,  Fauna  Brit. 
India,  Mamm.  330. 

1942.  Myotis  deignani  Shamel,  J.  Mamm.  2j.-  324.  Chiengmai,  Siam,  Tate  (1947, 

Mamm.  E.  Asia)  lists  it  in  subgenus  Selysius. 

1943.  Myotis  coluotus  Kostron,  Rozpr.  Ceske  Akad.  52,  17:  i,  and  Bull.  Int.  Acad. 

Prague,  ^2-    '90-  Jaworzitschko,  Northern  Moravia,  Czechoslovakia. 

1944.  Myotis  flavus  Shamel,  J.  Mamm.  25.-  191.  Enri,  Formosa.  Tate  (1947,  Mamm. 

E.  Asia)  lists  it  in  subgenus  Chrysopteron. 
1944.  Myotis  abei  Yoshikura,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  ^6  (i,  2,  3):  6.  {N.V.).  Southern 
Sakhalin.  (In  Japanese,  but  title  is  "On  a  new  Whiskered  Bat".) 

1 93 1.  Pactia  mori  Kishida  &  Mori,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  43:  378,  Korea,  nom.  nud. 

Genus  DISCOPUS  Osgood,  1932 

1932.  Discopus  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  18:  236.  Discopus  denticulus  Osgood. 

1  species :  Discopus  denticulus,  page  1 5 1 

Discopus  denticulus  Osgood,  1932 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Laos,  in  Indo-China. 

Discopus  denticulus  Osgood,  1932 

1932.  Discopus  denticulus  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  18:  236.  Phong  Saly,  Laos, 

Genus  VESPERTILIO  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Vespertilio  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  31.  Vespertilio  murinus  Linnaeus. 
1839.   Vesperugo  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  Arch.  Naturg.  5,  i :  312.  Contained  13  species, 

one  of  which  was  discolor  =  murinus. 
1839.  Vesperus  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  loc.  cit.  313  (part).  Not  of  Latreille,  1829. 
1856.  Meteorus  Kolenati,  Allg.  Dtsch.  Naturh.  Ztg.  2:  131  (part).  (Included  seyeral 

species,  one  of  which  was  discolor  =  murinus.) 
1863.  Aristippe  Kolenati,  Horae  Soc.  Ent.  Ross.  2,  2:  40  (part;  included  murinus). 
1872.   Marsipolaemus  Peters,    Mber.    Preuss.   Akad.   Wiss.    260.    Vesperugo  albigularis 

Peters  =  Vespertilio  murinus  Linnaeus. 

2  species:  Vespertilio  murinus,  page  152 

Vespertilio  superans,  page  152 

On  this  genus  and  all  genera  of  Vespertilioninae  except  Myotis,  see  Tate,  1942, 
Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  80:  221-297.  As  restricted  by  Miller,  this  genus  contains  two 
species,  murinus  and  superans.  Kuzyakin,  in  Bobrinskii,  1940,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.,  shows 
clearly  that  both  these  forms  are  valid  species.  This  author  refers  Eptesicus  and 
Pipistrellus  to  the  present  genus  (but  keeps  Nyctalus  separate).  The  cranial  and  ear 


i'ai..\i;arc:tic  and  Indian  mammals  ]7-,8-i946 

details  noted  by  Miller  as  restricting  the  genus  to  the  present  species  arc  not  perhaps 
of  great  importance,  but  the  two  allied  genera  referred  to  above  arc  both  so  widely 
distributed  and  contain  so  many  species  that  it  is  a  matter  of  coineniencc  to  retain 

Vespertilio  murinus   Linnaeus,  1 758  Particoloured  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Norway,  Sweden,  Denmark,  France,  Ger- 
many, Clzechoslovakia,  Poland,  Switzerland,  Austria.  Has  been  very  rarely  taken  in 
England  ("a  single  specimen,  utidoubtcdly  a  straggler,  taken  at  Plymouth"  (Miller, 
1912)  and  has  more  recently  been  recorded  from  the  Shetland  Islands  (Ritchie,  1927, 
Scot.  Nat.  Edinburgh,  'loi)  ).  Russia,  from  about  60  N.,  south  to  the  Black  Sea  and 
Caucasus,  Russian  Turkestan,  and  across  Siberia  to  the  Ussuri  district.  Japan; 
Mongolia;  Kashmir;  Persia;  Kashgar  (Chinese  Turkestan). 

Bodenhcimer  quoted  \  .  murinus  from  Palestine,  but  this  is  far  from  the  normal 
range  of  the  species,  and  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  in  earlier  literature  .Mrolis 
mrotis,  which  occurs  in  South-Western  Asia,  used  to  be  called  "IVi/x/V/Z/o  murinus". 

Vespertilio  muri.\us  muri.nus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.    Vcsjifrtilio  murinus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /.■  ;v:!.  Sweden. 

l8ir).    Vespertilio  (lisenlnr  N.iltcrcr  in  Kulil,  Ann.  Wctterau.  (ics.  Naturk.  4,  2:   187. 

\'ienna,  Austria. 
i8y5.    Vesperugo  krascheninnikovi  Evcrsmann,    Bull.    Soc.   Nat.    Moscou,    36,   2:   488. 

Orenburg,  Russia. 
1872.    I'esperus   [Marsipolaemus)   alhigukiris   Peters,    Mbcr.    Preuss.   Akad.    Wiss.   260. 

(Type  supposed   to  have  been   taken  in   Mexico.   See   Miller,    1912,   Cat. 

Mamm.  \V.  F.uropc,  238.) 
1885.    Vesperus  siculus  Daday,  Orv.  Term.  Ert.  Koloszwar,  10:  275.  Homorod-Almas 

Clave,  Hungary. 
lOov    Vespertilio  discolor  luleiis   Kastschcnko,   Trans.  Tomsk.   Lhiiw   .7.-    i02d.   Ner- 
chinsk, Transbaikalia,  Eastern  Siberia. 
if)i3.    ]'e\/iertilio  discolor  michnoi  Kastschenko,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb. 

ty:  391.  Aga,  Aginska  Steppe,  Transbaikalia,  Eastern  Siberia. 
Range:  as  in  the  species,  except  Japan. 

Vespertilio   ,?)mi'ri\ls  x.wiivei  Kuroda,  1920 

1920.  Mvctalus  nocluln  namiyei  Kuroda,  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.   (),  5:  601.  Otsukuejima, 
coast  of  C'hikuzen  Province,  Kiushiu,  Japan. 

Vespertilio  superans  Thomas,  1899 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Maritime  Province  of  Eastern  Siberia; 
Hokkaido  and  Hondo:  Korea;  China,  states  of  Szcchu.m,  Fukien,  Shansi,  Chihli, 
?  Kansu;  and  .MoMi^olia. 

Vesper iiLiu  siiplra.ns  Thomas,  1899 

1899.    Vespertilio  murinus  superans  Thomds,  P.Z.S.  i8()8:  770.  Sesalin,  Ichang,  Hupeh, 

I  =,2 


Dobson  (1878)  (followed  by  Blanford,  1891,  Mamm.  Brit.  India)  called  the  genus 
now  known  as  Mvotis  by  the  name  Vespertilio,  and  the  present  genus,  in  a  much  wider 
sense  than  as  accepted  by  Miller,  "Vesperugo" .  V.  murinus  was  called  ''Vesperugo  dis- 
color", and  V.  murinus  of  Dobson  is  the  species  now  known  as  Alyotis  myolis. 

Genus  EPTESICUS  Rafinesque,  1820 

1B20.  Eptesicus  Rafinesque,  Annals  of  Nature,   2.  Eptesicus  mdanops  Rafinesque  = 

Vespertilio  fuscus  Beauvois,  from  North  America. 
1829.  Cnephaeus  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  i:  103.  Vespertilio  serotinus  Schreber. 
1837.  Noctula  Bonaparte,  Faun.  Ital.  /.■  fasc.  xxi.  Noctula  serotina. 
1856.   Cateorus  Kolenati,  AUg.  Dtsch.  Naturh.  Ztg.  2:  131.  Vespertilio  serotinus  Schrcher. 
1858.  Amblyotus  Kolenati,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  2g:  252.  Amhlyotus  atratus  Kolenati 

^  Vespertilio  nilssonii  Keyserling  &  Blasius. 
1866.  Pachvomus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  jy:  90.  Scotophilus  pachyomus  Tomes. 
1870.  Nrctiptenus  Fitzingcr,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  62:  424.  Vespertilio  smithii  Wagner, 

from  South  Africa. 
1892.  Adelonycteris  H.  .Allen,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,   1891  :  466  (part). 

(Substitute  for   Vesperus  Keyserling  &  Blasius,   1839,  which  is  preoccupied 

by  Vesperus  Latreille,  1829,  and  contained  species  of  both  the  present  genus 

and  Vespertilio.) 
191 7.   Pareptesicus  Bianchi,  .-\nnu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  21:  lxx\i.  Vesperugo 

pachyotis  Dobson. 
1917.   Rhyneptesicus  Bianchi,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  21:  lxx\i.  Vesperugo 

nasutus  Dobson. 
1926.  Neoromicia  Roberts,  Ann.  Transvaal  Mus.  //.•  245.  Eptesieus  z'tluensis  Roberts, 

from  Natal. 
1931.   Tuitatus  Kishida  &  Mori,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  43:  372-391  [N.V.)  nom.  nud. 
1934.   Vespadelus  Iredale  &  Troughton,  Mem.  Austr.  Mus.  6:  95.  Australian  species 

oi  Eptesicus.  (Nom.  nud.) 

This  genus  is  nearly  world-wide.  It  is  near  Vespertilio,  and  referred  to  that  genus  by 
Kuzyakin.  It  is  not  easy  to  say  how  many  species  there  are  in  the  present  region,  but 
the  following  seven  seem  certainly  valid : 

Eptesicus  isabellinus,  page  156 
Eptesicus  nasutus,  page  154 
Eptesicus  nilssoni,  page  1 55 
Eptesicus  pachyotis,  page  155 
Eptesicus  serotinus,  page  156 
Eptesicus  sodalis,  page  1 56 
Eptesicus  walli,  page  154 

Several  subgeneric  names  are  available,  but  we  are  inclined  to  ignore  them  until 
more  detailed  revision  has  taken  place  in  the  genus.  Chaworth- Musters,  in  a  key  to 
Arabian  bats  which  he  was  preparing  shortly  before  his  death,  suggests  that  matschiei 
represents  the  Indian  nasutus;  this  is  accepted.  The  Turkestan  form  bobrinskoi  is 
apparently  approximately  the  same  size,  and  has  yet  to  be  proved  specifically  distinct 


PALAEARtrnC:  and  INDIAN   MAMMALS    1758-1946 

from  nasutus.  Kuzyakin  regards  the  form  ognevi  as  a  valid  species,  but  according  to 
Ognev  and  Tate  it  is  a  race  oi sodalis.  We  have  provisionally  united  the  forms  innesi, 
isabdlinus  and  hottae  (forearm  about  40-44  mm.)  under  the  prior  name  isahellimis. 
G.  Allen  listed  isabellinus  as  a  race  oi serotinus,  but  according  to  Tate's  measurements 
( 1942,  275),  it  is  too  small  for  that  species.  According  to  Kuzyakin  (1944)  some  species 
formerly  referred  to  this  species  should  be  transferred  to  Pipislrellus  savii. 
For  review,  see  Tate  (1942,  271). 

EptesH'us  nasutus  group 
Rhxneptesicus  Bianch!  is  available  if  subgeneric  division  is  required. 

Eptesicus  nasutus  Dubson,  1877  Sind  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sind  and  Puirjab;  Arabia,  Persia;  \i  hohrinskoi 
is  the  same,  deserts  of  Kazakstan  and  Russian  Turkestan,  Xorthcrn  Osetia  (?  Cau- 
casus) and  Yakutsk,  Siberia. 

Eptesicus  nasutus  nasutus  Dobson,  1877 

1877.    Vesperugo  [Vesperus)  nasutus  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  .^6',  2 :  31 1.  Shikarpur, 
Sind,  Western  India.  Range  includes  Punjab. 

Eptesicus  nasutus  matschiei  Thomas,  1905 

1905.   Vespertilio  matschiei  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   16:   573.  Jimcl,  near  Aden, 
850  m..  Southern  Arabia. 

Eptesicus  nasutus  pellucens  Thomas,  1906 

igo6.   Vespertilio  matschiei  pellucens  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  /505,  2  :  520.  Ahwaz,  Karun  River, 
220  ft.,  South-VVestern  Persia. 

Eptesicus  (?)  nasutus  bobrinskoi  Kuzyakin,  1935 

1935.  Eptesicus  bobrinskoi  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.   Moscou,  44:  435-437-  Tjulek 

wells  in  Aral  Kara-Kum  (desert),  65  km.  east  of  city  of  Aralskoje  More, 

Russian  Turkestan. 

Eptesicus  walli  group 
For  note  on  cranial  characters  of  this  species,  see  Tate  (1942,  274). 

Eptesicus  walli  Thomas,  19 19  Wall's  Serotine 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Iraq. 

Eptesicus  \v,\lli  Thomas,  191 9 

1919.  Eptesicus  walli  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  26:  746.  Basra,  Iraq. 

Eptesicus  puchyotts  grfjup 
Pareptesicus  Bianchi  is  available  here  if  subgeneric  division  is  required. 



Eptesicus  pachyotis  Dobson,  1871  Thick-eared  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Assam. 

Eptesicus  pachyotis  Dobson,  1871 

1 87 1 .   Vesperugo  ( Vesperus)  pachyotis  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  211.  Khasi  Hills, 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  group 
The  name  Arnblyotus  Kolenati  is  available  if  subgeneric  division  is  required. 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  1839  Northern  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Norway,  Sweden,  Germany,  France,  Switzer- 
land, Denmark,  Czechoslovakia,  Northern  Italy,  Poland;  Russia,  north  to  Kola 
Peninsula;  in  Siberia,  the  northern  limit  drops  roughly  to  the  6oth  parallel,  and 
ranges  east  to  the  Pacific;  southwards,  in  summer,  to  north  of  Moscow  and  Gorki 
Provinces,  but  in  the  autumn  has  been  found  in  districts  further  south  fNorthern 
Volga,  Smolensk,  Eastern  Carpathians)  (Kuzyakin,  in  Bobrinskii).  It  occurs  in 
Russian  Turkestan.  Mongolia,  perhaps  Manchuria,  Chinese  Turkestan,  Korea, 
Tibet;  Kashmir. 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  nilssoni  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  1839 

1836.    Vespertilio  kuhlii  Nilsson,  Ilium.  Fig.  Skand.  Fauna,  pt.  17,  pi.  34,  upper  fig. 
Not  of  Kuhl,  1819. 

1838.  Vespertilio  borealis  Nilsson,  Ilium.  Fig.  Skand.  Fauna,  pt.  19,  pi.  36,  upper  fig. 

Not  of  MuUer,  1776. 

1839.  Vespertilio  nilssonii  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  5,  1:315.  Sweden. 
1858.  Arnblyotus  atratus  Kolenati,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  sg:  252.  Altvater,  2,400- 

4,600  ft.,  Austrian  Silesia. 
Range:  Europe,  Siberia  to  the  Pacific,  Gilgit  (Kashmir). 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  gobiensis  Bobrinskii,  1926 

1926.  Eptesicus   nilssonii  gobiensis   Bobrinskii,    C.R.    Acad.    Sci.    U.R.S.S.,    A,    96. 

Burchasteitala,   Gobi  Altai   Mountains,   Mongolia.   Ranges  into   Russian 

Central  Asia. 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  centrasiaticus  Bobrinskii,  1926 

1926.  Eptesicus  nilssonii  centrasiaticus  Bobrinskii,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.,  A,  96. 
Ushchele  Khatu,  near  Russk,  Orin-Nor,  Tibet. 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  kashg.aricus  Bobrinskii,  1926 

1926.  Eptesicus  nilssonii  kashgaricus  Bobrinskii,    C.R.   Acad.   Sci.    U.R.S.S.,   A,   97. 
Khotan-Tagh,  mountains  of  Russki,  near  Kashgar,  Chinese  Turkestan. 

Eptesicus  nilssoni  parvus  Kishida,  1932 

1932.  Eptesicus  parvus  Kishida,  Lansania,  Tokyo,  4,  31:  2.  North  Korea.  {NA'.) 

Tate  (1942)  lists  several  forms  (not  seen  by  him)  as  races  oi  nilssoni  which  are  here, 
following  Kuzyakin  in  Bobrinskii,  transferred  to  Pipistrellus  savii. 

L  155 


Eplesiais  serotinus  group 

(The  type  species  belongs  here.) 

Eptesicus  sodalls  Barrctt-Hamihon,  1910 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Rumania,  Switzerhmd,  Russian  Turkestan, 
where  widely  distributed  in  the  south  and  east,  to  South-Western  Mongolia  (Kuzya- 
kin"! ;  Iraq. 

Eptesicus  sodalis  sod.\lis  Barrett-Hamilton,  1910 

1910.   Vespcrtilio  sodatis  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  f}:  291.  Bustenari,  Pra- 
hova,  840  m.,  in  Carpathians,  Rumania. 

Eptesicus  sodalis  ognevi  Bobrinskii,  1918 

1918.  Eptesicus  ognevi  Bobrinskii,  Fauna  &  Flora  of  Russia,  13:  12.  {M.V.)  Bokhara 

district,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Eptesicus  sodalis  hingstoni  Thomas,  1919 

1919.  Eptesicus  hingstoni  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  26:  745.  Baghdad,  Iraq. 

Eptesicus  isabellinus  Tcmminck,  1840 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Libya,  Egypt,  Arabia. 

Eptesicus  isabellinus  isabellinus  Temminck,  1840 

1840.   VesperlUio   isaltelliniis  Temminck,    Mon.    Mamm.    2:    205,   pi.   52,   figs,    i,    2. 

Environs  of  Tripoli,  Libya.  G.  Allen  listed  this  as  a  race  of  serotinus,  but 

Tate's  measurements  make  it  too  small  for  that. 

Eptesicus  isabellinus  bottae  Peters,  1869 

1869.   Vesperus  Iwtlae  Peters,  Mber.  Prcuss.  Akad.  ^Viss.  406.  Yemen,  Arabia. 

Eptesicus  isabellinus  innesi  Lataste,  1887 

1887.   Vesperugo  (Vesperus)  innesi  Lataste,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  4:  625,  2  te.xt 
figs.  Cairo,  Egypt. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  .Schreber,  1774  Seroline 

Apprdximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  France,  .Switzerland,  Spain,  Italy, 
Sardinia,  Germany,  Holland,  Denmark,  Hungary,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania,  Greece, 
Poland;  Russia  and  Siberia,  where  the  northern  limit  runs  through  Kharkov  and 
Orenburg,  roughly  eastwards  to  Lake  Balkash,  and  southwards  to  the  Caucasus  and 
Russian  Turkestan;  Persia,  Asia  Minor,  Palestine  (Bodenheimer) ;  Chinese  Turkestan, 
Mongolia.  Korea;  Shensi,  Shantung  and  Chihli,  in  China,  also  Yunnan,  Fukien  and 
Chekiang  if  fl/n/cMo«i  is  regarded  as  a  representative;  Kashmir,  Rajputana;  West 
Africa  (part). 

I  V 


Eptesicus  serotinus  serotinus  Schreber,  1774 

1774.   Vespertilio  serotinus  Schreber,  Saugeth.  /;  pi.  53  (text,  p.  167).  France. 

1776.   Vespertilio  serotine  Muller,  Natursyst.  Suppl.  Regist.  Band,  16. 

1827.   Vespertilio  wiedii  Brehm,  Ornis,  j:  24.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 

1827.   Vespertilio  okenii  Brehm,  loc.  cit.  25.  Renthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 

1844.   Vespertilio  incisivus  Crespon,  Faune  Meridionale,  /.•  26.  Nimes,  Gard,  France. 

1B63.  Cateorus  serotinus  typus  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau.  Ver.  Naturk.  18:  466.  Wiesbaden, 

Nassau,  Germany. 
1863.  Cateorus  serotinus  var.  mfescens  Koch,  loc.  cit.  Freiburg,  Breisgau,  Germany. 
1885.   Vespertilio  serotinus  var.  transylvanus  Daday,  Orv.  Term.  £rt.  Koloszvar,  10:  275. 

Also-Szocs,  Szolnok-Doboka,  Hungary. 
1904.    Vespertilio  serotinus  insularis  Cabrera,  Mem.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  2:  263.  Minorca, 

Balearic  Islands. 
1904.   Vespertilio   isahellinus   Cabrera,    Mem.    Soc.    Esp.    H.N.    2:    264.    Andalusia, 

Southern  Spain.  Not  of  Temminck,  1840. 
1904.   Vespertilio  boscai  Cabrera,  Mem.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  2:  265.  Muchamiel,  Alicante, 

Range:  Europe. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  turcomanus  Eversmann,  1840 

1840.   Vespertilio  turcomanus  Eversmann,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscou,  21.  Between  Caspian 

and  Aral  Seas,  Russian  Turkestan. 
(?)  1865.    Vespertilio  (Vesperus)  mirza  de  Filippi,  Viagg.  in  Persia,  342.  Persia. 
1875.   Vesperugo  albescens  Karelin,  Trans.  St.  Petersb.  Nat.  Soc.  6:  265,  nom.  nud. 

Sluda,  near  Gureva  (?  =  Guriev,  mouth  of  River  Ural). 
Range:  Russian  Asia  and  Persia. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  pachyomus  Tomes,  1857 

1857.  Scotophilus  pachyomus  Tomti,  P.Z.S.  50.  Rajputana,  India.  Ranges  to  Kashmir. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  shiraziensis  Dobson,  187 1 

1 87 1.   Vesperus  shiraziensis  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ^o,  2:  459.  Shiraz,  4,750  ft., 
South-Western  Persia. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  andersoni  Dobson,  1871 

1871.   Vesperus  andersoni  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  211.  Momein  (Tengueh), 
Yunnan,  China.  Ranges  to  Fukien  and  Chekiang,  Southern  China. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  pallens  Miller,  191 1 

191 1.  Eptesicus  serotinus  pallens  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  24:  53.  Cheng- 

yuanhsien,  70  miles  west  of  Chingyangfu,  Kansu,  China. 
1929.  Eptesicus  serotinus  pallidus  Bobrinskii,  Annu.   Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb. 

30:  235. 
Ranges  to  Shensi,  Chihli,  Shantung,  in  China;  and  Korea. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  meridionalis  Dal  Piaz,  1926 

1926.  Eptesicus  serotinus  meridionalis  Dal  Piaz,  Atti  Soc.  Ven. -Trent.  Sci.  Nat.  16:  63. 
Cagliari,  Sardinia. 



Eptesicus  serotinus  intermedius  Ognev,  1927 

1927.  Eptesicus  serotinus  intermedius  Ognev,  J.   Mamm.  8:    152.   Murtasovo  Station, 

near  Madikavkaz,  Terek  region.  Northern  Claucasus. 

Eptesicus  serotinus  brachydigitus  Mori,  1928 

1928.  Eptesicus  brachydigitus  Mori,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  40:  291  tin  Japanese,  21  August 

1928).  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.  2:  391   (in  English,  20  December  1928).  Heijo, 
Hcian,  Nando,  Korea. 
Tate  also  lists  the  form  sinensis  Peters  (1880)  as  a  race  oi  serotinus,  but  G.  Allen 
placed  it  in  the  synonymy  oi  Nyctalus  noctula  plancei. 

Incerlae  sedis 

Plptcsuus  horikawai  Kishida,  1924,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  36:  127,  139. 

Eptesicus  kohayashh  Mori,  1928,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  40:  292  (m  Japanese,  21 
August  1928).  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.  2:  392  (in  English,  20  December). 
Heijo,  Heian,  Nando,  Korea. 

Eptesicus  aurijunctus  (named  as  Vespertilw  aurijimctus)  Mori,  1928,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo, 
40:  296  (in  Japanese,  21  August  1928).  Annot.  Zool.  Jap.  2:  393  (in  Eng- 
lish, 20  December  1928).  Keijo,  Korea.  (  Tuitalus  aurijunctus  Kishida  &  Mori, 
igs'i,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  43:  372-391.) 

Eptesicus  ranancnsis  Kishida  &  Mori,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  43:  379,  nom.  mid.  Ranan, 
North  Korea. 

Eptesicus  tatei  nom.  nov. 

1863.  Njcticeiits  atratus  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  31.  Eptesicus 
'  atratus  auct.  but  not  atratus  Kolenati,    1858,  which  =  nilssonii.  Darjeeling, 
North-Eastern  India. 
This  form  is  left  incertac  sedis  by  Tate  (1942)  and  until  the  type  is  re-examined  it  is 
not  possible  to  allocate  the  form  with  certainty. 

Genus  NY CT ALUS  Bowdich,  1825 

1825.  Nrctalus  Bowdich,  E.xcursions  in  Madeira  &  Porto  Santo,  36  (and  footnote). 

Nyctalus  verrucosus  Bowdich. 
1829.   Ptervgistes  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thicrw.  /.•   100.  Vespertilw  noctula  Schreber. 
1842.  Nocttdinia  Gray,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.    10:   258.   Contained   two  species,  one  of 

which  is  a  synonym  of  V.  noctula  Schreber. 
1856.  Paniigo  Kolenati,  AUg.  Dtsch.  Naturh.  Ztg.  2:  131.  Vcspertilio  noctula  Schreber 

and  Vespertilio  leisleri  Kuhl. 

If  this  genus  is  considered  congeneric  with  Pipistrellus,  as  by  Simpson  ( 1945),  then 
Nyctalus  has  priority. 

The  five  species  most  likely  to  be  valid  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list  arc: 

Nyctalus  azoreum,  page  159  .hyctulus  leisleri,  page  159 

.Hvctalu^  jojjrei,  page  159  Myctaliis  noctula,  page  160 

Nyctaliis  lasiopterus,  page  160 

c;hiroptera   —   vespertilioninae 

Tate  (1942,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  80:  251)  transferred  N.joffrei  to  Pipistrellus,  but, 
as  remarked  under  that  genus,  we  prefer  tentatively  to  retain  it  in  Nyctalus.  Miller 
compared  the  other  four  species,  all  of  which  occur  in  Europe.  Tate  has  shown  that 
the  prior  name  for  the  giant  species  is  lasiopierus.  Kuzyakin  thought  the  form  aviator 
was  a  valid  species,  but  Tate  makes  it  a  subspecies  of  lasiopierus.  From  descriptions, 
the  forms  montanus  and  verrucosus  seem  very  close  to  leisleri.  Tate  (1942,  256)  states  that 
the  skull  of  montanus  "exceeds  considerably  the  measurements  given  by  Miller  for 
leisleri  of  Europe",  but  this  seems  an  error;  see  Tate's  table  of  measurements  at  the 
end  of  his  paper. 

Nyctalus  jojfrei  group 
(Referred  by  Tate  to  Pipistrellus.) 

Nyctalus  joffrei  Thomas,  1915 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma. 

Nyctalus  joffrei  Thomas,  19 15 

1915.  Nyctalus  joffrei  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j.-  225.  Kachin  Hills,  Upper  Burma. 

Nyctalus  noctula  group 
( =  restricted  Nyctalus  of  Tate.) 

Nyctalus  azoreum  Thomas,  1901 
Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Azores  Islands,  Atlantic. 

Nyctalus  azoreum  Thomas,  1901 

1901.  Pterygistes  azoreum  Thomas,   Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   8:   33.   St.   Michael,   Azores 

Nyctalus  leisleri  Kuhl,  181 8  Lesser  Noctule.  Hairy-armed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  Ireland,  Holland,  France,  Switzer- 
land, Germany,  Spain,  Poland,  Rumania;  Russia,  as  far  north  as  C.  Volga  and 
Moscow  Province,  and  south  to  the  Caucasus;  Punjab,  Kumaon.  Perhaps  repre- 
sented in  Madeira  by  verrucosus. 

Nyctalus  leisleri  leisleri  Kuhl,  1818 

1818.  Vespertilio  leisleri  Kuhl,  Ann.  W^etterau  Ges.  Naturk.  4,  i :  46.  Hanau,  Hessen- 

Nassau,  Germany. 
i8i8.   Vespertilio  dasvkarpos  Kuhl,  loc.  cit.  49,  alternative  name  for  leisleri. 
1839.   yespertilio  pachyonathus  Michahelles,  in  Wagner,  Schreber's  Saugeth.  Suppl.  /, 

pi.  55b.  Dalmatia. 

Nyctalus  (?)  leisleri  montanus  Barrett-Hamilton,  1906 

1906.  Pterygistes  montanus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   ly:  99.  Mussoorie, 
Kumaon,  Northern  India. 



Perhaps;  the  fulldwini^  form  also  represents  hulen: 

Nyctalus  verrucosus  Bowdich,  1825 

1825.  Nvctalus  verrucosus  Bowdich,  Excursions  in  Madeira  &  Porto  Santo,  ':56  (and 

footnote).  Island  of  Madeira. 
1 006.  Nvctalus  madcirae  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mae;.  N.H.  ly:  C)8.  Madeira. 

Nyctalus  noctula  Sthrebcr,  1774  Common  Nortule 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Entjland,  France,  Switzerland,  Spain,  Italy, 
Norway,  Sweden,  Denmark,  Holland,  Germany,  Rumania,  Greece,  Poland,  Czecho- 
slovakia; Russia,  southwards  to  the  Caucasus,  northwards  to  Leningrad  district  and 
Kirov  (\'yatka)  Province,  Western  Siberia,  to  the  Altai  and  Tarbagatai  Mountains, 
Usbekistan  and  Semircchyia,  in  Russian  Turkestan;  Kuldja,  Western  Chinese 
Turkestan;  similar  forms  inhabit  Chihli,  Szcchuan,  Fukien,  and  adjacent  states  in 
China;  Japan;  Nepal,  Kashmir,  Burma;  Malay  States;  Persia,  and  Palestine  accord- 
ing to  Bodenheimcr. 

Nyctalus  .\octula  noctula  Schreber,  1774 

1774.    Vcspertiliu  noctula  Schreber,  Saugeth.  /.■  pi.  52  i  text,  p.  166).  France. 

1776.    Vcspcriilio  lardarius  Miiller,  Natursyst.  Suppl.  Regist.  Band,  15.  France. 

1 781).  Vespertilio  magnus  Berkenhout,  Syn.  Nat.  Hist.  Gt.  Britain  &  Ireland,  /.■  i. 
Cambridge,  England. 

178c).  ]'espfrtilio  altivolaiu  ^\'hite,  X.H.  &  Antic|.  of  Sclborne,  C)3.  Selborne,  Hamp- 
shire, England. 

(?)  1816.   Vespertilio  major  Leach,  Cat.  Mamm.  &  Birds  B.M.  5,  nom.  nud. 

1818.  Vespertilio  proterus  Kuhl,  Ann.  W'etterau  Ges.  Naturk.  4,  i:  41.  Substitute  for 

i82q.   Vespertilio  riijesceth  Brehm,  Isis,  Jena,  (]43.  Jena,  Thuringia,  Germany. 

1844.  Vespertilio  palustris  Crcspon,  I'aune  Mcridionale,  /;  22.  Marshes  near  Nimcs, 
Card,  France. 

1869.  I'esperugo  noctula  \ar.  minima  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.■  58.  Geneva,  Switzer- 

Range :   Europe. 

Nyct.'^lus  xoctul.v  labl\tus  Hodgson,  1835 

1835.  Vespertilio  labiata  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  700.  Nepal.  Currently  used 
for  the  form  which  occurs  Kashmir,  Darjeeling,  Chin  Hills  (Burma)  and, 
according  to  Chasen  (1940),  Malay  States;  but  Tate  (1942,  258)  places  it 
incertae  sedis  and  states  that  he  doubts  whether  it  was  based  on  a  Nvctalus. 

Nyct.'^lus  noctula  plancei  Gerbe,  1880 

1880.   Vesperugo  plancei  Gerbe,  Bull.  Soc.  Zool.  France,  5.-  71.  Pekin,  Clhihli,  China. 

1880.    VcKperus  sinensis  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  .\kad.  Wiss.  258.  Pekin,  C^hiiia. 

Nyctalus  noctul.\  princeps  Ognev  &  Worobicv,  1923 

1923.  Nyctalus  noctula  princeps  Ognev  &  Worobiev,  Fauna  Vertebr.  Mamm.  Gvt. 
Moscou,  97.  Voronej,  Russia. 



Nyctalus  noctula  velutinus  G.  Allen,  1923 

1923.  Nyctalus  velutinus  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85 :  7.  Futsing,  Fukien,  China. 

Rane:   China,   states   of  Fukien,  Chekiang,  Kiangsu,   Hupeh,  Szechuan. 

Tate  is  inclined  to  treat  plancei  and  velutinus  as  a  valid,  slightly  smaller 

species  than  noctula. 

Nyctalus  noctula  meklenburzevi  Kuzyakin,  1934 

1934.  Nyctalus  noctula  meklenburzevi  Kuzyakin,  Bull.  See.  Nat.  Moscou,  4^^:  323,  329. 
Tashkent,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Nyctalus  noctula  motoyoshii  Kuroda,  1934 

1934.  Nyctalus  noctula  motoyoshii  Kuroda,  in  Siebold,  Fauna  Japonica  (Japanese  ed.), 

3:  3.  {N.V.).  Hondo,  Japan. 
1934.  Nyctalus  noctula  montanus  Kishida,  Lansania,  Tokyo,  6,  52:  26.  {N.V.).  Not  of 

Barrett-Hamilton,  1906. 

Nyctalus  lasiopterus  .Schreber,  1 780  Giant  Noctule 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Switzerland,  France  (recorded  1932),  Italy, 
Sicily;  Russia,  from  Crimea  and  Transcaucasia  as  far  north  as  Moscow  Province 
and  River  Vetluga,  east  to  Buzuluk  Forest.  The  slightly  smaller  form,  aviator,  which 
Tate  made  a  race,  ranges  widely  in  Japan  and  also  occurs  Shaweishan  Island,  off 
mouth  of  Yangtzekiang  River,  China  (G.  Allen). 

We  follow  Tate  (1942)  in  the  use  of  the  name  lasiopterus.  Miller  called  it  N.'maximus, 
and  Ognev  and  Kuzyakin  called  it  siculus;  both  are  antedated  by  lasiopterus. 

Nyctalus  lasiopterus  lasiopterus  Schreber,  1780 

1780.   Vespertilio  lasiopterus  Schreber,  in  Zimmermann,   Geogr.  Gesch.   2:  412.   No 

locality.  ?  Northern  Italy  (Chaworth-Musters). 
(?)  1827.   Vespertilio  ft.rugineus    Brehm,    Ornis,    j:    26.    Renthendorf,    Thuringia, 


1868.  Vespertilio  noctula  var.  sicula  Mina-Palumbo,  Cat.  Mammif  della  Sicilia.  (N.V.) 


1869.  Vesperugo  noctula  var.  maxima  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.•  57.  Amsteg,  Uri, 

Range:  Europe. 

Nyctalus  (?)  lasiopterus  aviator  Thomas,  191 1 

1840.  Vespertilio  molossus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:   269.  Not  of  Pallas,   1767. 

191 1.  Nyctalus  aviator  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  380.  Tokyo,  Hondo,  Japan. 

Genus  PIPISTRELLUS  Kaup,  1829 

1829.  Pipistrellus  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  98.  Vespertilio  pipistrellus  Schreber. 
1838.  Romicia  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  495.  Romicia  calcarata  Grav  =  Vespertilio  kuhlii 




1856.  Hypsugo    Kolcnati,    AUg.    Dtsch.    Xaturh.    Ztg.    2:    131    [tnaunis  ^  savii    and 

kraschcnimkowii) . 
1856.  Nannugo  Kolcnati,  loc.  cit.  Included   W-spaiilw  imthusii,  V.  kuhlii  and   ('.  jnln- 

1867.  Alohus  Peters,  Mbcr.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  707.  Vespcrtilio  temnunckii  Crctzsch- 

mar  =  Vespertilio  ruppellii  Fischer.  Not  of  Leconte,  1856. 
1875.  Scotozous  Dobson,  P.Z.S.  372.  Scotozous  dormeri  Dobson.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1899.  Euvesperugo  Acloque,   Faune   de   France,    Mamm.    35    (part).    (Included   si.\ 

species,  one  of  which  was  I',  pipistrellus.) 
iqo2.  la  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  163.  la  io  Thomas.  \'alid  as  a  subgenus. 
191  7.   Megapipiilrellus  Bianchi,  Annu.  Mas.  Zool.  St.  Petersb.  21:  Ixwii.  Pipistrellus 

annectcns  Dobson.  \'alid  as  a  subgenus. 
1926.  Eplencops  Roberts,  Ann.  Transvaal  Mus.  //.•  245.  Scotophilus  rusluus  Tomes, 

from  South-West  Africa.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1946.   Vansonia  Roberts,  Ann.  Transvaal  Mus.  20:  304.  Pipistrellus  rernavi  Roberts, 

from  Bechuanaland.  (A  race  of  rUppellii,  fide  G.  Allen.) 

Kuz\akin,  in  Bobrinskii,  1944,  refers  this  genus,  and  I-lptesicus,  to  the  earlier-named 
genus  Vespertilio,  stating  that  it  is  a  large  and  extremely  heterogeneous  group  but  that 
the  features  of  its  individual  representatives  are  so  closely  interlocked  that  it  is  not 
practicable  to  divide  the  group  into  independent  genera  as  previous  writers  have 
done.  The  main  difficulty  seems  to  be  that  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  small  upper  premolar, 
characteristic  of  Pipistrellus,  may  be  absent  in  Pipistrellus  savii  as  understood  by 
Kuzyakin.  Kuzyakin  states  that  a  number  of  forms  have  been  described,  classified  as 
"species"  or  even  "genera"  (Vesperugo  caucasicus,  Amblvotus  tauricus,  A.  velox,  Epiesicus 
alaschanicus,  etc.),  b>it  they  have  all  proved  to  be  simply  types  of  individual  and 
geographical  variation  in  one  species.  He  recognizes  three  forms  in  the  U.S.S.R., 
P.  s.  savii,  always  with  an  upper  small  premolar  tooth;  P.  s.  alaschanicus,  "half  of  the 
individuals  have  small  upper  premolar  teeth  and  half  do  not",  and  P.  s.  caucasicus, 
"small  upper  premolar  is  missing  in  nearly  all  cases".  In  P.  savii  (Russian  races)  the 
penis  is  bent  iiit"  the  shape  of  an  inverted  L  ("unlike  all  other  Vespertilio  as  understood 
bv  Kuzyakin) ;  this  is  an  alternati\e  character  given  by  this  author  to  divide  savii 
from  other  species,  whether  individually  it  has  the  small  upper  premolar  or  not. 
Strictly  speaking,  Pipistrellus  is  not  more  than  a  subgenus  of  Eptesicus,  which  itself 
mitrht  well  be  referred  to  Vespertilio.  But  whereas  in  Russia  the  suppression  of  these 
two  convenience  genera  does  not  make  much  difference  (only  about  a  dozen  species 
are  involved),  when  the  problem  is  looked  at  from  a  world  point  of  view  it  becomes 
more  difficult.  For  instance,  Pipistrellus  is  such  a  major  division  in  the  Old  World 
tropics  that  Tate,  in  his  review  of  the  Vespcrtilionidae,  makes  it  typify  an  entire 
generic  assemblage  ("Pipistrelli").  We  do  not  feel  that  American  authors,  or  students 
of  Africa  and  the  Indomalayan  region,  would  take  a  very  good  view  <  if  lumping  such 
a  large  number  of  spciics  into  Vespertilio.  Therefore,  for  convenience  only,  and  bear- 
ing in  mind  that  an  alt(rnati\e  character  is  gixcn  wliich  will  separate  Pipistrellus  savii 
in  the  U.S.S.R.  hum  fithcr  Rus-^ian  bats,  we  list  Pipi\lrelhn  and  Eptesicus.  follnwing 
Miller  and  Tate. 

Hollistcr  has  pointed  out  that  the  characters  used  b\  Miller  for  the  genus  Scotnzous 




are  not  of  generic  value.  The  name  is  currently  placed  in  synonymy,  although  Tate 
(1942)  retains  it  for  the  Indian  species,  dormcri.  Surely  it  is  at  most  a  subgenus,  and 
the  same  applies  to  la,  as  already  indicated  by  Simpson,  and  suggested  by  Tate 
(P-  259)- 

Tate  recognizes  and  defines  12  species  groups  of  the  present  genus  in  the  Palae- 
arctic  and  Indian  region,  and  two  more,  typified  by  the  Indian  Scotozous  and  la,  arc 
here  added. 

The  21  species  most  likely  to  be  valid  in  the  present  region  are: 

Pipistrellus  abramus,  page  165 
Pipistrellus  affinis,  page  167 
Pipistrellus  anneckns,  page  1 72 
Pipistrellus  ariel,  page  1 7 1 
Pipistrellus  babu,  page  i6g 
Pipistrellus  ceylonicus,  page  167 
Pipistrellus  circumdatus,  page  1 7 1 
Pipistrellus  coromandra,  page  165 
Pipistrellus  deserti,  page  169 
Pipistrellus  dormeri,  page  172 
Pipistrellus  io,  page  173 

Pipistrellus  kuhli,  page  168 
Pipistrellus  lophurus,  page  167 
Pipistrellus  maderensis,  page  1 7 1 
Pipistrellus  mimus,  page  1 66 
Pipistrellus  mordax,  page  1 7 1 
Pipistrellus  nathusii,  page  1 64 
Pipistrellus  pipistrellus,  page  1 63 
Pipistrellus  pulveratus,  page  167 
Pipistrellus  riippelli,  page  172 
Pipistrellus  savii,  page  169 

According  to  Tate,  Pipistrellus  tralntitius  Horsfield  '  1824,  Vesperugo  tralatitius  Hors- 
field,  Zool-  Res.  Java,  from  Java),  which  was  recorded  from  Tonkin,  Indo-China,  by 
Osgood,  was  based  on  a  Myotis. 

Tate  transfers  stenopterus  and  joffrei  from  Nyctalus  to  Pipistrellus,  but  we  do  not  feel 
inclined  to  follow  him  in  this  classification,  for  two  reasons:  Miller  (1907)  definitely 
placed  stenopterus  (from  Borneo)  in  Nyctalus,  stating  that  he  had  examined  "all  the 
known  species",  and  Thomas,  in  describing  jo/r«  stated  that  the  proportions  of  the 
digits  were  as  in  Nyctalus  [Nyctalus  differing  from  Pipistrellus  chiefly  in  its  shortened 
fifth  finger). 

Authors  who  wish  to  merge  Pipistrellus  with  Nyctalus  should  note  that  Nyctalus  takes 

Subgenus  PIPISTRELLUS  Kaup,  1829 
Pipistrellus  pipistrellus  group 

Pipistrellus  pipistrellus  Schreber,  1774  Common  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Britain,  Ireland,  Sweden,  Denmark,  \orway, 
France,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Spain,  Sardinia,  Germany,  Holland,  Rumania,  Yugo- 
slavia, Poland,  Greece;  Russia,  from  the  Caucasus,  north  roughly  to  the  levef  of 
Moscow;  Russian  Turkestan,  where  widely  distributed.  Has  been  recorded  from 
Japan,  Formosa  and  Korea  (Kuroda).  Asia  Minor  (B.M.),  Persia;  Kashmir.  Recorded 
from  Morocco  (1933). 



1774.   I'fspfililio  pipislifHiis  Schreber,  Siiugeth.  /,  pi.  54  (text,  p.  167).  France. 
1776.    Vespertilio  pipistrelle  Muller,  Natursyst.  Suppl.  Regist.  Band,  16. 
i8-;3.   I'fspfiiilio prgmaeiis,  Zool.  J.  /.■  559.  Dartmoor,  Devonshire,  England. 
1834.   Ves/Jfi'lilio  hiachyotoi  Baillon,  Mem.  Soc.  £mul.  Abbeville,  /(JjJjJ."  50.  Abbeville, 

Somme,  France. 
(?)  1838.   Scotophilus  murinus  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  497. 
(?)  1839.    VespcrtiUo  {Ptpistrcllus)  pipislrellus  var.  nigra  de  Sclys  Longchamps,  fitudes 

de  Slicromamm,  140,  nom.  mid. 
(?)  1839.    Vesperlilw  [Pipislrellus)  pipistrellus  var.  rufescens  de  Selys  Longchamps,  loc.  cit. 

ngm.  nud.  Not  of  Brehm,  1829. 
1840.   VespcrtiUo  piisilliis  Schinz,  Fauna  Europ.  /.■  9. 

1840.   Vespertilin  melanopterus  Schinz,  loe.  cit.  Rcnthendorf,  Thuringia,  Germany. 
1840.    Vcsperlilin  stenotus  Schinz,  loe.  cit.,  same  locality. 
1840.   Vespcrtilio  minutissimus  Schinz,  loc.  cit.  Zurich,  .Switzerland. 
I?)  1842.  Kerivoula  gnseus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  .\.H.  ifi:  258.  No  locality. 
184',.  Pipistrellus  nigricans  Bonaparte,  Atti  della  scsta  Riun.  dcgli  Sci.  Italiani,  Milano, 

1844:  340.  Sardinia. 
1843.  Pipistrellus  genei  Bonaparte,  loc.  cit.,  alternative  for  nigricans. 
184'"^.   Pipislrellus  trpus  Bonaparte,  loc   cit.,  substitute  ior  pipistrellus. 

1862.  Vesperugo  pipistrellus  xvlw  uiacropterus  ]c\Uc\c^,  X'c'h.  Zool.  Bot.  Ges.  \\'icn,  12: 

250.  Kaschau,  Hungary. 

1863.  J^'annugo  pipistrellus  var.  flarescens  Koch,  Jb.   Nassau   \'er.   Naturk.    18:   41)1. 

Nassau,  Germany. 
1863.  Nannugo  pipistrellus  var.  nigricans  Koch,  loc.  cit.,  not  of  Bonaparte,  1845.  Nassau, 

1863.  J^annugo  pipistrellus  \ar.  limbatus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  492.  Siegen,  Nassau,  Germany. 

1904.  Pipistrellus  pipistrellus  mediterrancus   Cabrera,   Mem.   Soc.   Esp.   H.N.   2:   273. 

Valencia,  Spain.   (Placed  in  synonymy  by  Miller,  but  regarded  by  Tate 
(1942)  as  a  race  oi  nathusii.) 
Range;  Europe,  Asia  Minor,  Persia. 

Pipistrellus  pipistrellus  b.^iCtrianus  Satunin,  1905 

i?)  1840.    Vespertilio  lacteus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  245.  Locality  unknown. 
1873.   Vesperugo  akokomuli   var.   almatensis  Severtzox',    Mem.   Soc.   Amis.   Sci.   Nat. 

Moscou,  8,  2:  79;  1876.  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  42,  nom.  nud.  Turkestan. 
1882.   Vespertilio  oxianus  Bogdanov,  Outline  N.H.  khibinskoyo,  78,  nom.  nud.  (M.V.) 

1905.  Pipistrellus  hactrianus  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  2:  67,  85.  Oasis  of  Tedzen, 

Transcaspia,  Russian  Turkestan. 
Range  includes  Gilgit,  Kashmir. 

Pipistrellus  nathusii   Kcyserling  &  Blasius,  1839  Nathusius'  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  Switzerland,  Spain,  Italy,  Germany, 
Poland,  Holland,  Denmark,  Hungary;  Russia,  from  Leningrad  and  lower  Vyatka 
River,  east  to  Orenburg,  south  to  Black  Sea  and  Caucasus.  ?  Persia;  Palestine 
according  to  B<idenhcimer. 



PiPisTRELLUS  NATHUsii  Kcyscrling  &  Blasius,  1839 

1839.  V^spertilio  nathusii  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  5,  i :  320.  Berlin, 

1905.   Vesperugo  nathusii  var.  unicolor  Fatio,  Arch.  Sci.  Nat.  Geneve,  ig:  510.  Geneva, 

Pipistrellus  abramus  group 

Pipistrellus  abramus  Tcmminck,  1840  Japanese  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Ussuri  region,  Eastern  Siberia; 
Japan;  China,  states  of  Chihli,  Shantung,  Fukien,  Szechuan,  Hupeh,  Hunan; 
Hainan,  Indo-China;  Formosa;  Java,  Banka  (see  Tate,  1942,  237).  Probably  the 
Burmese  form  below  may  be  regarded  as  a  race. 

Pipistrellus  abramus  abramus  Temminck,  1840 

1840.  Vespertilio  abramus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  232,  pi.  58,  figs,  i,  2.  Nagasaki, 

Kiushiu,  Japan. 
(?)  1840.   Vespertilio  akokornuli  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  233,  pi.  57,  figs.  8,  9. 

1842.   Vespertilio  irretitus  Cantor,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  481.  Chusan  Island,  Chekiang, 

1857.   Seotophilus  pumiloides  Tomes,  P.Z.S.  51.  China. 
1922.  Scotophilus  pomiloides  Mell,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  88a,  10:  14. 
Range:  Japan  and  China,  as  above;  Annam,  in  Indo-China. 

Pipistrellus  (?)  abramus  paterculus  Thomas,  1915 

1915.  Pipistrellus  paterculus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2^:  32.  Mt.  Popa,  Upper 
Burma.   Range  includes  Shan  States  and  Chindwin,  Burma. 

Tate  also  refers  the  following  named  form  to  the  present  group : 
Pipistrellus  camortae  Miller,  1902 

1902.  Pipistrellus  camortae  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  2^:  779.  Kamorta  Island 
Nicobar  Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Pipistrellus  coromandra  group 

It  is  not  impossible  that  the  name  P.  imbricatus  Horsfield,  1824,  Java,  is  the  prior 
name  in  this  group. 

Pipistrellus  coromandra  Gray,  1838  Indian  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Fukien,  in  Southern  China,  Hainan;  Indo- 
China;  Burma,  Bhutan  Duars,  Sikkim,  Kumaon,  many  localities  in  Peninsula  of 
India,  and  Ceylon.  Persia,  \i  aladdin  is  rightly  allocated  here. 



1838.  Scotophilus  coromandra  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  498.  Pondichcrry,  Coromandel 
coast,  India. 

1851.   Vespertilio  coromandelicus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  159. 

1853.  Mvotis  parvipes  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  22:  581.  Masori  (?  Mussoorie, 

(?)  1855.    Vespcrugo  blythii  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugcth.  Suppl.  5.-  742.  Ceylon. 

1863.   Scotophilus  coromandelianus  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  33. 

(?)  1872.  Vesperugo  micropus  Peters,  P.Z.S.  708.  Dchra  Dun,  near  Simla,  North- 
Western  India.  Tate  lists  this  form  as  possibly  valid. 

Range:  Cevlon,  north  to  Kumaon  and  Bhutan  Duars. 

PiPISTRELLUS    (?)  COROMANDRA    AL.A.DDIN    Thomas,    1 9O5 

1905.  /'!/;/.(/;-(7/«_s  fl/afl'(/w  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.  24:  23.  1906,  P.Z.S.  /505,  2:521. 

Derbent,  30  miles  west  of  Isfahan,  6,500  ft.,  Persia. 

PiPISTRELLUS    (?)   COROMANDRA    PORTENSIS  J.  Allen,    I906 

1906.  Pipistrellus  porlaisis  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amcr.  Mus.  N.H.  22:  487.  Portcn,  Island  of 



1928.  Pipiitrclliis  coromandrus  tramatus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  144  Thai-nien,  Tonkin,  Indo- 
China.  Range  includes  Annam,  Laos,  and  Fukien  in  Southern  China.  Tate 
suggests  it  may  be  the  same  as  portnnii.  Anthony  (  1941)  recorded  it  from 
Northern  Burma. 

Pipistrellus  tenuis  group 
Based  on  P.  tenuis  Temminck,   1840,  from  Java  (e.xtralimital). 

Pipistrellus  mimus   Wroughton,  1899  Indian  Pygmy  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  most  of  Peninsular  India,  Kathiawar, 
Palanpur,  Cutch,  Sind,  Punjab,  Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  Assam,  Burma;  .^nnam, 

PiPISTRELLUS    MIMUS    MIMUS    WrOUghtOU,    1 899 

1899.  Pipistrellus  mimus  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  12:  722.  Mheskatri, 
Dangs,  Sural  district.  Western  India.  Range:  south  to  Ceylon,  north  to 
Kathiawar  and  district,  Kumaon,  Sikkim,  east  to  Western  Burma  and 

PiPISTRELLUS  MIMUS  oi.AUCiLLUS  ^\'rou<;;hton,  1912 

1912.  PifnUrelhn  mimus  glaucillus  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  .Soc.  21:  ]6().  Multan, 
Punjab,  India.  Ranges  to  Sind. 

PiPISTRELLUS      ?)   MIMUS    PRINCIPULUS    Thomas,    19I5 

I(|I5.   Pi/mlrellin  /irtneifnilus  Thomas,  ,\nn.  .\Ia^.  N.H.  ij:  231.  Gauhati,  .\ssam. 


Pipistrellus  affinis  group 

Pipistrellus  affinis  Dobson,  1871  Chocolate  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Bhamo  (Yunnan-Burma  border). 

Pipistrellus  affinis  Dobson,  1871 

1 87 1.  Vesperugo  (Pipistrellus)  affinis  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  213.  Bhamo, 
North-Eastern  Burma.  Tate  also  records  it  from  the  Likiang  Range,  Yun- 
nan, China. 

Pipistrellus  pulveratus   Peters,  1871 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  Yunnan  and  Fukien,  in  Southern 

Pipistrellus  pulveratus  Peters,  1871 

1871.   Vesperugo  pulveratus  Peters,  in  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  i8yo:  618.  Amoy,  Fukien,  China. 

Pipistrellus  lophurus  Thomas,  1915 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim. 

Pipistrellus  lophurus  Thomas,  19 15 

191 5.  Pipistrellus  lophurus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  23:  413.  Maliwun,  Victoria 
Province,  Tenasserim. 

Pipistrellus  cerlonicus  group 

Pipistrellus  ceylonicus  Kelaart,  1852  Kelaart's  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India  (where  widely 
distributed),  north  to  Kathiawar,  Sind,  Cutch,  Bengal.  Probably  represented  in 
Burma  and  Indo-China. 

Pipistrellus  ceylonicus  ceylonicus  Kelaart,  1852 

1852.  Scotophilus  ceylonicus  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeylan,  22.  Trincomalee,  Ceylon. 

Pipistrellus  ceylonicus  indicus  Dobson,  1878 

1878.  Vesperugo  indicus  Dobson,  Cat.  Chiroptera  B.M.  222.  Mangalore,  Malabar 
coast,  India.  Range:  Southern  Peninsular  India. 

Pipistrellus  ceylonicus  chrysothrix  Wroughton,  i8gg 

1899.  Pipistrellus  chrysothrix  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  12:  720.  Mheskatri, 

Surat  Dangs,  India.  Range:  northwards  from  the  range  of  indicus,  south  of 

that  of  subcanus,  to  Bengal. 

Pipistrellus  (?)  ceylonicus  raptor  Thomas,  1904 

1904.  Pipistrellus  raptor  Thom3.s,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  13:  387.  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 


PALA1:ARC:TIC  and  IXDIAX   mammals   1738   1946 

1915.  Pipislrelliis  shanorum  Thomas,  J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.   24:   29.   Pyaunsgauiic;, 
Northmi  Shan  States,  Burma. 


1 915.  Pipistrdhis  cnlonicus  suhcanus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  30.  Wilala, 
Junaa;adh,  Kathiawar,  India.  Range  inckides  Sind,  C'utch,  Palanpur. 

PipistrcUiis  kiihli  group 

Pipistrellus  kuhli   Kuhl,  1819  Kuhl's  Pipistrellc 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Spain, 
Balearic  Islands,  Sardinia,  Greece;  Crimea,  Caucasus  and  lower  Amu-Darya,  in 
Russian  Turkestan;  Asia  Minor  (B.M.),  Persia,  Afghanistan,  Palestine,  Arabia;  Sind, 
Kashmir;  Egypt,  Algeria,  Morocco.  Also  known  from  Asben,  Ken\a  and  South 
Africa  to  Transvaal,  Natal  and  Knysna,  Cape  Province. 

Pipistrellus  kuhli  kuhli  Kuhl,  1819 

1819.    Vesperlilio  kuhlii  Kuhl,  Ann.  W'cttcrau.  Ges.  Naturk.  4,  2:  199.  Trieste  (Italian- 
Yugoslavian  border). 

1829.  Vespertilio  pipistniliis   var.    aegrpliiis   Fischer,    Synops.    Mamm.    105.    Thebes, 


1830.  Vcipertilw   marginatus    C'retzschmar    in    Ruppcll.    Atlas    Rcisc    nordl.    Afrika, 

Saugcth.  74,  pi.  29a.  "Arabia  Pctraca"  (Sinai)  and  Nubia,  Sudan.  According 
to  Anderson  &  de  Winton,  1902,  Zool.  Egypt,  Mamm.  127,  from  Egypt. 

1835.   Vespertilio  albolimhatus  Kiister,  Isis,  Jena,  75.  Cagliari,  Sardinia. 

1837.    Vespertilio  vispistrellus  Bonaparte,  Faun.  Ital,  /,  fasc.  20.  Sicily. 

1837.  Vespertilio  alcrthoe  Bonaparte,  loc.  eit.  fasc.  21.  Sicily.  See  Miller,  1912,  215. 

1838.  Romicia  calearata  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  495.  Locality  unknown. 

1840.  Vespertilio  ursula  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  /.•  505.  Morea,  Greece. 

1841.  Pipistrellus   marginatus    Bonaparte,    Faun.    Ital.,    Indie,    distrih.    Substitute    for 

1863.  .^'vctieelus  caniis  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  32.  India.  Tate 

suggests  this  may  be  a  valid  race. 
1867.   Pipistrella  minuta  Lochc,  Expl.  Sci.  Algerie,  Zoo].,  Mamm.  78.  Oasis  of  Messad, 

Southern  Algeria. 
(?)  1867.   Seotophilus  lobatiis  jcrdon,  Mamm.  Ind.  35.  Madras,  India. 
1872.   Vespertilio  {Pipistrellus)  leucotis  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  41:  222.  Rajanpur, 

Punjab,  North-Western  India. 
1886.    Vespertilio  kuhlii  var.   albicans  Monticelli,   Atti   Soc.    Ital.   Sci.   Nat.   2j:   200. 

Caivano,  Naples,  Italy. 
1886.    Vespertilio  kuhlii  var.  pullatus  Monticelli,  loc.  cil.  Bella  Vista,  near  Portici,  Naples, 

Range:  Europe,  North  Africa,  Sind,  Persia. 

Pipistrellus  kuhli  lepidus  Blyth,  1845 

1845.  Pipistrellus  lepidus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  14:  340.  Kandahar,  Afghanistan. 
Ranges  to  Kashmir  and  Upper  Sind  frontier. 



PipiSTRELLUs  KUHLi  iKHWANius  CheesiTian  &  Hinton,  1924 

1924.  Pipistrellus  kuhlii  ikhwanius  Cheesman  &  Hinton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   14:  549. 
Hufuf,  Hasa,  Central  Arabia. 

Pipistrellus  kuhli  pallidus  Heim  de  Balsac,  T936 

1936.  Pipistrellus  kuhlii  pallidus  Heim  de  Balsac,  Bull.  Biol.  Paris,  21,  SuppL:    180. 
Northern  Sahara  to  the  A'haggar,  Algeria. 

Pipistrellus  babu  Thomas,  19 15 

Approximate  distribution 'of  species:  Punjab,  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Bhutan 
Duars,  Assam  and  Central  Provinces,  India. 

This  species  is  included  provisionally  in  the  kuhli  group  by  Tate.  It  differs  in  having 
a  long  outer  incisor,  and  has  P  2  not  so  strongly  displaced  internally. 

Pipistrellus  babu  Thomas,  1915 

1915.  Pipistrellus  babu  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  30.  Murree,  8,000  ft., 

Pipistrellus  deserti  Thomas,  1902 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Libya. 

In  describing  this  species,  Thomas  compared  it  with  P.  kuhli,  from  which  it  differed 
in  its  shorter  skull  and  toothrow,  and  narrower  braincase.  Miller  (1907)  placed  it  in 
Scotozous,  but  Thomas  &  Hinton,  1923,  P.^-S.  250,  confirmed  Thomas's  earlier 
opinion  that  it  was  allied  to  kuhli.  Dentition  as  in  P.  kuhli,  but  size  smaller. 

Pipistrellus  deserti  Thomas,  1902 

1902.  Pipistrellus  deserti  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo2,  2:  4.  Mursuk,  Tripoli,  Libya. 

Pipistrellus  savii  group 

Pipistrellus  savii  Bonaparte,  1837  Savi's  Pipisti'elle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Spain,  has  been 

recorded  from  Germany  (Breslau);  Greece;  Crimea,  Caucasus,  Turkestan  (Turk- 

menia,  Ust-Urt,  Tianshan,  etc.),  and  Ussuri  region  of  Eastern  Siberia;  Mongolia; 

Sikkim,  Assam,  Burma  (but  Tate  doubts  whether  the  India  named  forms  really 

represent  the  species) ;  Canary  Islands. 

Kuzyakin  states  that  the  forms  caucasicus,  tauricus,  velox  and  alaschanicus,  hitherto 

regarded  as  small  members  of  Eptesicus,  represent  this  species. 

Pipistrellus  savii  savii  Bonaparte,  1837 

1837.  Vespertilio  savii  Bonaparte,  Faun.  Ital.  /.•  fasc.  20.  Pisa,  Italy. 

1837.   Vespertilio  aristippe  Bonaparte,  loc.  cit.,  fasc.  21.  Sicily. 

1837.  Vespertilio  leucippe  Bonaparte,  loc.  cit.  Sicily. 

1838.  Vespertilio  bonapartii  Savi,  Nuovo  Giorn.  Lett.  Pisa,  ^7.-  226.  Pugnano,  near 

Pisa,  Italy. 




1844.  Vespertilio  nigrans  Crespon,  Faunc  Mcridionale,  /;  24.  Nimes,  Gard,  France. 
1853.  Vespirlilio  maurus  Blasius,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  /g,  1  :  -s,-^.  Central  chain  of  Alps. 
1872.  Vfsperlilio  a«ilis  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.•  appendix,  iii.  New  name  for  savii. 
1004.   Vespertilio  ochromixtus  Cabrera,  Mem.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  :?.•  267,  pi.  3,  figs,  i  &  4. 

Sierra  de  Guadarrama,  Madrid,  Spain. 
Range;   Europe. 

PirlSTRELLUS    SAVII    DARWI.M    TomCS,    1 859 

1859.   Scolnphili/s  )l(irwini  Ton^Ci,  P.Z.S.  70.  Las  Palmas,  Canary  Islands.  A\ailable  if 
the  Clanary  Islands  form  should  prove  distinct. 

PlPISrREI.LUS    (?)S.\VII    AUSTENIANUS    DobsOU,    1 87  I 

1 87 1.  Pipistrdlus  austcnianus  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  213.  Cherrapunjee, 
Khasi  Hills,  Assam.  Range:  to  Shan  States,  Burma. 

PiPisTRELLUs  (.'')  .s.wii  c.\ucAsicus  Satuuiu,  1901 

1901.    Vespeniuo  [Vcspcrus)  cnucaucus  Satunin,  Zool.  Anz   24:  462.  Tiflis,  Caucasus.  In 

placing  this  form   here   we  follow   Kuzyakin,   in   Bobrinskii    (1944,    loi). 

Range:  tn  C'rimea  and  Turkestan. 

PiPISTRELLUS    (?)  S.WII    CVDORN'AE    ThomaS,    I916 

Kjib.  Pipistnllus  cadornae  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  416.  Pashok,  3,500  ft., 
Darjeeling.  North-Eastern  India. 

PiPISTRELLUS    (?)  S.'VVII    TAMERLAM    Bobrillskii,    I918 

1918.  Epicsicus  tamerhvn  Bobrinskii,  Fauna  &  Flora  P.ussia,  ifj:  13-16.  'N.V.) 
Baisunski  Bay,  Bcjkhara  district,  Russian  Turkestan.  Placed  (as  a  race)  in 
E.  (aiicasuiii  by  Ognev,  which  is  included  in  P.  savii  by  Kuzyakin  !  1944). 

PiPISTRELLUS   (?)  SAVII   PALLESCENS  Bobrinskii,  ig2G 

192G.  Eptciicus  caiicauciii  pallescens  Bobrinskii,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.,  A,  97.  River 
Moldja,  northern  slope  of  Kotan  Tagh,  Southern  Sinkiang.  Des- 
cribed as  a  race  o{ caucasicus  which  Kuz)akin  (1944)  refers  to  the  present 

PiPLSTRELLUS  (?)  S.A.VII  ALASCHANicus  Bobrinskii,  1926 

1926.  Eptcsicus  alaschanicus  Bobrinskii,   C.R.  Acad.   Sci.   U.R.S.S.,  A,  98.  Pass  of 

Hotin  Gol,  near  Dinyuanin,  western  slope  of  Alashan  Range,  Mongolia. 
Ranges  to  Ussuri  district.  Eastern  Siberia.  Kuzyakin  (1944)  lists  this  as  a 
\alid  race  of  P.  saini. 

PiPISTRELLUS    (?)  SAVII    TAURICUS    OgUCV,    1 927 

1927.  Awhlrnliis  lauricus  Ognev,  j.  Mamm.  8:  153.  Karadagh,  Crimea.  Referred  to 

the  present  species  by  Kuzyakin  (1944),  but  not  regarded  as  a  valid  race. 
Perhaps  —:  cauc/niai^. 


PiPISTRELLUS    (?)  SAVII    VELOX    Ognev,    1 927 

1927.  Amblyotus  velox  Ognev,  J.  Mamm.  8:  154.  Vladivostock,  Eastern  Siberia. 
Referred  to  savii  by  Kuzyakin  (1944)  but  not  regarded  as  a  valid  race. 
Perhaps  =  alaschanicus. 

The  following  two  African  species  are  mentioned  by  Tate  in  the  present  group; 
both  are  likely  to  be  valid.  P.  maderensis  was  compared  with  savii  by  Dobson.  P.  ariel 
(a  pygmy  species,  forearm  30  mm.,  total  length  of  skull  11. 3  mm.)  differs  from  P. 
deserti  apparently  in  narrower  braincase  and  shorter  toothrow;  its  outer  upper  incisor 
is  unusually  long,  and  it  has  P  2  extremely  reduced,  as  in  P.  savii. 

Pipistrellus  maderensis  Dobson,  1878 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Madeira  and  Canary  Islands. 

Pipistrellus  maderensis  Dobson,  1878 

1878.  Vesperugo  maderensis  Dobson,  Cat.  Chiroptera  B.M.  231,  pi.  12,  fig.  5.  Island  of 

Pipistrellus  ariel  Thomas,  1904 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Egypt. 

Pipistrellus  ariel  Thomas,  1904 

1904.  Pipistrellus  ariel  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  14:  157.  Eastern  Egyptian  Desert, 
22°  N.,  35°  E.,  2,000  ft. 

Pipistrellus  circumdatus  group 

Pipistrellus  circumdatus  Temminck,  1840  Large  Black  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Java;  Northern  Burma  (Anthony,  1941)  and 
"  India  "  (Dobson,  Blanford). 

Pipistrellus  circumdatus  Temminck,  1840 

1840.  Vespertilio  circumdatus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  214.  Tapos,  Java. 

Pipistrellus  mordax  Peters,  1866 

Approximate  distribution  ofspecies:  Java;  Kumaon,  Darjeeling,  Calcutta,  Ceylon. 

Pipistrellus  mordax  Peters,  1866 

(?)  1843.   Scotophilus  maderaspatanus  Gray,    List    Mamm.    Coll.   B.M.    29,   noin.   nud. 

Madras,  India. 
1866.   Vesperugo  mordax  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  ^Viss.  402.  Java. 

M  171 

Subgenus  MEGAPIPISTRELLUS  Bianchi,  1916 

Pipistrellus  annectens  Dobson,  1871  Intermediate  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Assam,  and  has  been  recorded  from  Sumatra. 

Pipistrellus  annectens  Dobson,  1871 

1 87 1.  Pipistrellus  annectens  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  213.  Naga  Hills,  Assam. 

1876.    Wsperugo  annectens  Dobson,  Monogr.  Asiat.  Chiroptera,  116. 

Subgenus  SCOTOZOUS  Dobson,  1875 

Tate  referred  only  dormcri  here,  and  treated  the  riippelli  group,  as  a  group  of  Pipi- 
strellus. For  note  on  the  dental  characters  of  the  two  species,  see  Miller,  1907,  Families 
&  Genera  of  Bats,  206. 

Pipistrellus  riippelli  group 

Pipistrellus  riippelli  Fischer,  1829  Ruppell's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sudan,  Uganda,  Angola,  Bcchuanaland; 
north  to  Egypt;  Iraq. 

Pipistrellus  rlippelli  ruppelli  Fischer,  1829 

1826.    Vespertilio   temminckii   Cretzschmar,    in   Ruppell,   Atlas   Reise.    nordl.    Afrika, 

Siiugeth.  17,  pi.  6.  Not  of  Horsfield,  1824. 
1829.    Vespertilio  ritppellii  Fischer,   Synops.   Mamm.    log.   Dongola,  Anglo-Egyptian 

Ranges  north  to  Eg^'pt. 

Pipistrellus  ruppelli  coxi  Thomas,  1919 

191 9.  Pipistrellus  coxi  Thomas,  J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.   26:   747.   Beit   Mahommad, 
Amara,  Irac|. 

Pipistrellus  dormcri  group 

Pipistrellus  dormeri   Dobson,  1875  Dormer's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  India,  from  Cutch,  Kathiawar,  Bengal, 
Bhutan  Duars,  south  to  Bombay,  Dharwar  and  Bellary  in  the  Peninsula;  Formosa 

Pipistrellus  dormeri  dormeri  Dobson,  1875 

1875.  Scotozous  dormeri  Dobson,  P.Z.S.  373.  Bellary  Hills,  India.  Range:  as  in  the 
species,  except  Kathiawar,  Cutch,  Palanpur. 

PlPLSTRELLUS    DORMERI    CAURINUS    ThoiliaS,    1915 

191 5.   Scotozous  dormeri  caurinus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  X.H.  Soc.  24:  33.  Junagadh, 
Kathiawar,  400  ft.,  India.  Ranges  to  C\Uch,  Palanpur. 


Subgenus  lA  Thomas,  igo2 

Pipistrellus  io  Thomas,  1902  Great  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  Hupeh  and  Kweichow,  China. 

Pipistrellus  10  Thomas,  1902 

1902.  la  10  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  164.  Chungyang,  Southern  Hupeh,  China. 

Another  named  species  o{  Pipistrellus  is  P.  anthonyi  Tate,  1942,  which  is  placed  by 
him  in  the  so-called  "Pipistrellus  joffrei  group".  Its  status  seems  not  absolutely  clear. 
The  species jq^m  has  hitherto  been  regarded  as  a  Nyctalus,  together  with  the  Bornean 
N.  stenopterus  which  Tate  also  refers  to  the  "P.  joffrei  group".  As  noted  above,  we  prefer 
for  the  present  to  leave  J^'.  joffrei  in  the  genus  Nyctalus.  The  proportions  of  the  digits 
are  not  stated  in  the  original  description  of  P.  anthonyi. 

Pipistrellus  anthonyi  Tate,  1942 

1 94 1.  Pipistrellus  affinis  Anthony ,  Field  Mus.  Publ.  Zool.  zy:  81.  Not  ofDobson,  1871. 

1942.  Pipistrellus   anthonyi  Tate,   Bull.   Amer.    Mus.   N.H.    80:    252.    Changyinku, 

7,000  ft..  Northern  Burma. 

Genus  GLISCHROPUS  Dobson,  1875 
1875.  Glischropus  Dobson,  P.Z.S.  472.  Vesperugo  tylopus  Dobson. 

1  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Glischropus  tylopus,  page  173 

Simpson  ( 1 945)  suggests  that  this  should  be  included  in  Pipistrellus,  and  it  may  well 
be  only  a  subgenus  of  that.  It  is,  according  to  Tate,  "an  offshoot  o^  Pipistrellus  in 
which  the  apparatus  for  grasping  has  undergone  modification". 

Glischropus  tylopus  Dobson,  1875  Thick-thumbed  Pipistrelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma;  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo, 
perhaps  to  Philippine  Islands. 

Glischropus  tylopus  Dobson,  1875 

1875.   Vesperugo  tylopus  Dobson,  P.Z.S.  473.  North  Borneo.  Ranges  north  to  Karen 
Hills,  Eastern  Lower  Burma. 

Genus  HESPEROPTENUS  Peters,  1868 

1868.  Hesperoptenus  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss,  626.  Vesperus  doriae  Peters, 
from  Borneo. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Hesperoptenus  blanfordi,  page  174 
Hesperoptenus  tickelli,  page  174 



These  U\'0  species  differ  conspicuously  from  each  other  in  size,  tickcUi  bcinj;  much 
the  larger. 

The  genus  as  understood  by  Miller  ( 1907)  is  characterized  by  the  peculiar  position 
of  the  second  upper  incisor,  a  character  which  is  said  to  be  present  in  both  the  Indian 
species.  But  Miller,  and  subsecjuent  authors,  do  not  seem  to  have  examined  the  type 
species,  and  it  may  be  that  this  genus  will  pro\e  untenable  in  the  sense  in  which  it  is 
at  present  accepted.  Tate  (1942)  notes  that  hlanjordi  has  a  digital  adaptation  similar 
to  that  of  Glischrojiiis. 

Hesperoptenus  tickelli  Blyth,  1851  Tickelfs  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  India — Rajputana,  Orissa,  Bombay,  Madras, 
Ceylon,  Bengal,  Bhutan  Duars.  (Blanford  also  quoted  it  from  the  Andaman  Islands 
and  Moulmein  district,  Burma.) 

Hesperoptenus  tickelli  Blyth,  1851 

1851.  .\vclicejus  tickelli  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  157.  Chaibassa,  Orissa,  India 

(Wroughton,  19 10). 
(?)  1851.  Nvcticejus  isabelUniis  Horsfield,   Cat.   Mamm.   Mus.   E.   Ind.   Co.   38.   No 


Hesperoptenus  blanfordi  Dobson,  1877  Blanford's  Bat 

.\pproximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasscrim,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Hesperoptenus  bl.'\nfordi  Dobson,  1877 

1877.   Vesperugo  {Hesperoptenus)  blanfordi  Dobson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4G,  2:  312. 

Genus  TYLONYCTERIS   Peters,  1872 

1872.   Trlonvcleris  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  703.  Vespertilio  pachjpiis  Tem- 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Trlonvcterii  paehrpu^,  page  174 
Trlonvclcrn  rnbuslula,  page  1 75 

Review:  Tate,  1942,  £;///.  Amrr.  Mus.  JS'.H.  80:  266,  wherein  two  groups  of  species 
(a  larger  and  a  smaller)  arc  shown  to  occur  together. 

Tylonycteris  pachypus  Temminck,  1840  Club-footed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Yunnan  and  ?  Kwantung,  in  Southern  China, 
Burma,  Manipur,  Sikkim;  Dharwar,  southwards  to  Coorg  in  South- Western  India; 
Tonkin,  Laos  and  Annam,  in  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Borneo,  Java,  Bali, 
Sumatra  fTate),  to  Luzon.  Philippine  Islands.  :  Blanford  also  quoted  it  from  the 
.■\ndaman  Islands.) 



(Tylonycteris  pachypus  pachypus  Temminck,  1840.  Extralimital) 
1840.   Vespertilio  pachypus  Temminck,   Mon.   Mamm.   2:   217,  pi.   54,   figs.  4-5-6. 
Bantam,  Western  Java. 

Tylonycteris  pachypus  fulvid.a.  Blyth,  1859 

1859.  Scotophilus  fulvidus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  28:  293.  Schwegyin,  Sittang 

River,  South-Eastern  Burma. 
1915.   Tylonycteris  rubidus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  75.-  227  (error  hr  fulvidus). 
Range:  Sikkim,  Manipur,  Chin  Hills,  Shan  States,  Pegu,  Tenasserim,  Yunnan,  Laos, 
Tonkin,  Annam. 

Tylonycteris  pachypus  aurex  Thomas,  1915 

1915.   Tylonycteris  aurex  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  75.-  228.  Astoli,  Belgaum,  south  of 
Bombay,  India.  Range:  Dharwar,  Kanara,  Coorg,  in  Peninsular  India. 

Tylonycteris  robustula  Thomas,  1915 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Yunnan,  China;  Laos  and  Annam,  Indo- 
China;  Malay  Peninsula,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Bali,  Celebes,  Timor. 

Tylonycteris  robustula  Thomas,  1915 

1915.   Tylonycteris  robustula  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   75.-    227.  Upper  Sarawak, 

Genus  BARBASTELLA  Gray,  1821 

182 1.  Barbastella  Gray,  London  Med.  Repos.  75.-  300.  Vespertilio  barbastellus  Schreber. 
1839.  Synotus  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  5,  i :  305.  Vespertilio  barba- 
stellus Schreber. 

2  species :  Barbastella  barbastellus,  page  1 75 
Barbastella  leucomelas,  page  176 

Two  closely  allied  species  are  currently  admitted.  We  follow  the  classification  of 
Tate,  1942,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  80:  264-265,  but  a  change  of  name  is  necessary. 
Tate  made  leucomelas  a  race  of  darjelingensis,  but  the  former  antedates  the  latter. 

Barbastella  barbastellus  Schreber,  1774  Barbastelle 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  England,  France,  Switzerland,  Spain,  Italy 
(Ognev),  Norway,  Sweden,  Germany,  Holland,  Denmark,  Poland;  Russia  (Ukraine, 
Crimea,  Caucasus  and  Transcaucasia). 

Barbastella  barbastellus  Schreber,  1774 

1774.   Vespertilio  barbastellus  .Schreber,  Saugeth.  7.-  pi.  55  (text,  p.   168).  Burgundy, 

1776.   Vespertilio  barbastelle  Muller,  Natursyst.  Suppl.  Regist.  Band,   17.  Burgundy, 

1836.  Barbastellus  daubentonii  Bell,  Hist.  Brit.  Quad.  7;  63.  Burgundy,  France. 
1838.  Barbastellus  communis  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  495.  Renaming  of  barbastellus. 



Barbastella  leucomelas  Cretzschmar,  1826 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sinai;  Caucasus,  Transcaucasia,  Russian 
Turkestan  (regions  of  Tashkent  and  Murgab  Oasis),  Chinese  Turkestan  (Yarkand), 
Yunnan,  Szcchuan  and  Kansu,  in  China;  Hondo,  Japan;  Nepal,  Punjab,  Sikkim, 
Bhutan  Duars,  Rajputana  (also  Gilgit  and  Assam,  according  to  Blanford) ;  Indo- 

Barbastella  leucomelas  leucomelas  Cretzschmar,  1826 

1826.  Vespertilio  leucomelas  Cretzschmar,  in  RUppcll,  Atlas  Reise  nordl.  Afrika, 
Siiugcth.  73,^1.  28b.  Arabia  Petraea  (=  Sinai). 

Barbastella  leucomelas  darjelingensis  Hodgson,  1855 

1855.  Plecotiis  darjelingensis  Hodgson,  in  Horsfield,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  103.  Darjeel- 
ing,  North-Eastern  India.  (^Vroughton  and  Tate  gave  Nepal.) 

1875.  Barhastellus  dargelinensis  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  85. 

1908.  Barbastella  barbastella  caspica  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  4:  43,  104.  Kubaly, 
River  Pirsagat,  Transcaucasia. 

1916.  Barbastella  walteri  Bianchi,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  2i:  Ixxw 

1916.  Barbastella  blanfordi  Bianchi,  loc.  cit.  Renaming  o[  darjelingensis. 

Range:  as  in  the  species,  except  Sinai. 

Genus  NYCTICEIUS  Rafinesque,  181 9 

1 81 9.  JVvcticeius  Rafinesque,  J.  Physique,  88:  417.  Nycticeius  humeralis  Rafinesque 
from  North  America. 

1824.  Mvelicejus  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  /.■  xviii. 

1827.  Nycticeus  Lesson,  Man.  Mamm.  98. 

1830.  Nycticeyx\S^a.g\er,  Nat.  Syst.  Amph.  13. 

1875.  Scoteinus  Dobson,  P.Z.S.  371.  Nvcticejus  emarginatus  Dobson.  Valid  as  a  sub- 

3  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Nycticeius  emarginatus,  page  177 
Nycticeius  pallidus,  page  177 
Nycticeius  schlieffeni,  page  177 

Hollistcr,  19 1 8,  Bull.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  gg:  93,  stated  that  the  Old  World  species  of 
bats,  usually  placed  in  Scoteinus,  did  not  seem  to  differ  generically  from  the  American 
species  of  Nycticeius,  and  Simpson  (1945,  59)  places  Scoteinus  in  Nycticeius.  We  follow 
these  authors.  .A^.  emarginatus  is  larger  than  the  other  two  species  referred  here.  A 
comparison  of  these  can  be  obtained  from  Dobson  (1878),  who  placed  them  in 
different  genera.  But  Miller  (1907)  considered  them  congeneric. 


Subgenus  SCOTEINUS  Dobson,  1875 

Nycticeius  schliefiTeni  Peters,  1859  SchliefFen's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Arabia,  Egypt,  Sudan,  Abyssinia,  Kenya, 
Eastern  Congo,  south  to  South- West  Africa  and  Portuguese  East  Africa. 

Nycticeius  schlieffeni  schlieffeni  Peters,  1859 

1859.  Nycticejus  schlieffenii  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  224.  Cairo,  Egypt. 

Nycticeius  (?)  schlieffeni  bedouin  Thomas  &  Wroughton,  1908 
1908.  Scoteinus  bedouin  Thomas   &   Wroughton,  P.Z.S.  540.  Lahej,  Aden,  South- 
western Arabia. 

Nycticeius  pallidas  Dobson,  1876  Yellow  Desert  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Northern  Sind  and  Punjab,  India. 

Nycticeius  pallidus  Dobson,  1876 

(?)  1834.   Vespertilio  noctulinus  Geoffrey,  in  Belanger,  Voy.  aux  Indes-Orientales.  .  .  . 

Zool,  92,  pi.  3.  Bengal.  This,  if  identifiable,  may  be  the  first  name  for 

pallidus.  (See  Tate,  1942,  282.) 
1876.  Scotophilus  pallidus  Dobson,  Monogr.  Asiat.  Chiroptera,  Appendix  D,   186. 

Mian  Mir,  near  Lahore,  Punjab,  North-Western  India. 

Nycticeius  emarginatus  Dobson,  1871  Large-eared  Yellow  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  thought  to  be  from  some  part  of  India. 

Nycticeius  emarginatus  Dobson,  1871 

1 87 1.  Nycticejus  emarginatus  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  211.  ?  India. 

Genus  SCOTOMANES  Dobson,  1875 
1875.  Scotomanes  Dobson,  P.Z.S.  371.  Nycticejus  ornatus  Blyth. 
I  species:  Scotomanes  ornatus,  page  177 

Scotomanes  ornatus  Blytli,  1851  Harlequin  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  eastwards  to  Fukien  and 
adjacent  states  in  Southern  China;  Sikkim,  Bengal,  Assam,  perhaps  Northern 

Scoto.manes  ornatus  ornatus  Blyth,  1851 

1851.  Nycticejus  ornatus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  517.  Cherrapunji,  Khasi 

Hills,  Assam. 
1855.  Nycticejus  nivicolus  Hodgson,  in  Horsfield,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  104.  Northern 

region  of  Sikkim  Himalayas. 


p.\i.aearc:tic;  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 


192 1.  Scotomanes  ornatus  sinensis  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  X.H.  Soc.  :?/■'  772-  Kuatun, 
North-\\'estern  Fukicn,  China.  Range:  recorded  from  Szechuan,  Hunan, 
Kwangsi,  Kwantung,  Fokien,  Southern  China. 


1921.  Scotomanes  ornatus  imhrensis  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  772.  Khonsh- 
nong,  Jaintia  Hills,  3,000  ft.,  Assam. 

Genus  SCOTOPHILUS  Leach,  1821 

if')2i.   Stntnpliilii\    Leach,    'Lrans.    Linn.    Soc.    London,     ij:    69.    Seotophiliis    kuhlti 

1 83 1.  Pachrotus  Gray,  Zool.  Misc.  No.  i,  38.  Seotophiliis  kuhlii  Leach. 
(?)  1942.  Parascotomancs  Bourret,  C.R.  Conseil  Rech.  Sci.  Lidochine,  1^42,  2:  23. 

Scotomanes  i Parascotomancs)  heaidicui  Bourret. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Scotophilus  heathi,  page  1 79 
Seotophiliis  tcmmincki,  page  1 78 

The  earliest  name  in  this  genus  is  .S'.  iu«iita  Schreber,  1774,  from  Senegal.  It  has  a 
vsidc  range  in  Tropical  Africa,  but  we  ha\e  not  heard  of  its  being  recorded  from 
Piilaearctic  Africa.  It  is,  from  Dobson's  notes,  not  very  widely  removed  from  the 
Indomalayan  species. 

Tate,  1942,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  X.H.  80:  283,  reviews  the  Indomalayan  species  at 
some  length.  The  earliest  name  is  Scotophilus  kulili  Leach,  182 1  (Trans.  Linn.  Soe. 
London,  ij:  72,  locality  unknown).  Tate  is,  hovve\er,  unable  to  identify  this  form 
specifically,  and  states  that  it  was  based  on  a  juvenile  specimen.  We  here  follow  the 
classification  of  Tate,  who  regards  two  species  as  valid:  a  larger  and  a  smaller, 
occurring  side  by  side  in  parts  of  their  ranges.  We  accept  Tate's  statement  that  the 
name  kuhli  is  not  at  the  moment  certainly  identifiable  specifically. 

Scotophilus  temmincki  Horsfield,  1824  Lesser  Yellow  Bat 

.\ppro.\imate  distribution  of  species:  Hainan,  Formosa;  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of 
India,  where  widely  distributed,  north  to  Kathiawar,  Palanpur,  Bengal,  Kumaon, 
Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars;  Mt.  Popa,  in  Burma,  Tenasserim;  Siam,  Annam,  in  Indo- 
China,  Malay  States,  Java,  Bali,  Borneo,  Philippines.  (Bodcnheimer  listed  "Scoto- 
philus ?  temminekr'  from  Palestine,  which  is  far  r>ut  of  its  normal  range.) 

SfioTOPHius  TEMMINCKI  TEMMINCKI  Horsficld,  1 824.  Extralimital ) 

182  j.    Vt\peilUui  Iciiniuiicki  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Ja\a,  fB).  Western  Ja\a. 

Sf:OT0PHILUS    TEMMINCKI    CASTANEUS    Gray,    1 838 

1838.  Scotophilus  caslamiis  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  498.  Malacca.  Range  includes 
Borneo,  Annam  and  Tenasserim. 



1897.  Scotophilus  wroughtoni  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  //;  275.  Kim,  Surat 
district,  Western  India.  Range:  Ceylon  and  India,  as  above,  east  to  Mt. 
Popa,  Burma. 

Scotophilus  temmincki  consobrinus  J.  Allen,  1906 

(?)  i860.  Nycticejus  (?)  swinhoei  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  2g:  88.  Amoy,  Southern 

1906.  Scotophilus  castaneus  consobrinus  J.  Allen,   Bull.  Amer.   Mus.   N.H.   22:   485. 

Rintoi,  Island  of  Hainan. 
Range  includes  Formosa. 

Scotophilus  temmincki  gairdneri  Kloss,  191 7 

1917.  Scotophilus  gairdneri  K.\oss,}.l>i.Yi.  Soc.  Siam,  2:  284.  Paknampo,  Central  Siam. 

Scotophilus  heathi  Horsfield,  1831  Greater  Yellow  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species  (as  understood  by  Tate  (1942),  i.e.  containing 
both  the  very  large  and  the  medium-sized  Indomalayan  Scotophilus) :  Yunnan  (and 
possibly  parts  of  South-Eastern  China),  Hainan;  Burma,  Bhutan  Duars,  Sikkim, 
Bengal,  Kumaon,  Central  Provinces,  Cutch,  Sind,  Palanpur,  Rajputana,  Bombay, 
Peninsular  India  generally,  to  Ceylon;  Kashmir;  Tonkin  and  Annam,  in  Indo-China, 
Lower  Siam,  and  evidently  Celebes. 

Scotophilus  heathi  heathi  Horsfield,  1831 

1831.  Nycticejus  heathii  Horsfield,  P.Z.S.  113.  Madras,  India.  Range  includes  Raj- 
putana and  Ceylon  (Tate). 

Scotophilus  heathi  belangeri  I.  Geoffroy,  1834 

1B34.  Vespertilio  belangeri  Geoffroy,  in  Belanger,  Voyage  aux  Indes-Orientales,  Zool. 

87.  Towns  near  Pondicherry,  Coromandel  coast,  India. 
1851.  Nycticejus  luteus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  157.  "Bengal;  Coromandel, 

1851.  Scotophilus flaveolus  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  E.  Ind.  Co.  37.  "Many  parts 

of  Continental  India." 

Probably  Scotophilus  kuhli  of  Wroughton's  Indian  Mammal  Survey  summary 
should  be  referred  here,  but  in  view  of  Tate's  recent  classification  of  the  genus, 
revision  of  Indian  specimens  is  much  needed. 

Wroughton  quoted  kuhli  from  Ceylon  (but  he  did  not  quote  heathi  from  there), 
many  localities  in  Peninsular  India,  Bengal,  Sind,  Cutch,  Palanpur,  Central  Pro- 
vinces, Kumaon,  Sikkim,  Bhutan  Duars,  \Vestern,  Eastern  and  Central  Burma. 
Other  localities  are  Yunnan  {kuhli  of  G.  Allen,  1938),  Siam,  and  Tate  quoted  a 
specimen  of  fairly  similar  size  from  Kashmir. 

Scotophilus  heathi  insularis  J.  Allen,  1906 

1906.  Scotophilus  kuhlii  insularis  J.  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  22:  485.  Rintoi, 
Island  of  Hainan. 


palaearc:tic;  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 

(?)  Scotophilus  incertae  scdis. 

(?)  Scotophilus  beaulieui  Bourret,  1942 

1942.   Scotomanes  [Parascotomanes)   beaulieui  Bourret,   C.R.   Couseil  Rech.  Sci.   Indo- 
chine,  IQ^2,  2:  23.  Tran-Xinh,  Indo-Clhina. 

Genus  OTONYCTERIS  Peters,  1859 
1859.   Otonycteris  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  223.  Otonycteris  hemprichii  Peters. 
I  species :   Otonycteris  hemprichi,  page  1 80 
There  is  probably  only  one  valid  species  in  this  genus. 

Otonycteris  hemprichi  Peters,  1859  Hemprich's  Long-eared  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Russian  Turlcestan  (from  Turkmenia  to  the 

Hissar-Alai,   Western  Tianshan   and   Pamir   Mountains) ;    Persia,    Iraq,   Palestine 

(Asia  Minor,  according  to  Kuznetzov),  Arabia;  Kashmir  (Gilgit);  Egypt  to  Algeria. 

Otonycteris  he.mprichi  hemprichi  Peters,  1859 

1859.   Otonycteris  hemprichii   Peters,   Mber.   Preuss.   Akad.    Wiss.    223.   No   locality. 

(Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg's  collection;  probably  from  some  part  of  North- 

Eastern  Africa.) 
1866.  Plecotus  ustus  Fitzingcr  &  Heuglin,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  5^,  i  :  546.  Wadi 

Haifa,  in  Baten-el-Hadjar,  Egypt.  Norn.  nud. 
1873.  Plecotus  leucophaeus  Severtzov,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscou,  8,  2:   18. 

N.W.  Turkestan.  See  also  Severtzov,  1876,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  42. 
1873.  Plecotus  auritus  brevimanus  Severtzov,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscou,  8,  2: 

79.  See  also  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  42,  1876.  Nee  ]enyn%,  1829. 
(?)  1902.   O(tonycteris)  petersi  Anderson    &   de  Winton,  Zool.   Egypt,   Mamm.    120, 

pi.  18,  fig.  3.  Fao,  Persian  Gulf.  Status ^(/c  Ognev. 
1936.  Plecotus  auritus  saharae  Laurent,  Bull.  Soc.  Hist.  Nat.  Afr.  N.  2j:  408.  El  Golea, 

Range:  Russian  Turkestan,  Gilgit,  Palestine,  Egypt  to  Algeria. 

Otonycteris  (?)  hemprichi  cinerea  Satunin,  1909 

1909.   Otonycteris   emereus   Satunin,    Mitt.    Kaukas.    Mus.    ^:    281,    297.    Village    of 
Nukendzaga,  District  of  Gc,  Persian  Baluchistan. 

Otonycteris  (?)  hemprichi  jin  Cheesman  &  Hinton,  1924 

1924.   Otonycteris  jin  Cheesman  c&  Hinton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  14:  549.  Hufuf  Town, 
Hasa,  Arabia. 

Genus  PLECOTUS  GeofTroy,  18 18 

(?)  1816.   Macrotus  Leach,  Cat.  Mamm.  &  Birds  B.NL  5,  nam.  nud.  Macrotus  europaeus 

1818.   Plecotus  Geoffroy,  Description  de  I'Egypte,  2:  1 12.  Vespertilio  auritus,  Linnaeus. 

I  species:   Plecotus  auritus,  page  181 



Plecotus  auritus  Linnaeus,  1758  Long-eared  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Britain,  Ireland,  France,  Spain,  Italy, 
Switzerland,  Sweden,  Norway,  Denmark,  Holland,  Germany,  Yugoslavia,  Czecho- 
slovakia, Finland,  Poland;  Russia,  from  about  60-62°  N.,  south  to  the  Caucasus,  east 
across  Siberia  to  Kamtchatka  and  Sakhalin,  Russian  Turkestan;  Japan,  Kashgar 
(Chinese  Turkestan),  Tsaidam,  Mongolia,  China  (states  of  Chihli,  Kansu,  Szechuan) ; 
Kashmir,  Punjab,  Kumaon,  Nepal;  Palestine,  Persia,  according  to  Kuzyakin;  Egypt 
to  Northern  Sudan,  Tunis,  Algeria;  Teneriffe  (Canary  Islands). 

Tate,  1942,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  80:  231,  suggests  there  are  three  species  in 
Eurasia:  P.  auritus  (with  races  homochrous  (synonym  puck)  and  sacrimontis  (synonym 
ognevi);  P.  ariel  (with  race  wardi  (synonym  kozlovi)  ),  and  P.  mordax. 

Plecotus  auritus  auritus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Vespertilio  auritus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  32.  Sweden. 

1816.  Macrotus  europaeus  Leach,  Cat.  Spec.  Indig.  Mamm.  etc.  B.M.  5,  nom.  nud. 

1825.  Vespertilio  otus  Boie,  Isis,  Jena,  1206.  Copenhagen,  Denmark. 

1826.  Vespertilio  cornutus  Faber,  Isis,  Jena,  515.  Jutland,  Denmark. 

1827.  Plecotus  communis  Lesson,  Man.  de  Mamm.  95.  France. 

1829.  Plecotus  brevimanus  Jenyns,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  16:  55.  Grunty  Fen,  Isle 

of  Ely,  Cambridgeshire,  England. 
1829.  Plecotus  vulgaris  Desmarest,  Faune  Fran^aise  (19)  Mamm.  18.  France. 
1829.   Vespertilio  auritus  austriacus  Fischer,  Synops.  Mamm.  117.  Vienna,  Austria. 
(?)  1832.  Plecotus  peronii  I.  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Zool.  Paris,  2,   i :  2   (not  numbered), 

pis.  2-3. 
1832.  Plecotus  velatus  I  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Zool.  Paris,  2,  i,  pi.  2,  p.  5  fnot  numbered), 

(?)  1838.  Plecotus  bonapartii  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  495,  nom.  nud. 
1840.  Plecotus  megalotos  Schinz,  Europ.  Fauna,  /.•  19. 
i860.  Plecotus  kirschbaumii  Koch,  Ber.  Oberhess.  Ges.  Nat.-u.  Heilk.  8:  40.  Dillen- 

berg,  Oberhessen,  Germany. 
1863.  Plecotus  auritus  var.  typus  Koch,  Jb.  Nassau.  Ver.  Naturk.  18:  406.  Wiesbaden, 

Nassau,  Germany. 
1863.  Plecotus  auritus  var.  montanus  Koch,  loc.  cit.  \\'esterwald,  Nassau,  Germany. 
1863.  Plecotus  auritus  var.  brevipes  Koch,  loc.  cit.  407.  Substitute  for  kirschbaumii. 
Range:  Europe,  Siberia,  eastwards  to  Kamtchatka  and  Sakhalin. 

Plecotus  auritus  christiei  Gray,  1838 

1829.  Vespertilio  auritus  aegjptius  Fischer,  Synops.  Mamm.  117,  not  Vespertilio  pipi- 

strellus  var.  aegjptius  Fischer,  ibid.  105. 
1838.  Plecotus  christii  Gray,  Mag.  Zool.  Bot.  2:  495.  North  Africa. 
1878.  Plecotus  aegyptiacus  "I.  Geoff.",  Dobson,  Cat.  Chiroptera  B.M.   178.  Egypt. 

(See  Thomas,  1911,  P.Z.S.  160.) 
Range:  Egypt,  to  Aswan  and  Northern  Sudan;  Tunis;    Palestine. 

Plecotus  auritus  homochrous  Hodgson,  1847 

1847.  Plecotus  homochrous  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  895.  Nepal.  Ranges  to 

PALAKARCIR:  and   IXUIAX   mammals    1758-1946 

Plecotus  auritus  teneriffae  Barrett-Hamilton,  1907 

1907.  Plecotus  temriffac  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  520.  Orotava,  Island 
of  Tcncrifle. 

Plecotus  .vuritus  puck  Barrett-Hamilton,  1907 

1907.  Plecotus  puck  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  521.  Murrce,  7,500  ft., 

Punjab,  India.  ?  Synonym  of  homocfnous  (Tate). 

Plecotus  auritus  sacr:montis  G.  Allen,  1908 

1908.  Plecotus  sacrimontis  G.  Allen,  Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  Zool.  Harvard,  52.-  50.  Mt. 

Fuji,  Japan. 
1927.  Plecotus  auritus  ognevi  Kishida,  Zool.  Mag.  Tokyo,  59.-  418.  North  Sakhalin. 

Plecotus  auritus  wardi  Thomas,  191 1 

191 1.  Plecotus   wardi   Thomas,    Ann.    Mag.    N.H.    7;    209.    Leh,    Ladak,    Kashmir. 

Range  includes  high  parts  of  the  Gaucasus,  according  to  Kuzyakin,  also 

Russian  Turkestan;  and  probably  Zungaria. 

Plecotus  auritus  ariel  Thomas,  191 1 

1911.   Plecotus   ariel   Thomas,    Abstr.    P.Z.S.    3;    P.Z.S.    160.    Tatsienlu,    8,400    ft., 
Szechuan,  Ghina. 

Plecotus  auritus  kozlovi  Bobrinskii,  1926 

1926.  Plecotus  auritus  kozlovi  Bobrinskii,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.   U.R.S.S.,  A,  98.  Barun 

Zasak,    Eastern   Tsaidam,    Ghincsc   Gentral   Asia.    Range   includes   Gobi, 


Plecotus  auritus  mordax  Thomas,  192G 

1926.  Plecotui  worrfa.v  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  306.  Kashgar,  Chinese  Turkestan. 

Plecotus  auritus  mrridionalis  Martino,  1940 

1940.  Plecotus  auritus  mendwnaUs  Martino,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5:  494.  Sueti  Miklavz  pri 
Ormozu,  Slovenia,  Yugoslavia. 

Subfamily     M  i  n  i  o  p  t  e   r  i   n  a  e 

Genus  MINIOPTERUS  Bonaparte,  1837 

1837.   Minio/iterus  Bonaparte,  Fauna  Ital.   /.•  fasc.  20,  under  Vesperlilio  cmarginatus. 

I'espertilio  ursiuii  Bonaparte  =  Vespertilio  ichreihersii  Kuhl. 
i860.  Miniopteris  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  91. 
1892.   Mmyoptcrus   Winge,  jordfundne   og   nulevcnde    Flagermus    (Chiroptera)    fra 

Lagoa  Santa,  Minas  Geraes,  Brasilien,  36. 
1900.   Minneopterus  Lampe.Jb.  Nassau.  Ver.  Naturk,  jj,  Catal.  Siiugcth.  Samml.  12. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Miniopterus  australis,  page  184 
Miniopterw,  ichreihersi,  page  183 

In  this  genus  we  follow  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Atner.  .\lu\.  .\'.//.  y8:  568. 


Miniopterus  schreibersi  Kuhl,  1819  Schreibers'  Bat.     Long-winged  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Spain,  France,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Germany, 
Hungary,  Poland,  Sardinia,  Montenegro,  Bulgaria,  Greece,  Crete;  Crimea,  Caucasus 
and  Kopet-Dag  Mountains,  South-West  Russian  Turkestan;  Northern  Persia,  Pales- 
tine; Japan,  Liukiu  Islands,  Formosa,  China  (states  of  Chihli,  Chekiang,  Fukien, 
etc.),  Hainan;  Ceylon,  Peninsular  India  (Western  Ghats),  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Mt. 
Popa,  in  Burma;  Java,  Sumatra,  Borneo,  Philippine  Islands,  to  New  Guinea  and 
Northern  Australia;  Algeria. 

Miniopterus  schreibersi  schreibersi  Kuhl,  181  g 

1819.  Vespertilio  schreibersii  Kuhl,  Ann.  Wetterau.  Ges.  Naturk.  4,  2:  185.  Kulmbazer 

Cave,  mountains  of  Southern  Bannat,  Hungary. 
1837.   Vespertilio  ursinii  Bonaparte,  Faun.  Ital.  /.•  fasc.  21.   Monte  Corno,  Ascoli, 

1840.   Vespertilio  orsinii  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  179.  Modification  ot^  ursinii. 
1926.  Miniopterus  schreibersii  italicus  Dal  Piaz,  Atti  Soc.  Ven. -Trent.  Sci.  Nat.  16:  61. 

Arma  del  Frate,  Foligno,  near  Finalese,  Liguria,  Italy. 
1936.  Miniopterus  schreibersii  inexspectatus  Heinrich,  Mitt.  Naturw.  Inst.  Sofia,  g:  34. 

Strandja-Balkan,  Bulgaria. 

Range:  Europe,  Algeria. 

Miniopterus  schreibersi  fuliginosus  Hodgson,  1835 

1835.  Vespertilio  fuliginosa  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  700.  Nepal. 

1906.  Miniopterus  schreibersi  japoniae  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  igo^,  2:  338.  Tano,  Miyasaki 

Ken,  Kiushiu,  500  ft.,  Japan. 

1923.  Miniopterus  schreibersii  parvipes  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  85:  7.  Yenping, 

Fukien,  Southern  China. 

Range:  Nepal,  Ceylon,  Southern  India,  Burma;  Fukien  and  Hunan,  in  China; 
Hainan;  Japan. 

Miniopterus  schreibersi  blepotis  Temminck,  1840 

1840.  Vespertilio  blepotis  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  212.  Java. 

1902.  Miniopterus  fuscus  Bonhote,  Nov.  Zool.  g:  626.  Okinawa,  Liukiu  Islands. 

1924.  Miniopterus  fuscus  rajejamae  Kuroda,  New  Mamm.  Riukiu  Islands,  6.  Ishigaki- 

Mura,  Ishigaki,  Liukiu  Islands. 

Range:  Liukiu  Islands,  also  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Philippine  Islands. 

Miniopterus  schreibersi  pallidus  Thomas,  1907 

1907.  Miniopterus  schreibersii  pallidus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:   197.  Southern 

shore  of  Caspian  Sea,  Northern  Persia.  Range:  to  Transcaspia  (Ognev). 

Miniopterus  schreibersi  chinensis  Thomas,  1908 

1908.  Miniopterus  schreibersi  chinensis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  638.  Thirty  miles  west  of  Pekin, 

Chihli,  North-Eastern  China.  Range  includes  Chekiang,  China. 



Miniopterus  australis  Tomes,  1858 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nicobar  Islands,  Madras,  India,  Hainan. 
Also  Java,  Borneo,  Philippine  Islands,  Amboina,  Loyalty  Islands,  etc. 

(Miniopterus  australis  australis  Tomes,  1858.  Extralimital) 
1858.   Miniopterus  australts  Tomes,  P.Z.S.   125.  Loyalty  Islands  (21°  S.,   167.30'  E., 
South  Pacific).  Ranges  to  New  Guinea. 

Miniopterus  aiistralis  pusillus  Dobson,  1876 

1876.   Miniopterus  pusillus  Dobson,  Monogr.  Asiat.  Chiroptcra,   162.  Madras,  India 

(Tate).  But  \Vroughton  gave  Nicobar  Islands  as  type  locality.  Range; 

Madras,  Nicobar  Islands,  Hainan  and  Borneo  (Tate). 

Subfamily     M  u  r  i  n  i  n  a  e 
For  review,  see  Tate,  1941,  Bull.  Arner.  Mus.  N.H.  y8:  575. 

Genus  MURINA  Gray,  1842 

1842.  Murina  Gray,  .^nn.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  258.  Vespertilio  suillus  Temminck,  from  Java. 
1842.   Ocvpetes  Lesson,  Nouv.  Tabl.  Regne  Anim.  30  (part).  Not  of  Wagler,  1832. 
1915.  Harpiola  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  309.  Murina  grisea  Peters.  Valid  as  a 

Tate  (  1941,  577)  gave  a  key  to  the  species  groups.  These,  in  the  region  now  under 
discussion,  amount  to  five,  one  of  which  is  subgenerically  (or  generically)  separated 
as  Harpiola  on  account  of  some  dental  characters.  Far  too  many  species  are  standing 
in  the  genus.  Tate  has  shown  clearly  how  the  groups  can  be  divided,  and  until  the 
contrary  is  proved  we  propose  to  assume  that  the  other  named  forms  are  races 
respectively  of  the  five  names  listed  below: 

Murina  aurata,  page  184 
Murina  eyclotis,  page  186 
Murina  grisea,  page  1 86 
Murina  huttoni,  page  186 
Murina  leucogaster,  page  185 

Subgenus  MURINA  Gray,-  1842 

Murina  aurata   Milne-Edwards,  1872  Little  Tube-nosed  Bat 

-Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ussuri  district  of  South-Eastern  Siberia, 
Japan,  Szcchuan  and  Yunnan  (in  China),  Sikkim,  Burma. 

MuRiXA  AURATA  AURATA  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Murina  aurata  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  250,  pi.  37b,  fig.  i ;  pi.  37c, 

fig.  2.  Moupin,  Szcchuan,  China.  Ranges  to  Yunnan,  China,  and  Sikkim 

according  to  Wroughton. 
1907.   Murina  aurila  .Miller,  Bull.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  f^j:  230. 


MURINA   AURATA    FEAE    ThomaS,    1 89 1 

1891.  Harpiocephalus  feae  Thomas,  Ann.  Mus.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  lo:  884;  926-927 
(1892).  Biapo,  Karen  Hills,  Burma. 


1913.  Murina  ussuriensis  Ognev,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  i8:  402. 
Evseevka,  Imansky  district,  Ussuri  and  Odarka,  Chanka  Lake,  Ussuri 
district,    South-Eastern    Siberia.     Widely   distributed    in  Japan. 

Murina  leucogaster  Milne-Edwards,  1872  Great  Tube-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Siberia,  known  from  Upper  Yenesei,  Kuz- 
netzk  Ala-Tau,  Lake  Teletzkoie  in  Altai,  Ussuri  region,  Sakhalin;  Japan,  China 
(states  of  Szechuan  and  Fukien) ;  Manchuria;  near  Darjeeling,  North-Eastern  India. 

Murina  leucogaster  leucogaster  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Murina  leucogaster  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.  N.  Mamm.  252,  pi.  37b,  fig.  i 

{2  in  error);  pi.  37c,  fig.  3.  Moupin  district,  Szechuan,  China. 
1899.  Murina  leucogastra  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  i8g8:  "jii. 
Ranges  to  Fukien,  China. 

Murina  leucogaster  hilgendorfi  Peters,  1880 

1880.  Harpyocephalus  hilgendorfi  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  24.  Near  Tokyo, 
Yeddo  (=  Hondo),  Japan. 

Murin.a.  leucog,\ster  sibirica  Kastschenko,  1905 

1905.  Harpiocephalus  leucogaster  sibiricus  Kastschenko,  Observ.  Mamm.  \V.  Siberia  & 
Turkestan,  102b.  Tomsk  region,  Siberia.  (Kuzyakin,  in  Bobrinskii  (1944), 
ignores  this  name  and  uses  hilgendorfi  for  the  Siberian  representative  of  this 

Murina  leucogaster  ognevi  Bianchi,  19 16 

1916.  Murina  ognevi  Bianchi,  Annu.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  St.  Petersb.  21:  ixxviii. 
Vladivostock,  Eastern  Siberia.  Remarks  as  for  last  race. 

Murina  leucogaster  rubex  Thomas,  1916 

1916.  Murina  rubex  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  639.  Pashok,  near  Darjeeling, 
North-Eastern  India. 

Murina  leucogaster  fusca  Sowerby,  1922 

1922.  Murina  huttonii  fuscus  Sowerby,  J.  Mamm.  3:  46.  Northern  Kirin,  Manchuria. 

Murina  leucogaster  intermedia  Mori,  1933 

1933.  Murina  hilgendorfi  intermedia  Mori,  J.  Chosen  N.H.  Soc.  16:  2,  5.  Mt.  Kongo, 

P.\I.AF,.\RC:TIC:  and  IXDIAX  mammals   i  758-1946 

Murina  huttoni  Peters,  1872 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kashmir,  Kumaon,  Sikkim  district.  Western 
Burma,  Fukicn  (China),  Tonkin  and  Laos  (Indo-China). 

MuRIiMA    HUTTONI    HUTTONI    Pctcrs,    1 872 

1872.  Harpyiocephalus  huttoni   Peters,   Mber.   Preuss.  Akad.   VViss.   257.   P.Z.S.   711. 
Dehra  Dun,  Kumaon,  North-Wcstern  India.  Also  recorded  Irom  DarjeeHng. 

Murina  (?)  huttoni  tubinarjs  Scully,  1881 

1 88 1.  Harpiocephalus  lubinaris  Scully,   P.Z.S.   200.   Gilgit,   Kashmir.   Has  also  been 

recorded  from  Tonkin  and  Laos  by  Osgood,  and  from  DarjeeHng  and  Clhin 

Hills.  Tate  states  (1941,  577)  "^huttoni  (  -^  tuhimuis?)" . 

Murina  huttoni  rubella  Thomas,  1914 

1914.  Murina  huttoni  rubella  Thomas,  Ann.  NLag.  N.H.  13:  440.  Kuatun,  Fukien, 
South-Eastcrn  China. 

Murina  cyclotis   Dobson,  1872 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Hainan;  Sikkim,  Western  and  Northern 
Burma;  Tonkin  and  Laos,  Indo-China;  Clcylon.  Recorded  also  from  the  Philippine 

Murina  cyclotis  cyclotis  Dobson,  1872 

1872.  Murina  cyclotis  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,   210.   Darjecling,  xNorth- 
Eastern  India  (Tate).  Range  includes  Burma,  Indo-China,  Hainan. 

Murina  cyclotis  eileenae  Phillips,  1932 

1932.   Murina  eileenae  Phillips,  Ceylon  J.  Sci.,  B,  iG,  3:  329.  Mousakande,  Gamma- 
duwa,  3,000  ft.,  Ceylon. 

Ineertae  sedis 

Murina  puta    Kishida,    1924,   Zool.    Mag.   Tokyo,   36:    30-49,    127-139.    Formosa. 


Subgenus   HARPIOLA   Thomas,   191 5 

Murina  grisea   Peters,  1872  Peters'  Tuhc-nosed  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kumaon,  North- Western  India. 

MuRiN.^i  GRISEA  Peters,  1872 

1872.   Mimna  i^risea  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  258.  P.Z.S.  712.  Jeripanee, 
Mussoori,  5,50ij  ft.,  Kumaon,  North-Wcstern  Himalayas. 



Genus  HARPIOCEPHALUS  Gray,  1842 

1842.  Harpiocephalus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   10:  259.  Harpiocephalus  rufus  Gray  = 

Vespertilio  harpia  Temminck. 
1866.  Harpyiocephalus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ly:  90. 

For  characters  of  this  genus  compared  with  Murina,  see  Miller,  1907,  Families  and 
Genera  of  Bats,  229. 

I  species:  Harpiocephalus  harpia,  page  187 

Harpiocephalus  harpia  Temminck,  1840  Hairy- winged  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Formosa;  Darjeeling,  Bhutan  Duars,  Palni 
Hills,  in  Southern  India,  Northern  Burma;  Indo-China;  Sumatra,  Java;  Amboina 

Harpiocephalus  harpia  harpia  Temminck,  1840 

1840.   Vespertilio  harpia  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  219,  pi.  55.  Mt.  Gede,  Java. 
1842.  Harpiocephalus  rufus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  259.  New  name  for  harpia. 
(?)  1858.  Vespertilio  pearsonii  Tomes,  P.Z.S.  87.  Locality  unknown. 
Recorded  from  Formosa  (Kuroda). 

Harpiocephalus  harpia  l.^syurus  Hodgson,  1847 

1847.  Noctulinia  lasyura  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  896.  "Central  Hills,  sub- 
Himalayas."  Darjeeling,  according  to  Wroughton.  Also  occurs  in  Bhutan 

Harpiocephalus  harpia  rufulus  G.  Allen,  1913 

1913.  Harpiocephalus  rufulus  G.  Allen,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Wa.shington,  26:  214.  Lao-Kai, 
Tonkin,  Indo-Chiha. 

Harpiocephalus  harpia  madrassius  Thomas,  1923 

1923.  Harpiocephalus  harpia  madrassius  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2g:  88.  Perumal, 
Palni  Hills,  Southern  India. 

Harpiocephalus  (?)  harpia  mordax  Thomas,  1923 

1923.  Harpiocephalus  mordax  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2g:  88.  Mogok,  Upper 

Subfamily     Kerivoulinae 

Genus  KERFVOULA  Gray,  1842 

1842.  Kerivoula  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  258.  Vespertilio pictus  Pallas  (Peters,  1866). 
1849.  Kirivoula  Gervais,  Diet.  Univ.  H.N.  ij:  213. 
1 891.  Cerivoula  Blanford,  Fauna  Brit.  Ind.  Mamm.  338. 

1905.  Phoniscus  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  18:  229.  Phoniscus  alrox  Miller. 
Valid  as  a  subgenus.  For  status  see  Simpson  ( 1 945,  60)  and  Tate  ( 1 94 1 ,  586) . 

N  .  187 


The  Oriental  members  of  the  genus  were  reviewed  by  Tate  (1941,  584).  Dobson 
(1878,  331)  also  gave  a  key  to  the  African  and  Asiatic  species  then  known. 

3  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Kcrivoula  hardwickei,  page  188 
Kerh'oula  papulosa,  page  1 89 
Kerivoula  picta,  page  1 88 

Kerivoula  picta  Pallas,  1 767  Painted  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species;  Kwantung,  in  Southern  China,  Hainan; 
Ceylon  and  Southern -India  (Western  Ghats,  Dharwar).  (Blanford  gave  several  other 
Indian  localities,  including  Sikkim,  Bengal  and  Burma.)  Malay  States,  Sumatra, 
Java,  Bali,  Borneo. 

Kerivoula  picta  picta  Pallas,  1767 

1767.   Vespeiiilio  piclus  Pallas,  Spic.  Zool.  j:  7.  Most  authors  cite  Peninsular  India  as 
the  type  locality.  Tate,  however,  thinks  it  came  from  Ternate,  Moluccas 
(near  Halmahcra). 
1832.   Vespertilio  kirivoida  Cuvier,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  /.•  9. 
Range   includes   Malay   States,   eastwards   to   Bali   and   Borneo;   also   Ceylon   and 
Southern  India. 

Kerivoul.\  pict.\  belllssima  Thomas,  1906 

1906.  Ktrivoula  picta  bellissima  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  423.  Pakhoi,  Southern 
Kwantung,  Southern  China.  Range  includes  Haindn. 

Kerivoula  hardwickei  Horsfield,  1824  Hardwicke's  Bat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Szechuan,  Kwangsi  and  Fukien  in  Southern 
China;  Darjeeling,  Mysore  in  Southern  India,  Ceylon,  Burma,  (Blanford  also 
quoted  Assam  and  the  Punjab);  ?  Indo  China;  Malay  States,  Mentawei  Islands 
west  of  Sumatra,  Ja\a,  Bali,  Borneo,  Celebes  and  probably  represented  in  the 
Philippine  Islands. 

Kerivoula  hardwickei  hardwickei  Horsfield,  1824 
1824.    Vespeiiilio  liaidwickii  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Ja\a,  (K).  J.i\-.i. 
1 87 1.  Kerivoula  fusca  Dobson,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  215.  No  locality. 
Range:  apparently  includes  Darjeeling,  as  well  as  Malay  States,  Borneo,  Java,  Bali, 

Kerivoula  hardwickei  depressa  Miller,  1906 

1906.  Kerivoula  depressa  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  ig:  64.  Biapo,  Karin 
Hills,  Southern  Burma.  Range  includes  Szechuan  and  Fukien,  China. 

Kerivoula  hardwickei  crypta  Wroughton  &  Ryley,  19 13 

1913.  Kcrivoula  crypta  Wroughton  &  Ryley,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  22:  14.  Shimoga, 

Mysore,  Southern  India.  Range  includes  Upper  Burma  (Kaulback  Coll., 



Kerivoula  hardwickei  malpasi  Phillips,  1932 

1932.  Kerivoula  malpasi  Phillips,  Ceylon  J.  Sci.,  B,  16:  331.  Kumbalgamuwa,  3,000  ft., 
Mulhalkelle  district,  Central  Province,  Ceylon. 

Kerivoula  papillosa  Temminck,  1840 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Calcutta,  India;  Indo-China;  Malay  States, 
Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo. 

(Kerivoula  papillosa  papillos.a  Temminck,  1840.  Extralimital) 

1840.    Vespertilio  papillosa  Terriminck,  Mon.  Mamm.  2:  220.  Bantam,  Java. 

Kerivoula  papillosa  lenis  Thomas,  19 16 

1916.  Kerivoula  lenis  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  416.  Calcutta,  Bengal,  India. 

Kerivoula  papillosa  malayana  Chasen,  1940 

1940.  Kerivoula  papillosa  malayana  Chasen,  Bull.  Raffles  Mus.  75.-  55.  Gintang  Bidei, 

Selangor-Pahang  boundary,  2,300  ft.,  Malay  States.  Recorded  from  Tonkin, 

Indo-China  (Tate,  1947). 


(Not  including  Family  Hominidae) 

FAMILIES:  Cercopithecidae,  page  192 
Lorisidae,  page  190 
Pongidae,  page  2 1 1 

Simpson,  1945,  also  refers  the  family  Tupaiidae  to  the  Primates,  and  discusses  this 
classification  at  length  (pp.  176,  182,  183).  It  is  by  no  means  conclusively  proved, 
however,  that  this  classification  is  the  correct  one,  and  for  the  present  we  prefer  to 
regard  them  as  belonging  to  the  order  Insectivora.  It  appears  to  us  that  of  the 
Primates  the  more  specialized  members,  the  Anthropoidea,  are  easily  defined  and 
distinguished  from  the  lower  orders  of  Mammalia,  such  as  the  Insectivora,  but  that 
the  more  generalized  members,  the  Prosimii  of  Simpson  (perhaps  excepting  the 
Tarsiidae)  are  not  so  easily  separable  from  the  lower  orders.  We  would  particularly 
draw  attention  to  Simpson's  amusing  explanation  (pp.  180,  181)  of  the  confusion 
which  exists  in  this  order,  particularly  as  regards  nomenclature. 

Special  works  of  reference  include  Elliot,  1913,  a  Review  of  the  Primates,  Monogr. 
Amer.  Mus.  M.H.,  3  volumes,  in  which  there  is  wholesale  splitting,  but  which  remains 
the  best  single  source  of  information  on  living  Primates;  and  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna 
British  India,  Mammalia,  i:  13,  which  gives  a  classification  of  the  Indian  Primates 
and  clears  up  a  great  deal  of  former  nomenclatural  difficulty.  The  Malaysian  forms 
are  listed,  in  apparently  good  order,  by  Chasen  (1940).  Pocock,  1934,  P.^-S.  895, 
reviewed  the  Langurs,  and  1927,  P-Z-S-  719,  the  Gibbons.  He  also  published  several 
short  papers  on  Macaques. 



Apart  from  the  Hominidae  and,  as  explained  above,   the  Tupaiidae,  Simpson 
(1945)  classified  the  Indian  and  Palaearctic  recent  Primates  as  follows: 

Suborder:   PROSIMII 

Infraorder:  Lorisiformes 
Family:  Lorisidae 


Superfamily :   Cercopithecoidea 

Family:    Ccrcopithccidae    (with   subfamilies   Cercopithecinae   and 

Superfamily :  Hominoidea  (in  part) 

Family:    Pongidae  (subfamilies  Hylbbatinae  and  Ponginae  (extra- 
limital)  ) 



Genera:   Loris,  page  190 

Js'yclicebus,  page  19I 

For  generic  characters,  see  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  British  India,  Mamm.  i:  165. 

Genus  LORIS  E.  Gcoftroy,  1796 

1785.  Tardigradus  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  43,  67.  Tardigradus  Inris  Boddaert  = 
Lemur  tardigradus  Linnaeus.  Not  of  Brisson,  17G2. 

1796.  Loris  E.  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Encycl.  /.•  48.  Loris  gracilis  Geoffroy  =  Ltnmr  tardi- 
gradus Linnaeus. 

181 1.   Slenops  lUiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  ct.  Avium,  73.  Lemur  tardigradus  Linnaeus. 

1  species:   Loris  tardigradus,  page  190 

Loris  tardigradus   Linnaeus,  1 758  Slender  Loris 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon  and  Southern  India  (Eastern  Ghats, 
Mysore,  Malabar,  Travancore,  Coorg). 

Loris  tardigradus  tardk;radus  Linnaeus,  1758 

i7-,8.  Lemur  tardigradus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  29.  Ceylon. 

1706.  Loris  gracilis  E.  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Encycl.  /.■  48.  Ceylon. 

1804.  Loris  ceylonicus  Fischer,  Anat.  Maki,  /.•  28.  Ceylon. 

1004.   Lurts  gracilis  zeylanieus   Lydekker,   P.Z.S.   2:   346.   Peradcniya,   Ceylon.    (See 

Pocock,  1939,  181.) 
Range:  low-country  wet  zone  ot  Ceylon. 



1908.  Loris  lydekkerianus  Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  139.  Madras,  India. 
Range:  Eastern  Ghats,  westwards  to  Mangalore  and  Mysore,  India. 

Loris  tardigradus  malabaricus  \Vroughton,  19 17 

1917.  Loris  malabaricus  Wroughton,  J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.   23:   45.   Huvinakadu 

Estate,  Kutta,  South  Coorg,  2,843  ft-.  India.  Range:   Malabar  district, 

Wynaad,  South  Coorg,  Travancore. 

Loris  tardigradus  grandis  Hill  &  Phillips,  1932 

1932.  Loris  tardigradus grandis  Hill  &  Phillips,  Ceyl.J.  Sci.  (B),  ij:  iii.  Mousekanda, 

Gammaduwa,  2,200  ft.,  Central  Province,  Ceylon.  Range:  "Probably 
throughout  the  lower  foothills  of  the  mountain  cluster  of  the  Central  and 
Uva  Provinces,"  up  to  3,500  ft.  approximately. 

Loris  tardigradus  nordicus  Hill,  1933 

1933.  Loris  tardigradus  nordicus  Hill,  Ceyl.J.  Sci.  (B),  iS:  113,  120.  Talawa,  50  ft.. 

North  Central  Province,  Ceylon.  Range:  the  dry  zone  of  the  North  Pro- 
vince, North  Central  Province  and  Central  Province  of  Ceylon,  from  just 
above  sea  level  up  to  650  ft. 

Loris  tardigradus  nycticeboides  Hill,  1942 

1942.  Loris  tardigradus  nycticeboides  Hill,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  43:  73.  Horton  Plains 
6,000  ft.,  Ceylon. 

Genus  NYCTICEBUS  E.  Geoffroy,  1812 

1812.  Nycticebus  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ig:  163.  Nycticebus  bengalensis 

2  species:  Nycticebus  coucang,  page  191 
Nycticebus  pygmaeus,  page  1 92 

Pocock  (1939)  thought  that  there  was  only  one  species  in  this  genus,  but  Osgood 
(1932)  lists  two  forms  from  Indo-China,  and  as  there  is  an  apparent  geographical 
overlap  between  them  and  they  occur  together,  pygmaeus  is  here  regarded  as  a  valid, 
smaller  species. 

Nycticebus  coucang  Boddaert,  1785  Slow  Loris 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Assam,  Chittagong,  Burma,  Tenasserim, 
Siam,  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and  some  adjacent  small 
islands  to  Philippine  Islands.  Possibly  into  Yunnan. 

Nycticebus  coucang  coucang  Boddaert,  1785 

1785.   Tardigradus  coucang  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  67.  Locality  unknown  (probably 

Malacca  (Chasen)  ).  Range:  Mergui  Archipelago  (King  Island  quoted  by 

Pocock),  Malay  States,  Sumatra. 



NvcTic.F.Brs  i:oii:AN(;  bexcalensis  Laccpcde,  180(1 

1801).   Loii  henjJiileNiis  Laccpcde,  Seances  des  ficoles  normalcs,  Tome  8:  68.  Bengal. 

1804.  Loris  bengalensis  Fischer,  Anat.  Maki,  /.■  30.  Bengal. 

1867.  Nycticebus  cinereus  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  Bull.  3:  9.  Bangkok, 
Siam.  Although  G.  Allen  and  Osgood  listed  this  as  a  valid  race,  Pocock  says 
it  cannot  be  distinguished  from  the  earlier-named  bengalensis. 

(?)  1904.  Nycticebiis  tardigradus  Ijpieus  Lydekker,  P.Z.S.  2:  345. 

1 92 1.  Nrctkebus  uicanus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  627.  Kyeikpadeih,  Pegu, 

Range:  Assam,  Ohittagong,  Burma  (?  into  Yunnan),  Indo-China,  Siam. 

Nycticebus  coucang  tenasserimensis  Elliot,  1913 

1913.  Nycticebus  tenasserimensis  Elliot,  Rev.  Primates,  /.•  25.  Amherst,  Northern 
Tenasserim.  Range:  Tenasserim  and  South-Western  Siam. 

Nycticebus  pygmaeus  Bonhote,  1907  Lesser  Slow  Loris 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Indo-China. 

Nycticebus  pygmaeus  Bonhote,  1907 

1907.  Nycticebus  pvgmacus  Bonhote,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  No.  38,  2.  P.Z.S.  4.  Nhatrang, 
Annam,  Indo-China.  Osgood  (1932)  cjuoted  this  form  from  Annam,  Laos, 
Cochin-China  and  Tonkin,  apparently  occurring  with  N.  coucang  bengalensis 
{''cinereus")  which  was  quoted  from  Laos  and  Annam. 

Suborder     Anthropoidea 


Genera:   Macaca,  page  193 
Papio,  page  200 
Presbylis,  page  203 
Prgathnx,  page  202 
Rhinojnihecus,  page  201 

This  family  is  divided  into  two  subfamilies:  the  Colobinae,  which  contains  the 
Langurs  and  Leaf-eating  Monkeys,  Presbytis,  Pygathrix,  Rhinopithecus;  and  the  Cerco- 
pithecinae,  to  which  Papio  and  Macaca  belong.  Some  authors  gi\e  the  two  divisions 
family  rank. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Winge,  1924,  Pattedyr  Slaegter,  2:  277,  recognized  only 
five  genera  in  the  whole  family,  which  he  divided  in  a  different  way  from  that 
usually  agreed  on:  namely,  he  contrasted  a  groUp  Cercopithecini,  with  weaker 
cheekteeth,  shorter  face,  containing  the  African  Cercopithecus  plus  the  Langurs  and 
Leaf-eating  Monkeys  Semnopithecus  (=  the  Asiatic  genera  currently  recognized)  and 
the  African  Colobus  with  a  group  "Cynocephali"  with  cheekteeth  stronger,  face 
longer,  containing  Macaca  and  "Cynocephalus"  =  Papio. 


Subfamily     Cercopithecinae 

Genus  MACACA  Lacepede,  1 799 

1758.  Simia  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /;  25.  Simla  sylvanus  Linnaeus. 

(By  suspension  of  the  Rules  the  name  Simia  is  suppressed,  see  Opinion  1 14 
of  Internat.  Comm.  on  Zool.  Nomenclature.) 
1799.  Alacaca  Lacepede,  Tabl.   Mamm.  4.  Simia  inuus  Linnaeus  =  Simia  sylvanus 

1 81 2.  Inuus  E.  GeofTroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ig:  100.  Inuus  ccaudatus  Geoffroy  = 

Simia  sylvanus  Linnaeus. 
1816.  Sylvanus  Oken,  Lehrb.  Naturgesch.  ^,  2:   1223.  Inuus  ecaudatus  Geoffroy  = 

Simia  sylvanus  Linnaeus. 
1820.  Silenus  Goldfuss,  Handbuch  Zool.  2:  479.  Cynocephalus  silenus  Schreber  =  Simia 

silenus  Linnaeus. 
1824.  Magotus  Ritgen,  Nat.  Eintheilung  Saugeth.  33.  "Les  Magots"  of  Cuvier. 

1827.  Magus  Lesson,  Man.  Mamm.  43.  Magus  sylvanus  and  M.  maurus. 

1828.  Pithes  Burnett,  Quart.  J.  Sci.  Lit.  &  Art.  26,  2:  307.  Pithes  sylvanus  =  Simia 

sylvanus  Linnaeus. 

1839.  Alaimon  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  /.■  iv  bis  and  141.  Inuus  silenus  = 

Simia  silenus  Linnaeus. 

1840.  Rhesus  Lesson,  Rev.  Zool.  2:  70,  nom.  nud.  1840,  Spec.  Mamm.  95.  Cercopithecus 

mulatta  Zimmermann. 

1 84 1.  Salmacis  Gloger,  Gemeinn.  Naturges.  /.•  35.  New  name  for  Macaca. 

1848.  Lyssodes  Gistel,  Naturgesch.  Thier.  f.  hohere  Schulen,  9.  Macaca  speciosus 
F.  Cuvier. 

1862.  Vetulus  Reichenbach,  Vollstand.  Nat.  Affen,  125.  New  name  for  Silenus  Lesson. 

1862.  Cynamolgus  Reichenbach,  Vollstand.  Nat.  Affen,  130.  Macacus  irus  Cuvier  {Jide 

1862.  ^ati  Reichenbach,  Vollstand.  Nat.  Affen,  130.  Macaca  radiata  Geoffroy  {fide 

1862.  Nemestrinus  Reichenbach,  Vollstand.  Nat.  Affen,  139.  Macaca  nemestrina  Lin- 
naeus. Not  of  Latreille,  1802. 

1913.  Pithecus  Elliot,  Rev.  Primates,  2:  176.  Not  of  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy,  1795. 

Macacus  of  many  earlier  authors,  including  Blanford,  1888,  Fauna  Brit.  India, 
/.•  II. 

1 1  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Macaca  assamensis,  page  198 
Macaca  cyclopis,  page  1 98 
Macaca  fuscata,  page  199 
Macaca  irus,  page  196 
Macaca  mulatta,  page  197 
Macaca  nemestrina,  page  195 
Macaca  radiata,  page  195 
Macaca  silenus,  page  195 
Macaca  sinica,  page  194 
Macaca  speciosa,  page  199 
Macaca  sylvana,  page  200 



The  type  is  the  Xorth-W'est  African  species  .\/.  sylvana.  Various  subgcucric  names 
are  available  for  some  of  the  other  species;  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  British  India,  Mam- 
malia, I,  gives  a  key  to  eight  of  the  above  species  which  occur  in  India,  and  lists  the 
subgeneric  groups.  As  far  as  distribution  is  concerned,  three  of  the  species,  M.  sinica, 
'M.  radiata,  M.  silenus,  are  confined  to  Peninsular  India  and/or  to  Gcylon;  two,  M. 
ncnustrina  and  M.  irus,  occur  together  from  Burma  south-eastwards  through  the 
Malaysian  region  covered  by  Chasen  (1940);  the  species  M.  mulatto,  M.  speciosa  and 
,\/.  assamensis  arc  roughly  Himalayan — Indo-China — Chinese  in  range;  and  the 
other  two  species,  Al.  fuscata  and  M.  cvclopis,  arc  from  Japan  and  Formosa  respec- 
tively. The  genotype,  a  tailless  species,  lacks  the  "cap"  of  hairs  on  the  head  which  is 
usually  present  in  the  species  inhabiting  India,  mulatta  and  irus  excepted.  Pocock 
ip.  33)  states  that  the  "cap"  is  also  absent  \n fuscata,  which  is  a  species  with  a  short, 
hairy  tail  and  appears  to  be  nearly  allied  to  speciosa  (although  Pocock  definitely  states 
(p.  70)  that  speciosa  differs  from  fuscata  in  the  structure  of  the  glans  penis);  and  in 
cvclopis,  which  probably  belongs  to  the  mulatta  group,  as  it  seems  very  like  M. 
assamensis.  But  its  tail  is  about  68  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body  length,  according  to 
measurements  given  by  Elliot,  which  is  longer  than  is  normal  in  assamensis,  and  the 
tail  is  black  and  very  well  haired,  which  character  seems  to  distinguish  from  assa- 
mensis in  the  material  examined. 

Macaca  sinica  group 

The  name  ^a//  Reichenbach,  1862,  is  available  for  these  species  if  subgeneric 
division  is  required.  Long-tailed  species,  diflfering  from  their  allies,  according  to 
Pocock,  in  the  structure  of  the  male  genitalia. 

Macaca  sinica  Linnaeus,  1771  Toque  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Ceylon. 

Mac.-\ca  sinica  sinica  Linnaeus,  1771 

1 77 1.   Simla  sinica  Linnaeus,  Mant.  Plant.  521.  Locality  unknown. 

1862.  Cynaniolgus  ''^ati)  audehrrti  Reichenbach,  X'ollstand.  Xat.  Affen,  132. 

1863.  Macaca  pileatus  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus.  Asiat.  Soc.  9.  Not  of  Kerr,  1792. 

1 93 1.   Macaca  sinica  inaurea  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  55.'  286.  Chcddikulam, 

North  Province,  Ceylon. 
Range :  low-country'  dry  zone,  from  extreme  north  to  extreme  south  of  Ceylon. 

Macaca  sinica  aurifrons  Pocock,  1931 

1 93 1.  Macaca  sinica  aurifrons  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  jjj.-  286.  Rayigam  Korale, 

Western  Province,  Ceylon.  Range:  low-country  wet  zone  and  central  hill 

zone  of  Ceylon. 

M.-\cac.-\  sink:a  opisthomelas  Hill,  1942 

1942.  Macaca  '-Cfl/0  sinica  opisthomelas  Hill,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ^j.-  402.  Horton 
Plains,  Highlands  of  Ceylon. 



Macaca  radiata  Geoffroy,  1812  Bonnet  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Peninsular  India,  north  to  Satara  and  the 
Godaveri  River.  Closely  allied  to  and  perhaps  representing  sinica  on  the  mainland. 
For  characters  see  Pocock  (1939,  33,  38). 

Macaca  r.vdiata  radiata  Geoffroy,  181 2 

1812.  Cercocebus  radiatus  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ig:  98.  Locality  un- 
known. Range:  Satara,  Kanara,  Mysore,  Coorg,  Nilgiri  and  Palni  Hills, 
Cochin,  Eastern  Ghats,  etc.,  in  Peninsular  India. 

Macaco  radi.\t.'^  diluta  Pocock,  193 1 

1931.  Macaca  radiata  diluta  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  55.-  278.  Boothapundy,  on 
the  Ghats,  north  of  Aramboly  in  Travancore,  Southern  India. 

Alacaca  silenus  group 
The  name   Silenus  Goldfuss,    1820,   is  available  for  this  species,   which   is  well 
figured  in  Pocock,  1939,  pi.  4,  opposite  p.  66,  and  is  not  likely  to  be  confused  with 
any  other  species.  Tail  length  moderate. 

Macaca  silenus  Linnaeus,  1758  Lion-tailed  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Peninsular  India;  the  Western  Ghats,  prin- 
cipally of  Travancore  and  Cochin. 

Macaca  silenus  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.  Simla  silenus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  26.  "Ceylon." 

1777.  Cercopithecus  veter  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  An.  24.  Not  of  Linnaeus,  1766. 

1792.  Simla  {Cercopithecus)  veter  alblbarbatus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  64. 

1792.  Slmia  {Cercopithecus)  silenus  alblbarbatus  Kerr,  loc.  cit. 

1793.  Simla  ferox  Shaw,  Mus.  Leverian,  69. 
Range:  as  above. 

Alacaca  nemestrina  group 

Pocock  would  refer  this  to  the  subgenus  Silenus  if  subgeneric  division  is  required. 
It  lacks  the  ruff  of  long  greyish  hair  extending  each  side  of  face  from  temples  to 
throat,  which  is  a  diagnostic  character  of  AL  silenus.  Tail  length  medium. 

Macaca  nemestrina  Linnaeus,  1 766  Pig-tailed  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Assam,  Burma,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra, 
Borneo,  and  a  few  small  adjacent  islands. 

(Macaca  nemestrina  nemestrina  Linnaeus,  1766.  Extralimital) 

■1766.  Simla  nemestrina  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  ed.  /.•  35.  Sumatra.  (Ranges  north 
on  the  mainland  about  to  Trang,  Lower  Siam.) 



Macaca  nemestrina  leonina  Blyth,  1863 

1863.   Macacus  leoninus  Blyth,   Cat.    Mamm.    Mus.   As.   Soc.   7.   Northern  Arakaii, 

1869.  Macacus  andamanensis  Bartlett,  Land  and  ^Vater,  8:  57.  Port  Bhiir,  Andaman 

Islands  (introduced). 
iqo6.  Macaca  adusta  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  2g:  559.  Champang,  Tenasserim. 
iqo6.  Macaca  insulana  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  sg:  560.  Chance  Island,  Mergui 

1919.   Macaca  nemestrina  indoc/uncnsis  Kloss,  J.N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  j:  343.  Lat  Bua  Kao, 

Eastern  Siam. 
Range :  Upper  Burma  to  Tenasserim,  Mergui  Archipelago  and  Siam. 

Macaca  nemestrina  blythi  Pocock,  1931 

1 93 1.  Macaca  nemestrina  hlvlhii  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  j§:  305.  Locality  un- 
known. Described  from  a  single  captive  specimen.  Pocock  says  the  distri- 
bution is  unknown,  "but  probably  some  district  of  British  India  east  of  the 
'Ganges;  ?  Naga  Hills,  in  Assam". 

Macaca  irus  group 
The  subgeneric  name  Cynamolgiis  Reichenbach,    1862,   is  available.   Long-tailed 
species,  differing  from  the  sinica  group  in  having  the  hair  on  the  crown  short.  The 
differences  between  the  two  types  are  well  figured  in  Pocock  ( 1939,  35,  39,  and  pi.  5, 
opposite  p.  79). 

Macaca  irus  Cuvier,  181 8  Crab-eating  Macaque 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  Nicobar  Islands,  Indo-China,  Siam, 
Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and  many  small  adjacent  islands,  east  to 

(Macaca  irus  irus  Cuvier,  1818.  Extralimita!) 

1775.   Simia  cvnamolgus  Schreber,  Saugcth.  /.•  91.  N<it  of  Linnaeus,  1758. 
1 818.   Macacus  irus  F.  Cuvier,  Mem.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  ^:  120.  Sumatra  (according  to 
Chasen,  1940).  Substitute  for  cvnamolgus  Schreber. 

Macaca  irus  aurea  Geoffroy,  1831 

1 83 1.   Macacus  aureus  Geoffroy,  Zool.  Voy.  de  Belanger,  58,  76.  Pegu,  Burma. 

1 9 10.  Pilhecus  Vitus  Elliot,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  ^8:  346.  Domel  Island,  Mergui 

1915.   Pithecus  fascicularis  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2j:  700.  Not  of  Raffles, 

182 1." 
Range:  Lower  Burma,  Tenasserim,  Mergui  .\rchipelago,  South-Western  Siam. 

Macaca  irus  umbrosa  Miller,  1902 

1902.   Macacus  umhrusus  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  2^:  789.  Little  Nicobar  Island, 

Bay  of  Bengal.  Range;  Great  Nicobar,  Little  Nicobar  and  Katchal  Island, 

Nicobar  Islands. 



Macaca  irus  valida  Elliot,  1909 

1909.  Pithecus  validus  Elliot,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  252.  Cochin-China.  (Type  skin  in 

B.M.  bearing  label  "Afacaca  irus  valida.  The  tail  is  imperfect,  not  complete 

as  Elliot  supposed.") 

Macaca  irus  atriceps  Kloss,  191 9 

1919.  Macaca  irus  atriceps  Kloss,  J. N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  j:  347.  Koh  Kram  Island,  near 
Cape  Liant,  South-Eastern  Siam. 

Macaca  mulatta  group 

Rhesus  Lesson,  1840,  is  available  if  subgeneric  division  is  required.  Contains  two 

closely  allied  species  (mulatta  and  assamensis)  which  occur  together,  for  characters 

see  Pocock  (1939,  33),  and  the  Formosan  M.  crclopis  seems  to  belong  here.  Tail  of 

medium  length  and  hairier  than  nemestrina;  usually  with  no  definite  "cap"  on  crown. 

Macaca  mulatta  Zimmermann,  1780  Rhesus  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kafiristan  (Eastern  Afghanistan),  Kashmir 
Punjab,  east  to  Nepal,  Assam  and  Burma,  south  approximately  to  the  Tapti  River 
(Khandesh)  and  the  Godavari  in  Northern  Peninsular  India;  Siam,  Indo-China- 
Szechuan  and  Yunnan,  eastwards  to  Fukien  and  adjacent  states  in  Southern  China 
Hainan,  Tibet,  and  the  neighbourhood  of  Pekin,  where  perhaps  introduced. 

Macaca  mulatta  mulatt.a  Zimmermann,  1 780 

1780.   Cercopithecus  mulatta  Zimmermann,  Geogr.  Gesch.  Mensch.  :?.■   195.  "India." 

1792.  Simla  (Cercopithecus)  fulvus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  73.  "India." 

1 798.  Simia  rhesus  Audebert,  Hist.  Nat.  Singes,  sig.  i.  Locality  unknown. 

1800.  Simia  erythraea  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  /.•  33.  Locality  unknown. 

1840.  Macaca  (Pithex)  oinops  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  g:  12 12.  Nepal  Terai. 

1840.  Macaca  (Pithex)  nipalensis  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  9.-  1212.  Nepal  Terai. 

1866.  Imius  sancti-johannis  Swinhoe,   P.Z.S.  556.  North  Lena  Island,  Hong  Kong, 

China.  For  status,  see  G.  Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  &  Mongolia,  /.■  284 
1868.  Macacus  lasiotus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  60,  pi.  6.  Szechuan,  China.  For  status,  see  G. 

Allen,  1938,  /.■  284. 
1872.  Macacus  tchcliensis  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  Mamm.  227,  pis.  32,  33.  Mountains 

to  the  east  of  the  Province  of  Tcheli  (Chihli),  North-Eastern  China.  For 

status,  see  G.  Allen,  1938,  /.•  284. 
1909.  Pithecus  littoralis  Elliot,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:   250.  Kuatun,  Fukien,  South- 
Eastern  China. 
1909.  Pithecus  brachyurus  Elliot,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  251.  Hainan.  Not  of  H    Smith 

1913.  Pithecus  brevicaudus  Elliot,  Rev.  Primates,  2:  216,  pi.  23.  New  name  for  brachyurus, 

1917.  Macaca  siamica  Kloss  J. N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  2:  247.  Meping  Rapids,  below  Chieng- 

mai,  Siam.  For  status,  see  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.•  45. 
Range:  Nepal,  Bhutan,  North  Kamrup,  Assam,  Burma,  Northern  Peninsular  India, 
Siam,  Indo-China,  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  to  Fukien  and  adjacent  states  in  Southern 
China,  Chihli,  Hainan. 



Macaca  mulatta  vestita  Milne-Edwards,  i.'ifjj 

1892.   Miuaciis  rcitilKS  Milne-Edwards,  Re\'.  Gen.  Seienccs,  671.  Teiigri-nor,  Tibet. 
G.  .\llen  lliinks  this  may  be  a  synonym  nl'the  typical  race. 

Mac.\ca  mul.«lTta  villosa  .True,  1894 

1894.  Macacus  rhesus  villosus  True,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  ly:  2.  Lolab,  northern  end 

of  Wular  Lake,  about  40  miles  north-west  of  Srinagar,  Kashmir.  Range ; 

Southern  Kashmir,  Upper  Punjab,  Kumaon,  in  Northern  India. 

Macaca  mulatta  mcmahoni  Pocock,  1932 

1932.  Macaca  mulatta  mcmahoni  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  jj.-  544.  Kootai,  in 

Lower  Chitrai,  between  the  Bashgal  Valley  in  Kafiristan  and  the  Chitral 

Valley,  3,600  ft.  Range:  Kafiristan  and  Chitral. 

Macaca  assamensis   M'Clclland,  1839  Assainese  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Nepal,  Sikkim,  Bhutan,  Assam,  Northern 
Burma,  south  to  the  Sundarbans;  Yunnan;  Indo-Ghina. 

NL'^cACA  assamensis  assamensis  M'Clelland  1839 

1839.  Macacus  assamensis  M'Clelland,  in  Horsfield,  P.Z.S.  148.  Assam. 

1932.   Macaca  assamensis  coolidgei  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  N.H.  Zool.  18:  2og.  Hoi  Xuan, 

Annam,  Indo-China. 
Range:  Assam,  Mishmi  and  Naga  Hills,  Northern  Burma,  Tonkin  and  Annam. 

Macaca  assamensis  pelops  Hodgson,  1840 

1840.  Macacus  (Pithex)  pelops  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  g:  12 13.  Nepal  Kachar. 
1870.  Macacus prohlcmaticus  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  etc.  B.M.  128.  Dhalimkot,  Bhutan. 
1872.  Macacus  rheso-similis  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  495,  pi.  25.  "East  Indies." 

Range:  Himalayas,  from  Mussoorie  through  Nepal  and  Sikkim,  from  2,000  to  about 
6,000  ft.,  to  Bhutan. 

Macaca  cyclopis  Swinhoe,  1862  Formosan  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Formosa. 

Macaca  cyclopis  Swinhoe,  1862 

1862.  Macacus  cyclopis  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  350.  Formosa. 

1863.  Macacus  {radiatus)  affims  Blyth,  Gat.  Mamm.  Mus.  As.  Soc.  8.  Formosa. 

Macaca  speciosa  group 
Lyssodes  Gistel,  1848,  is  available  for  speciosa,  a  short-tailed  monkey  which 
dilTers  from  the  other  species  in  the  abnormal  external  male  genitalia  (Pocock.) 
The  Japanese  M.  fuscata  resembles  speciosa  in  its  short  tail,  and  in  most  other 
characters,  but  according  to  Pocock  (1939,  70)  differs  from  that  species  in  the 
structure  of  the  glans  penis. 



Macaca  speciosa  F.  Cuvier,  1825  Stump-tailed  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Szechuan  and  Yunnan,  eastwards  to  Fukien 
and  adjacent  states  in  Southern  China;  Assam,  Burma,  Indo-China,  south  to 
Siamese  Malaya. 

Macaca  speciosa  speciosa  F.  Cuvier,  1825 

1825.  Macacus  speciosus  Cuvier,  H.N.  Mamm.  5,  47,  Macaque  a  face  rouge,  2.  "East 

1 87 1.  Macacus  brunneus  h.ndtKon,  P.Z.S.  628.  Kakhyen  Hills,  east  of  Bhamo,  Yunnan- 

Burma  border.  M.  brunneus=M.  s.  thibetanus,  according  to  G.  Allen. 
1912.  Macacus  (Magus)  arctoides  melli  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  308.  West 

of  Lochangho,  Kwantung,  Southern  China.  G.  Allen  uses  this  name  for  the 

South-Eastern  Chinese  form,  but  it  is  not  distinguishable  from  brunneus, 

according  to  Pocock. 
191 2.  Macacus  [Magus)  arctoides  esau  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  309.  West  of  Lochangho, 

Kwantung,  Southern  China. 
1928.  Pithecus  pullus  Howell,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  41:  41.  Near  Kuatun, 

Fukien,  Southern  China. 
Range:  Assam,  Upper  Burma,  Southern  China,  Tonkin  and  Annam. 

Macaca  speciosa  arctoides  Geoffroy,  1831 

1 83 1.  Macacus  arctoides  I.  Geoffroy,  Zool.  Voy.  de  Belanger,  61.  Cochin-China. 
1854.  Macacus  ursinus  Gervais,  H.N.  Mamm.   /.•  93.  Substitute  for  arctoides.  Pro- 
visionally regarded  as  a  valid  race  by  Pocock. 

Macaca  speciosa  melanota  Ogilby,  1839 

1839.  Papio  melanotus  Ogilby,  P.Z.S.  31.  Type  locality  "said  to  be  Madras". 

1872.  Macacus  rufescens  Anderson,  P.Z.S.  204.  Singapore  (where  the  animal  does  not 

occur,   according  to   Chasen    (1940),   who   lists  it  as  a  valid   race  from 

Peninsular  Siam). 
1897.   Macacus  harmandi  Trouessart,  Le  Naturaliste,   //.■    10.  Chantabun,  Southern 

Range:  Tenasserim  to  Lower  .Siam. 

Macaca  speciosa  thibetana  Milne-Edwards,  1870 

1870.  Macacus  thibetanus  Milne-Edwards,   C.R.  Acad.   Sci.   Paris,   yo:   341.   Near 

Moupin,  Szechuan,  China.  Emended  to  Macacus  tibetanus  Milne-Edwards, 

1872,  Rech.  Mamm.  244,  pis.  34,  35. 

Macaca  fuscata  Blyth,  1875  Japanese  Macaque 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Japan;  including  Shikoku  and   Kiushiu, 
Hondo  and  Yakushima. 

Macaca  fuscata  fuscata  Blyth,  1875 

1875.  Macacus  fuscatus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  44.  (extra  number).  Cat.  Mamm. 

&  Birds,  Burma,  6.  Japan. 
1842.  Itiuus  speciosus  Temminck,  Fauna  Japonica,  9.  Not  of  Cuvier,  1825. 
1909.  Inuus speciosus japanensis^c\\'wcyeT,A.nihroY>.-'Zoo\.\]nteTi\ich.  Miinchen,  1-192. 


I'ALAl'.ARtTK:  AND  INDIAN  MAMMALS    1 758-1946 

Macaca  fuscata  YAK.UI  Kuroda,  1941 

1941.  Macaca  fuscata yakui  Kuroda,  Monogr.  Jap.  Mamm.  273.  Yakushima  Island, 

Macaca  sylrana  group 
(=  Macaca  sensu  stricto.  Fur  characters,  see  above,  page  194) 

Macaca  sylvana  Linnaeus,  1758  Barbary  Ape 

Approximate    distribution    of  species:    Morocco    and    Algeria.    (Introduced    in 

Mac.\c.\  sylvana   Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Simia  sylvamis  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.   loth  ed.  /.■  25.  ("In  Africa,  Ceylona.") 

Barbary  Coast. 
1766.   Simia  irmus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Xat.  12th  ed.  /.•  35.  "Africa." 
1799.  Simia  pithecus  Schreber,  Saugeth.  Suppl.  /.•  pi.  4b. 
1812.  Imiia  ecaudatus  E.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.X.  Paris,   79.-   100.  Mediterranean 

coast  of  Africa  and  Gibraltar. 
1B63.  Pithecus  pygmaetii  Reichenbach,  \'ollstand.  Xat.  .\nen,  145. 
Range:  as  above. 

Genus  PAPIO   Muller,  1773 

1773.  Papio  Muller,  \"ollstand.  Natursyst.  /:  iiH.  Usually  applied  to  the  baboons 
(except  the  hamadryas  and  gelada),  but  according  to  Hopwood  the  type  of 
this  genus  should  be  taken  as  Simia  sphinx  Linnaeus  (the  West  African 

1795.  Cnwcephalus  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Encyclop.  j;  462.  Simia  cynocephalus 
Linnaeus.  Xot  of  Boddaert,  1768. 

1824.  Mandrillus  Ritgen,  Xat.  Eintheil.  Saugeth.  33  (Tafel).  (teste  Palmer.)  Simia 
maimon  Linnaeus  and  Simia  mormon  Alstromer,  both  of  which  are  synonyms 
of  Simia  sphinx  Linnaeus,  according  to  G.  Allen. 

1830.  Chacropithecus  Gervais,  Diet.  Pittor.  Hist.  Xat.  8:  90  (prior  to  11  May).  Simia 
cynocephalus  Linnaeus.  Valid  as  a  subgenus.  If  Papio  is  used  for  the  mandrills, 
then  Chacropithecus  becomes  the  name  for  the  baboons  (except  the  hama- 
dryas and  the  gelada  j. 

1839.  Chacropithecus  Blain\ille,  Osteogr.  Mamm.  Pithecus,  39  '  14  June).  Simia  cyno- 

cephalus Linnaeus. 

1840.  Hamadryas  Lesson,  Spec.  Mamin.  107.  X(jt  ofHubner,  180G.  Hamadryas  choero- 

pithecus  Lesson  =  Simia  hamadryas  Linnaeus. 

1862.   Choiropithecus  Reichenbach,  \'ollstand.  Xat.  Affen,  151.  Simia porcaria  Boddaert. 

1925.  Comopithccus  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  X.H.  ^y:  312.  Simia  hamadryas  Lin- 
naeus. To  replace  Hamadryas  Lesson,  preoccupied.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

I  species  in  Asia : 

Papio  hamadryas,  page  201 


Only  one  species  of  this  genus  occurs  in  Asia,  the  others  being  confined  to  Ethiopian 
Africa.  This  species  is  sometimes  separated  generically  as  Comopithecus,  e.g.  by  G. 
Allen  and  Simpson.  On  the  other  hand,  even  an  extreme  splitter  like  Elliot  referred 
all  Baboons  to  one  genus,  Papio.  Hopwood,  1947,  P-Z-^-  ^'7'  533~536,  has  shown 
that  the  type  oi  Papio  is  P.  sphinx,  the  Mandrill,  currently  referred  to  a  distinct  genus 
Mandrillus,  and  he  would  call  the  other  Baboons  of  Africa  Choeropithecus  Blainville, 
which  is  antedated  by  Choeropithecus  Gervais.  However,  we  suggest  subgeneric  rank  for 
all  three  groups. 

The  copious  mane  on  the  head  and  shoulders  of  the  male  seems  to  be  the  most 
obvious  distinguishing  character  of  the  subgenus  Comopithecus. 

Subgenus  COMOPITHECUS  J.  Allen,  1925 

Fapio  hamadryas  Linnaeus,  1758  Sacred  Baboon 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Arabia;  Somaliland,  Abyssinia,  Sudan. 

(Papio  hamadryas  hamadryas  Linnaeus,  1758.  Extralimital) 

1758.  Simia  hamadryas  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  27.  Egypt  (where  now  extinct). 
1758.  Simia  cynamolgos  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  28.  Upper  Egypt. 
1840.  Hamadryas  chaeropithecus  Lesson,  Spec.  Mamm.  109.  Abyssinia,  Arabia,  Egypt. 
1870.  Hamadryas  aegyptiaca  Gray,  Cat.  Monkeys,  etc.  B.M.  34.  New  name  for  Aama- 

dryas  Linnaeus. 
Range:  Eastern  Ethiopia  and  Eastern  Sudan,  mainly  in  the  lowlands. 

Papio  hamadryas  .'Vrabicus  Thomas,  1900 

1900.  Papio  arabicus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  i8gg:  929;  and  igoo:  96.  Subaihi  country, 
about  60  miles  north-west  of  Aden,  Southern  Arabia. 

Subfamily     C  o  1  o  b  i  n  a  e 

Genus  RfflNOPITHECUS  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Rhinopithecus  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  233.  Semnopithecus  roxellana 

1924.  Presbytiscus  Pocock,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  17.  Rhinopithecus  avunculus  Dollman.  Valid  as 

a  subgenus. 

Pocock  seems  to  base  his  name  Presbytiscus  chiefly  on  the  fact  that  the  digits  of  the 
hand  and  feet  are  relatively  longer  than  in  Rhinopithecus.  The  name  Presbytiscus  is 
ignored  by  Simpson  (1945). 

The  other  members  of  the  genus  seem  to  be  not  very  well  known.  G.  Allen  (1939, 
300)  follows  Elliot  in  listing  the  three  named  forms  as  distinct  species.  It  is  difficult  to 
believe  that  three  forms,  not  occurring  together  (see  Allen's  distribution  map)  and 
differing  apparently  only  in  details  of  colouring  (which  might  even  be  seasonal)  are 

PALAKARtrriC  AND   INDIAN  MAMMALS   i7-,«-i94b 

good  species,  and  until  the  contrary  is  proved  we  prefer  to  regard  them  as  repre- 
sentatives of  one  species,  for  which  roxellanae  is  the  first  name. 

2  species :  Rhino/iit/nriis  avunculus,  page  202 
Rhiiiopitlurns  roxellanae,  page  202 

Subgenus  RHINOPITHF.CUS  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

Rhinopithecus  roxellanae   Milne-Edwards,  1870  Snub-nosed   Monkey 

Grilden   Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species,  as  here  understood:  China,  states  of  Szechuan 
,into  Southern  Kansu),  Yunnan  and  Kweichow. 

Rhinopithecus  roxellaxaf,  roxellanae  Milne-Edwards,  1870 

1870.   Scmnopilhecus  roxellana  Milne-Edwards,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  yo:  341.  Near 

Moupin,  Szechuan,  C^hina. 
1872.   Semnopithecus  roxellanae   Milne-Edwards,   Rech.   H.N.    Mamm.   233-243,   pis. 

3*^,  37- 

Rhinopithecus  roxellanae  bieti  Milne-Edwards,  1897 

1897.  Rhinopithecus  bieli  Milne-Edwards,  Bull.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  3:  157.  Kiape,  a  day's 
journey  from  Atuntze  (left  bank  Mekong  River),  North- Western  Yunnan, 
China.  See  also  Milne-Edwards  &  Pousargues,  1898,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus. 
H.N.  Paris  (3),  10:  121-142,  pis.  9-12. 

Rhinopithecus  roxell.-\nae  brelichi  Thomas,  1903 

1903.  Rhinopithecus  brelichi  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  224,  pi.  21.  Probably  from  Northern 
Kweichow  (?  Van  Gin  Shang  Range,  29"'  N.,  108°  E.),  China. 

Subgenus  PRESBYTISCUS  Pocock,  1924 

Rhinopithecus  avunculus   Dollman,  19 12  Tonkin  Snub-nosed  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  rif  species:  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China. 

RHiNOPiriiEcus  .wuNCULUs  Dollman,  191 2 

1912.  Rhinopithecus  avunculus  Dollman,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  18;  P.Z.S.  503.  Yen  Bay,  Song- 
koi  Ri\er,  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Genus  PYGATHRIX  E.  Geoffroy,  18 12 

1812.  P}xathrix  GeoflVoy,  Ann.  Mus.  H.X.  Paris,  ic^:  90.  Simla  ncmaeus  Linnaeus. 

It  should  be  noted  that  although  the  International  Commission  of  Zoological 
Nomenclature,  in  Opinion  114,  suppressed  the  name  Pithecus  (1795,  Cuvier  & 
Geoffrov,   Mas,.  Encvct.   •5.-  462,  based  on  the  unidentifiable  Simla  veter  Linnaeus), 


Chasen  (1940)  declared  himself  a  rebel  and  continued  to  use  it.  Allen,  1938,  Mammals 
of  Mongolia  &  China,  also  continued  to  use  the  name.  Allen,  unlike  Chasen,  did  not 
attempt  to  explain  his  rejection  of  the  Commission's  authority  and  it  is  interesting  to 
note  that  one  year  later,  in  his  Checklist  of  African  Mammals,  he  quoted  Opinion  1 14, 
without  protest,  as  the  authority  for  the  suppression  of  Simla.  At  all  events,  so  far  as 
we  are  concerned,  and  we  believe  that  most  mammalogists  are  with  us,  Pithecus  is 
dead.  Therefore,  if  all  the  Langurs  are  regarded  as  being  congeneric,  Pygathrix  is  the 
valid  name. 

Pocock  (1939)  refers  the  Indian  langurs  to  four  genera:  Presbytis,  Trachy pithecus, 
Kasi  and  Semnopithecus — for  reasons  which  do  not  convince  us,  and  we  here  follow 
Thomas,  Simpson  and  Osgood  in  dividing  the  langurs  into  two  genera:  Pygathrix  for 
the  species  nemaeus,  and  Presbytis  for  the  remainder. 

I  species:  Pygathrix  nemaeus,  page  203 

Pygathrix  nemaeus  Linnaeus,  1771  Douc  Langur 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Indo-China  (Annam,  Laos,  Cochin-China), 
and  has  been  recorded  from  Hainan. 

For  characters  and  revision,  see  Pocock,  1935,  P.^.S.  igj^:  958. 

Pygathrix  nemaeus  nemaeus  Linnaeus,  1771 

1 77 1.  Simla  nemaeus  Linnaeus,  Mant.  Plant,  521.  Cochin-China. 

Pygathrix  nemaeus  nigripes  Milne-Edwards,  1871 

1871.  Semnopithecus  nigripes  Milne-Edwards,  Bull.  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.\.  Paris,  6: 

7,  pi.  I.  Saigon,  Cochin-China. 
1926.  Presbytis  nemaeus  mol  Kloss,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  214.  Langbian  Peak,  5,500- 

6,500  ft.,  Southern  Annam,  Indo-China. 

Genus  PRESBYTIS  Eschscholtz,  182 1 

1 82 1.  Presbytis  Eschscholtz,  in  Kotzebue  Reise,  j:   196,  pi.  Presbytis  mltratus  Esch- 

scholtz =  Simla  aygula  Linnaeus,  the  Sunda  Islands  Leaf  Monkey,  from 

1822.  Semnopithecus  Desmarest,  Mamm.  2:  532.  Simla  entellus  Dufresne. 

1862.   Trachyplthecus  Reichenbach,  Vollstand.  Nat.  Affen,  89.  Semnopithecus  pyrrhus 

Horsfield,  from  Java. 
1862.  Kasl  Reichenbach,  Vollstand.  Nat.  Affen,  loi.  Cercoplthecus  johnll  Fischer. 
1879.   Coryplthecus  Trouessart,   Rev.   Mag.   Zool.    (3),   j:   53.   Semnopithecus  frontatus 

Muller,  from  Borneo. 
1879.  Lophoplthecus  Trouessart,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  (3),  j:  53.  Semnopithecus  rublcundus 

Muller,  from  Borneo. 
1879.  Presbypithecus  Trouessart,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  (3),  7.-  56.  Substitute  for  Presbytis 

Reichenbach,  1862,  not  of  Eschscholtz,  1821. 

o  203 

palaearc'.tk;  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 

9  species  in  the  area  co\ered  by  this  list : 

Presbytis  aislalus,  page  208  Presbytis  ohscurui,  page  209 

Presbytis  entellus,  page  204  Presbytis  phayrei,  page  209 

Presbytis  fran(oisi,  page  210  Presbytis  pileatiis,  page  208 

Presbytis  johni,  page  207  Presbytis  senex,  page  206 
Presbytis  melalophos, ,pvige  207 

\Vc  do  not  know  why  Chasen  ( 1 940)  Hsted  a  long  group  of  races  as  forms  of 
Jemoralis  which  dates  from  1838,  including  among  them  melalophos,  which  dates  from 
1 82 1  thus  clearly  taking  priority ;  nor  why  he  lists  cristalus,  which  dates  from  1 82 1 ,  as 
a  subspecies  of  pyrrhus,  which  dates  from  1823.  He  has  dealt  similarly  with  Sus 
crislatus  1839  (making  vittatus  1828  a  subspecies),  and  Rattus  rapit  1903  (making 
lepturus  1879  a  subspecies),  and  is  likely  to  be  widely  followed. 

See  Pocock,  1935,  P-ZS-  1934:  895,  for  a  review  of  the  species  to  the  east  of  the 
Bay  of  Bengal,  and  1939,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /,  for  the  species  inhabiting  India. 

Pocock  restricted  the  name  Presbytis  to  the  ayoula  group,  and  he  recognized  nine 
species,  including  P.  aygula  Linnaeus,  1758  (from  Java,  Sumatra  and  Borneo),  P. 
melalophos  and  P.femoralis.  Chasen  (1940)  only  recognizes  four  species  in  this  group, 
merging  melalophos  and  femoralis  (as  mentioned  above).  We  tentatively  follow  Chasen 
in  his  classification,  although  we  are  not  sure  that  melalophos  as  here  understood  is 
clearly  definable.  Pocock  referred  the  \Vestern  Indian  species  entellus  to  the  genus 
Semnopithecus,  and  the  species  senex  and  johni  to  the  genus  Kasi ;  distinguishing  characters 
for  these  groups  will  be  found  in  his  work  on  the  mammals  of  India.  P.  johni  is  closely 
allied  to  senex,  and  could  be  regarded  as  a  very  distinct  subspecies  of  it.  The  remaining 
five  species  now  under  discussion  were  referred  by  Pocock  to  the  genus  Trachypithecus. 
P.  franpisi  seems  much  the  most  distinct  of  these,  characterized  by  black  colour  com- 
bined with  very  sharply  contrasted  white  head,  or  cheeks,  or  rump.  In  this  it  resembles 
the  extralimital  P.  poten-iani,  from  which  it  differs  by  some  skull  characters.  The 
remainder  arc  very  closely  allied  to  each  other,  but  three  of  them  occur  together  in 
Burma,  and  Pocock  has  given  characters  by  which  apparently  they  may  be  dis- 
tinguished. It  must  be  noted  that  cristatus  is  the  prior  name  for  this  section  of  the 

Presbytis  entellus  group 
=  the  genus  Semnopithecus  ^Desmarest,  1822)  of  Pocock,  1939. 

Presbytis  entellus  Dufresne,  1797  Langur  (Entellus  Monkey) 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:   Ceylon,   Peninsular   India,   northwards  to 
Sikkim  and  Kashmir,  and  extreme  Southern  Tibet. 

Presbytis  entellus  entellus  Dufresne,  1797 

1797.   Simia  entellus  Dufresne,   Bull.   Soc.   Philom.   Paris,    /,   7:   49.   Bengal,   Ind 
Range :  Bengal  to  Gujerat  and  Kathiawar. 




Presbytis  en'tellus  schistaceus  Hodgson,  1840 

1840.  Semnopithecus  schistaceus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  g:  1212.  Nepal  Terai. 
(Not  schistaceus  Blanford,  1891.) 

1840.  Semnopithecus  nipalensis  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  g:  1212. 

1928.  Pithecus  entellus  hector  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ^2:  481.  Sitabani,  Ramna- 

gar,    Kumaon,    2,000   ft.,   Northern    India. 
Range:  Nepal  Terai,  Oudh,  Kumaon,  Garwhal. 

Presbytis  entellus  hypoleucos  Blyth,  1841 

1 84 1.  Semnopithecus  hypoleucos  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.   Soc.  Bengal,   10:  839.  Travancore, 

Southern  India. 

Presbytis  entellus  dussumieri  Geoffroy,  1843 

1843.  Semnopithecus  dussumieri  I.  Geoffroy,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  i^:  719.  Malabar 

coast,  India. 

Presbytis  entellus  anchises  Blyth,  1844 

1844.  Presbytis  anchises  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  75.-  470.  Deccan,  India.  Range: 

Central  Provinces  and  Eastern  Ghats. 

Presbytis  entellus  priam  Blyth,  1844 

1844.  Semnopithecus  pallipes  Blyth,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  13:  312  (April).  (See  Pocock, 

1939,  /.•  109,  footnote,  on  synonymy.) 
1844.  Semnopithecus  priam  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,   i^:  470  (October).  Coro- 

mandel  coast,  India. 
1847.  Semnopithecus priamus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  732. 
Range:  the  Dharmapuri,  Shevaroy  and  Palkonda  Hills,  and  Nilgiri  Hills,  India. 

Presbytis  entellus  thersites  Blyth,  1847 

1847.  Presbytis  thersites  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  1271.  Trincomalee,  Ceylon. 
Range:  Ceylon  and  apparently  Travancore  (Pocock). 

Presbytis  (?)  entellus  lania  Elliot,  1909 

igog.  Presbytis  lania  Elliot,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  273.  Chumbi  Valley,  extreme 
Southern  Tibet. 

Presbytis  entellus  achilles  Pocock,  ig28 

ig28.  Pithecus  entellus  achilles  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  32:  478.  Satthar  Hill, 

Gorkha,  12,000  ft.,  50  miles  north-west  of  Katmandu,  Nepal. 
1888.   Semnopithecus  schistaceus  Blanford,  Mamm.  Brit.  India,   30,  not  of  Hodgson, 

Range:  Sikkim  and  Nepal,  at  high  altitudes;  ?  Kashmir. 

Presbytis  entellus  ajax  Pocock,  ig28 

1928.  Pithecus  entellus  ajax  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ;^2:  480,  pi.  2,  fig.  i. 
Deolah,  in  Chamba,  6,000  ft.,  Punjab.  Range:  Chamba,  Kangra  and  Kulu, 
at  high  altitudes;  ?  Kashmir. 



Presbytis  entellus  achates  Pocock,  1928 

1928.  Pithecus  (ntdlus  achates  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ji'.-  488.  Haunsbhavi, 
Dharvvar,  2,000  ft.,  India.  Ranejc:  Dhanvar,  Bellary  and  Kanara. 

Presbytis  entellus  iiilus  Pocock,  1928 

1928.  Pithecus  entellus  iulus  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  jp;  ^go.  Jog,  Gersoppa 
Falls,  on  Kanara-Mysore  border,  1,300  ft.,  India. 

Presbytis  entellus  aene.'vs  Pocock,  1928 

1928.  Pithecus  entellus  aencas  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ;^2:  492.  Makut,  Southern 

Coorg,  250  ft.,  India.  Range:  Southern  Coorg,  from  Makut  to  Wottekolli, 

2,000  ft. 

Presbytis  entellus  eliss.\  Pocock,  1928 

1928.  Pithecus  entellus  elissa  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  32:  493.  Nagarhole,  South- 
Eastern  Coorg,  India. 

Presbytis  entellus  pri.\mellus  Pocock,  1928 

1928.  Pithecus  entellus  priamellus  Pocock,   J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  jj:?.'  494.  Shernelly, 
Cochin,  India. 

Presbytis  senex  group 
=  the  genus  K'asi  (Reichcnbach,  1862)  of  Pocock,  1939. 

Presbytis  senex  Erxleben,  1777  Purple-faced  Langur 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon. 

Presbytis  senex  senex  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.  Cercopithecus  senex  Erxleben,  Regn.  Anim.  24.  "Hills  of  Southern  Ceylon." 

1852.  Preshrtis  alhinus  Kelaart,   Prodr.   Faun.   Zeyl.   7.    Matalc,   Central   Province, 

1927.  Pithecus  philbricki  VhiWips,  Ceyl.J.  Sci.  Sec.  B,  /./.•  57.  Kaiitalai,  East  Province, 

200  ft.,  near  Trincomalee,  Ceylon. 
Range:  "The  hills  east  of  Matale  and  Madulkellc  up  to  5,000  ft.,  also  the  low- 
country  dry  zone  of  the  N.C.P.,  N.W.P.,  E.P.  and  C.P.,  Ceylon." 

Presbytis  senex  vetulus  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.   Cercopithecus  vetulus  Erxleben,  Rcgn.  Anim.  25.  Ceylon. 

1780.   Cercojiitliecus  kephaloplerus  Zimmcrmann,  Geogr.  Ges.  j?.-  185.  "cephalopterus"  of 

many  subsequent  authors.  Ceylon. 
Range;  wettest  parts  of  lowlands  of  Western  and  South- Western  Ceylon. 

Presbytis  senex  nestor  Bennett,  1833 

1833.   Sernnopithecus  nestor  Bennett,  P.Z.S.  67.  Ceylon,  probably  Rayigam. 

1923.  Pithecus  vetulus phillipu  Hinton,  ,\nn.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  510.  Gonapola,  Panadura 

district,  Ceylon. 
Range:  lnw-country  wet  zone  of  Western  Province,  Ceylon. 



Presbytis  senex  monticola  Kelaart,  1850 

1850.  Presbytis  cephalopterus  var.  monticola  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiat.  Soc.  2:  207 

(321  of  1887,  reprint).  Nuwara  Eliya,  Ceylon. 

1851.  Presbytis  ursinus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  155.  Nuwara  Eliya,  Ceylon. 
Range :  hill  ranges  of  Ceylon,  above  4,000  ft. 

Presbytis  johni  Fischer,  1829  John's  Langur 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Coorg,  Nilgiri  and  Palni  Hills,  in  Southern 

Presbytis  johni  Fischer,  1829 

1829.  Cercopithecus  johnii  Fischer,  Syn.  Mamm.  25.  Tellicherry,  Southern  India. 

1834.  Semnopithecus  cucullatus  I.  Geoffroy,  Zool.  Voy.  Belanger,  38,  pi.  i.  The  Ghats, 

1840.  Semnopithecus  jubatus  Wagner,  Schreber  Saugeth.  Suppl.  /.•  305.  Southern  India. 
Range;  Southern  India;  Western  Ghats,  from  Coorg  southwards,  Nilgiri,  Anamalai, 

Brahmagiri,  Tinnevelly  and  Palni  Hills,  usually  not  below  3,000  ft.  (Pocock). 

Presbytis  aygula  group 
=  part  of  the  genus  Presbytis  as  restricted  by  Pocock,  1939. 

Presbytis  tnelalophos  Raffles,  182 1  Banded  Leaf  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra, 
Borneo,  and  some  adjacent  small  islands. 

(Presbytis  melalophos  melalophos  Raffles,  1821.  Extralimital) 
182 1.  Simia  melalophos  Raffles,   Trans.   Linn.   Soc.   London,    73.-   245.   Bencoolen, 

(Presbytis  femoralis  Martin,  1838,  Charlesworth's  Mag.  N.H.  2:  436,  Singapore, 
is  also  extralimital.  Pocock  refers  the  race  which  occurs  in  Tenasserim  to 

(It  should  be  noted  that  the  form  Semnopithecus  siamensis  Mtiller  &  Schlegel,  1841, 
Verh.  Nat.  Ges.  Ned.  Overz.  Bezitt.  ^ool.  Mamm.  60,  listed  by  Elliot  with  several 
synonyms,  is  a  race  of  melalophos  but  came  from  the  Malay  States,  not  from  Siam, 
and  so  is  extralimital.) 

Presbytis  melalophos  robinsoni  Thomas,  19 10 

1910.  Presbytis  robinsoni  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  25.  P.Z.S.  635.  Ko-khau,  Trang, 

Lower  Siam.  Based,  according  to  Pocock,  on  a  partial  albino,  but  ante- 
dating the  next,  which  Pocock  adopted. 

191 1.  Presbytis  neglecta  keatii  Robinson  &  Kloss,  J.  Fed.  Malay  States  Mus.  4:  174. 

Ko-khau,   Trang,   Lower   Siam.   For  status  see  Chasen,    1940,   Handlist 
Malaysian  Mamm.  74. 
Range:  North   Malay  Peninsula,  Junk  Seylon  Island,  Tenasserim,   and  west  of 
Bangkok,  in  Siam. 


palakarctr:  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 

Prcshytis  crislatiis  group 
=  the  genus  Trachypithecus  fReichenbach,  1862)  of  Pocock,  1939. 

■Presbytis  cristatus   Rallies,  1821  Silvered  Leaf  Monkey 

Approximate  distriijution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Siam,  Indo-China,  Malay 
States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  and  various  small  adjacent  islands. 

(Presbytis  cristatus  cristati's  Raffles,  1821.  Extralimital) 

1 82 1.   Simla  cristata  Raffles,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  /jj.-  244.  Bencoolen,  Sumatra. 

(This  antedates  Semnopitheciis  pyrrhus  Horsficld,  1823,  ^ool.  Res.  Java,  pt.  7 
(unpaged),  pi.  3,  Java.  For  date  of  publication,  see  Matthews,  1919,  Birds  of 
Australia,  y,  5:  475,  and  Oberholser,  1921,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  j^:  163- 

Presbytis  cristatus  germaini  Milne-Edwards,  1876 

1876.   Scmnopithecus  germani  (misprint  tor  germaini)  Milne-Edwards,  Bull.  Soc.  Fhilom. 

(6),   //.•  8.   (The  collector's  name  was  Germain,  and  most  authors  have 

emended  to  germaini.)  Cochin-China  and  Cambodia. 
1909.  Presbytis  margarita  Elliot,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ./;  271.  Langbian,  Annam. 
1916.  Presbytis  germaini  mandihularis  Kloss,  P.Z.S.  32.  Koh  Chang  (Island),  South- 

Eastern  Siam. 
1919.  Presbytis  cristatus  koratensis  Kloss,  J. N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  j.-  340.  Lat  Bua  Kao,  30 

miles  west  of  Korat,  .Siam. 
Range:  Indo-China  and  Siam. 

Presbytis  crist.\tus  atrior  Pocock,  1928 

1928.  Pi thecus  pyrrhus  atrior  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ^2:  673.  Ye  Forest,  500  ft., 
south  of -Moulmcin,  in  .\taran  district  of  Tenasserim.  Range  includes  South- 
Western  .Siam. 

(?)  1863.  Presbytis  barbel  Blyth,  Cat.  Mamm.  .Mus.  .A.siat.  Soc.  14.  Tipperah  Hills. 
Not  barbel  Blyth,  1847. 

Presbytis  pileatus  Blyth,  1843  Capped  Monkey 

.\pproximate  distribution  of  species:  Assam  and  Burma.  ?  Yunnan  (Pocock, 
1939,  '3'  (footnote),  suggests  that  G.  Allen's  Plthecus  ohscurus  luirbei  may  be  this 

Presbytis  pileatus  pileatus  Blyth,  1843 

1843.   Semnoplthecus  pileatus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  /-■.•  174.  Locality  unknown. 

"received  from  Barrackpore,  stated  to  be  Malayan"   (Blyth);  "no  doubt 

Assam"  (Pocock). 
1851.   Semnoplthecus  argentatus  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  E.  India  Co.  7.  Sylhct. 
Range:  Garo,  Khasi,  Jaintia  and  .\aga  Hills.  Assam,  above  4,000  ft. 



Presbytis  pileatus  shortridgei  Wroughton,  1915 

1915.  Presbytis  shortridgei  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  56.  Homalin,  Upper 
Chindwin,  Burma. 

1915.  Presbytis  shortridgei  belliger  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  57.  Hkamti, 

Upper  Chindwin,  Burma. 
Range:  eastern  side  of  Upper  Chindwin,  Burma. 

Presbytis  pileatus  brahma  Wroughton,  1916 

1916.  Presbytis  brahma  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  654.  Seajulia,  Dafla 

Hills,  Northern  Lakhimpur,  Upper  Assam. 

Presbytis  pileatus  durg.a  Wroughton,  1916 

1916.  Presbytis  durga  ^Vroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  655.  Cachar,  Assam. 

1923.  Pithecus  pileatus  saturatus  Hinton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Sor.  2g:  81.  Bara  Hapjan, 

Lakhimpur,  Upper  Assam. 
Range:  Lakhimpur,  in  Upper  Assam,  south  to  Naga  Hills,  Cachar,  Tipperah,  Chitta- 

gong,  and  western  side  Upper  Chindwin,  Burma.  (In  Assam,  occurring  at 

lower  levels  than  the  typical  race.) 

Presbytis  pileatus  tenebricus  Hinton,  1923 

1923.  Pithecus  pileatus  tenebricus  Hinton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2g:  81.  Matunga  River, 
Northern  Kamrup.  Range  includes  Assam,  north  of  the  Brahmaputra. 

Presbytis  obscurus   Reid,  1837  Dusky  Leaf  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Lower  Siam,  Malay  States,  and 
some  small  adjacent  islands. 

(Presbytis  obscurus  obscurus  Reid,  1837.  Extralimital) 

1837.  Semnopithecus  obscurus  Reid,  P.Z.S.  14.  Malacca,  see  Chasen  (1940). 

Presbytis  obscurus  sanctorum  Elliot,  19 10 

1910.  Pygathrix  sanctorum  Elliot,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  M.w.  38:  351.  St.  Matthew  Island, 
Mergui  Archipelago. 

Presbytis  obscurus  flavicauda  Elliot,  19 10 

1 910.  Pygathrix  flavicauda  Elliot,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  38:  352.  Trang,  Lower  Siam. 

1916.  Presbytis  obscura  smithi  Kloss,  J.N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  2:  5.  Klong  Bang  Lai,  Patiyu, 

Peninsular  Siam. 
1935-  Trachypithecus  obscurus  corax  Pocock,   P.Z.S.    1934:   944.   Tenasserim  Town, 

Range:  from  Northern  Malaya  northwards  to  Tavoy,  in  Tenasserim,  and  to  Pech- 

buri  district,  South-\Vestern  Siam. 

Presbytis  phayrei  Blyth,  1847  Phayre's  Leaf  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  north  to  Bhamo,  Tenasserim,  Siam, 
?  Indo-China. 

Pocock  (1928)  regarded  these  forms  as  further  races  oi  obscurus,  but  in  his  later 
work  kept  them  apart  on  the  ground  of  their  simultaneous  occurrence  in  Tenasserim. 


PALAKARCTK;  and   INDIAX   mammals   17^,8-1946 

Presbytis  phavrei  phavrei  Blyth,  1847 

1847.  Presbytis  phayrei  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  733.  Arakan,  Burma. 

1847.  Presbytis  barbei  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  734.  Tipperah  Hills.  (See 
Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.•  130-131,  for  notes  on  synonymy 
of  this  form.  Not  barbei  Blyth,  1863,  and  evidently  not  P.  obseuriis  barbei  of 
G.  Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  &  T^Iongolia,  /.•  294,  which  Pocock  suggests 
might  be  a  form  of  P.  pileatus.) 

1909.  Presbytis  melamera  Elliot,  .\nn.  Mag.  N.H.  ./.■  'if)"].  Cadu  Cliaung,  near  Bhamo, 
North-Eastcrn  Burma. 

Range:  Burma,  as  far  north  as  Bhamo,  south  to  Pegu. 

Presbytis  phayrei  crepusculus  Elliot,  1909 

1909.  Presbytis  crepusnila  Elliot,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   _/.•   271.   Mt.   Mulaiyit,  5,000  ft., 

1909.  Presbytis  erefniseula  wrouohtoni  Elliot,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  272.  Pachebon,  Clcntral 

1919.  Presbytis  art^rnteiis  Kloss,  J.N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  j:  338.  Lat  Bua  Kao,  west  of  Korat, 

Ranges  to  Laos  and  Annam? 

Presbytis  phayrei  shanicus  Wroughton,  191 7 

191 7.  Pitheeus  shanicus  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2§:  47.  Se'en,  Hsipaw  State, 

Shan  States,  Burma.  Range:  North  Shan  States  and  their  neighbourhood  to 

east  of  Irrawaddy,  in  dry  zone  (if  Burma. 

Presbytis  (?)  phayrei  ruhei  Knottnerus-Meyer,  1933 

1933.  Presbytis  ruhei  Knottnerus-Meyer,   Zool.   Garten,   Leipzig,   6:   259.   Sangora, 

Southern  .Siam.  From  description  may  belong  in  this  species,  but  status  not 


Presbytis  fran^oisi  Pousargues,  1898  Francois'  Monkey 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kwangsi,  in  S(3uthern  China;  and  Tonkin, 
Laos  and  Annam,  Indo-China. 

For  status  of  this  species  and  for  some  skull  characters  by  which  the  species  or 
group  seems  distinguishable,  see  Pocock,  1935,  P.^.S.  1934:  956-958.  Pocock  recog- 
nized four  species,  and  so  did  Osgood  (1932)  who  gave  a  key  to  them.  But  as  they  do 
not  appear  to  occur  together,  and  the  region  is  a  small  one,  we  propose  provisionally 
to  regard  them  as  races  of  the  same  species. 

Presbytis  francoisi  francoisi   Pousargues,  1898 

1898.  Semnopithecus  francoisi  Pousargues,  Bull.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  4:  319.  Lungchow, 
Province  of  Kwangsi,  Southern  China.  Range:  southwards  into  Tonkin. 

Presbytis  (?)  fra.n'COisi  poliocephalus  Trouessart,  191 1 

191  I.  Semriopithecui  { Lophopithecus)  poliocephalus  Trouessart,  Ann.  NLig.  N.H.  S:  271. 
K.ii-Chin,  Ncirth-Eastern  Tonkin,  Lido-China. 



Presbytis  (?)  FRAN901S1  LAOTUM  Thomas,  1921 

1 92 1.  Pithecus  laotum  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  y:  181.  Ban  Na  Sao,  Mekong  River, 
17.30°  N.,  Laos,  Indo-China. 

Presbytis  (?)  francoisi  delacouri  Osgood,  1932 

1932.  Pithecus  delacouri  Osgood,  Field  Mus.  N.H.  Zool.  18:  205.  Hoi  Xuan,  North- 
Eastern  Annam,  Indo-China. 

The  name  Simia  veter  Linnaeus,  1766,  Syst.  Nat.  ed.  12,  /.■  36,  supposed  to  have 
come  from  Ceylon,  is  held  to  be  unidentifiable. 

FAMILY     P  O  N  G  I  D  A  E 

Subfamily     Hylobatinae 

This  subfamily  is  given  family  rank  by  some  authors. 
Genus :  Hylobates,  page  2 1 1 

Genus  HYLOBATES  Illiger,  181 1 

181 1.  Hylobates  Illiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  67.  Homo  lar  Linnaeus. 
1841.  Symphalangus  Gloger,  Gemeinn.  Naturg.  /.-  34.  Symphalangus  syndactylus  Gloger 
=  Simia  syndactylus  Raffles.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

1932.  Brachitanytes  Schultz,  J.    Mamm.    13:   369.   Symphalangus  klossii  Miller,   from 

South  Pagi  Island,  west  of  Sumatra. 

1933.  Nomascus  Miller,  J.  Mamm.  i^:   159.  Hylobates  leucogenys  Ogilby.  Valid  as  a 


On  the  characters  of  the  subgenera  Hylobates,  see  Miller,  1933,  J.  Mamm.  /^.-  158, 

4  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Hylobates  concolor,  page  2 1 2 
Hylobates  hoolock,  page  2 1 2 
Hylobates  lar,  page  2 1 2 
Hylobates  syndactylus,  page  2 1 3 

Authors  are  not  in  agreement  as  to  the  full  number  of  species  in  this  genus,  but  the 
above  four  are  universally  admitted.  See  Pocock,  1927,  P.^-S.  719,  The  Gibbons  of 
the  Genus  Hylobates.  Also  Chasen,  1940,  Handlist  Malaysian  Mammals,  63,  in  which 
certain  forms  referred  to  H.  lar  by  Pocock  are  given  specific  rank ;  one  of  these,  agilis, 
occurs  with  lar  in  the  Malay  States. 


PALAEARtrnC:  and  INDIAN   MAMMALS   1758-1946 
Subgenus  HI'LOBATES  Illiger,  181 1 

Hylobates  lar  Linnaeus,  1771  Lar  Gibbon 

Approximate  distribution  ofspecies:  Sumatra,  Malay  States,  South-Western  Siam, 
Tenasserim,  Southern  Indo-China  (Cambodia). 

(Hylobates  lar  Linnaeus,  1771.   ExtraHmital) 
I  77 1.   Homo  lar  Linnaeus,  NLint.  Plant,  521.  Malacca. 

Hylobates  lar  entelloides  L  Geoffrey,  1842 

1842.   Hvlobatfi  entelloides  I.  Gcoffroy,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  75.-  717.  Malay  Penin- 
sula, about  latitude  12°  N.  Range:  Lower  Siam,  Tenasserim. 

Hylob.\tes  lar   pileatls  Gray,  1861 

1861.   Hvlohales  fnleatus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  136.  Cambodia.  Range  includes  South-Eastern 

Hylobates  hoolock  Harl.m,  1834  Hoolock  Gibbon 

Approximate  distribution  ofspecies:  Yunnan,  Assam  and  Burma. 

Hylobates  hoolock  Harlan,  1834 

1834.   Simia  hoolock  Harlan,  Trans.  Amer.  Phil.  Soc.  ^:  52,  pi.  2.  Garo  Hills,  Assam. 
1834.  Hylobates  fiiscus  Winslow  Lewis,  J.N.H.  .Soc.  Boston,  /,  i  :  40,  pis.   i  and  2. 

"Vicinity  of  Himalaya  Mountains." 
1837.  Hylobates  choromandus  Ogilby,  P.Z.S.  6g.  Locality  unknown. 
1840.  Hylobates  scyritus  Ogilby,  Royle's  lUustr.  Bot.  Himal.,  Ix.    Assam. 
Range:  Assam,  Cachar  and  Chittagong,  through  Upper  Burma,  to  north  Shan  States 
and  Western  Yunnan. 

Subgenus  NOMASCUS  Miller,  1933 

Hylobates  concolor  Harlan,  1826  Black  Gibbon 

Approximate  distribution  ofspecies:  Hainan,  Lido-China,  Siam. 

Hylobates  concolor  concolor  Harlan,  1826 

1826.  Simia  concolor  Harlan,  J.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  5,  4:  231,  pis.  g  and  10. 

Locality  unknown.  (Hainan  or  Tonkin,  Pocock,  1927.) 

1827.  Hylobates  harlani  Lesson,  Bull.  Sci.  Nat.  Paris,  /jj.-   iii.  Substitute  for  concolor. 
1840.   Hylobates  niger  Ogilby,  P.Z.S.  21.  Error  for  concolor. 

1884.  Hylobates  nasutus  Kunkel  d'Herculais,  Sci.  et.  Nat.  2:  86.  Near  Along  Bay, 

Tonkin,  Indo-China. 
1892.   Hylobates  hainanus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  9.-  145.  Hainan. 
1897.   Hylobates  henrici  Pousargues,  Bull.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  i\-  367.  Lai-chau,  Tonkin. 
Range:  Tonkin  and  Hainan. 


Hylobates  concolor  leucogenys  Ogilby,  1840 

1840.  Hylobates  leucogenys  Ogilby,  P.Z.S.  20.  Siam.  Range:  Siam  and  Laos. 

Hylobates  concolor  gabriellae  Thomas,  1909 

1909.  Hylobates  gabriellae  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  1 12.  Langbian,  1,500  ft.,  near 
Nha-trang,  100  km.  inland  from  Phanrang,  Southern  Annam. 

Subgenus  Sl'MPHALANGUS  Gloger,  1841 

Hylobates  syndactylus  Raffles,  1821  Siamang 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Malay  States,  Sumatra;  Tenasserim  (accord- 
ing to  Tate,  1947,  Mamm.  Eastern  Asia). 

(Hylobates  syndactylus  syndactylus  Raffles,  182 1.  E.xtralimital) 

1821.  Simia  syndactyla  Raffles,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  i^:  241.  Bencoolen, 

Hylobates  syndactylus  continentis  Thomas,  1908 

1908.  Symphalangus  syndactylus  continentis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  301.  Semangko 
Pass,  3,000  ft.,  Selangor-Pahang  border,  Malay  States.  Range:  northwards 
to  Tenasserim  ? 


For  the  continued  use  of  Pholidota  Weber,  1904,  in  spite  of  its  preoccupation  in 
the  Reptilia,  see  Simpson  (1945,  195). 

FAMILY:  Manidae 

For  a  classification  of  this  family  see  Pocock,  1924,  The  External  Characters  of  the 
Pangolins,  Manidae,  P.Z-S-  707-723,  with  keys  to  all  living  subgenera.  Pocock  refers 
the  seven  existing  species  of  Asia  and  Africa  to  six  genera  and  three  subfamilies. 
Simpson  (1945)  refers  them  all  to  a  single  genus.  ^Vhile  not  denying  the  importance 
and  interest  of  Pocock's  work,  Simpson's  arrangement  has  much  to  commend  it. 
Chasen  appears  to  be  in  agreement,  as  he  ignores  Pocock's  genus  Paramanis.  G.  Allen 
follows  Pocock.  AVe  do  not  consider  Phatages  valid  even  as  a  subgenus. 

Genus :  Manis,  page  2 1 4 



Genus  MANIS  Linnaeus,  1758 

1738.   Manis  Linnaeus,  Syst.  N'at.  loth  cd.  /;  36.  Manis  pentadactyla  Linnaeus. 
1762.  PhoUdotus  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  18.  Based  on  Manis  pentadactyla  Linnaeus. 
1 81 5.  Panaolinus  Rafincsque,  Analyse,  57.  No  type. 
■182 1.   Pangolinii.s    Rafincsque,    Ann.    Sci.    Phys.    Btux.    7;    214.    Manis  pcnladactvla 

1843.   Phatages  Sundcvall,  K.  Svenska  Vetcnsk.  Akad.  Handl.  1842:  258,  273  (vel 

Phalagcnui).  Mani':  laticanda  IlHger  —  Manis  crassicaudata  Gray. 
1873.  Pangolin  Gray,  Handlist  Edentate,  etc.,  Mamni.  Brit.  Mus.  8.  Based  on  Manis 

pentadactvla  Linnaeus. 
1924.   Paramanis  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  722.  Manis  javanica  Desmarest.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

There  are  other,  extralimital  (African)  subgencric  names. 
3  species  in  Asia : 

Manis  crassicaudata,  page  215 
Manis  javanica,  page  215 
Manis  pentadactyla,  page  214 

A  key  to  these  species  is  given  by  Pocock  (1924). 

Subgenus  MANIS  Linnaeus,  1758 

Manis  pentadactyla   Linnaeus,  1758  Chinese  Pangolin 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Formosa,  Southern  China  from  Yunnan 
eastwards  to  Fukien,  north  to  Kiangsu,  and  including  Hainan;  Burma,  westwards  to 
Sikkim  and  Nepal;  Indo-China. 

Manis  pentadactyla  pentadactyla  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Manis  pentadactvla  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /.■  36.  Formosa. 

1777.   Manis  hrachrina  Erxieben,  Regn.  An.  ()8. 

^L\^TS    PENTAD..\CTYL.\    .AURIT.A    HodgSOn,    1 836. 

1836.   Manis  auntus  Hodgson,  J.  As.  Soc.  Bengal,  -,:  234.  Lower  and  C^cntral  Nepal. 

1843.  Manis  dalmanm  Sundevall,  K.  Vet.  Akad.  Handl.  Stockholm,  1842:  256,  278, 
pi.  4,  fig.  10.  Near  Canton,  Southern  C^hina. 

1872.  PhoUdotus  assamensis  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  57. 

1872.   Phatages  hengalensis  Fitzinger,  loc.  cit.  72. 

1907.  PhoUdotus  krevenbergt  NLusthie,  Wiss.  Ergcbn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  C^hina,  10,  i  : 
234.  Nanking,  Kiangsu,  China. 

Range  includes  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Naga  Hills  in  Assain  (B.M.),  Pegu  and  Mt.  Poppa  in 
Burma,  Laos,  Tonkin,  and  Yunnan  to  Fukien,  Anhwci,  Kiangsu,  etc.,  in  Southern 
China.  G.  Allen  called  this  race  M.  p.  dalmanui,  with  aurila  in  the  synonymy,  but 
aurita  takes  priority  by  seven  years. 

,\L\NTS    PF.NTADACTVL.\    Pl^SILLA   J.  AllcU,    I  f)06 

1 006.  Manis  pusilla  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amcr.  Mus.  N.H.  22:  46-,,  pi.  69,  figs.  1^3.  Island 
ol  Hainan. 



Manis  crassicaudata  Gray,  1827  Indian  Pangolin 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Peninsula  of  India  (Shevaroy  Hills, 
Madras,  Mysore,  Bellar^',  Kanara,  Coorg),  to  Cutch  and  Bengal.  (Blanford  (i8gi) 
who  erronoeusly  called  this  species  M.  pentadactyla,  said  it  occurred  in  Peshawar, 
Sind  and  Orissa.)  G.  Allen  thought  its  range  extended  to  extreme  Western  Yunnan. 

Manis  crassicaudata  Gray,  1827 

1815.   Manis  laticauda  Illiger,  Abhandl.  Preuss.  Akad.  VViss.  1 804-1 811;  90,  nom.  nud. 

1827.  Manis  crassicaudatus  Gray,  in  Griffith's  Cuvier  Anim.  Kingd.  5;  282.  India. 

It  is  customary  to  date  the  name  crassicaudata  from  Geoffroy,  1803,  Cat.  Mamm.  Mus. 
H.N.  Paris,  213,  but  according  to  Sherborn  this  work  was  never  published. 

1865.  Pholidotus  indicus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  368. 

Subgenus  PARAMANIS  Pocock,  1924 

Manis  javanica  Desmarest,  1822  Malayan  Pangolin 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  Tenasserim,  Indo-China,  Siam, 
Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  many  small  adjacent  islands,  east  to  the 

Manis  javanica  Desmarest,  1822 

1822.  Manis  javanica  Desmarest,  Ency.  Meth.  Mamm.  2:  377.  Java. 

1842.  Manis  leplura  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //.•  454.  Locality  unknown. 

1847.  Manis  leucura  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  121^.  Arakan,  Burma. 

1850.  Manis  guy  Focillon,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  2:  513,  pi.  10.  Locality  unknown 

Range:  as  above,  in  Indo-China,  including  Laos,  Annam,  Cochin-China. 


Among  special  works  of  reference  to  this  Order  are: 

Miller,  G.  S.  1912.  Catalogue  of  the  Mammals  of  Western  Europe. 

Allen,  G.  M.  1938.  Mammals  of  China  &  Mongolia,  Natural  History  of  Central  .Asia,  11: 
I.  New  York  (American  Museum  of  Natural  History). 

1939-  A  Checklist  of  African  Mammals.  Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  ^ool.  Harvard,  8j. 

Pocock,  R.  I.  1939,  1941.  The  Fauna  of  British  India,  Mammals,  i  and  2;  and  numerous 
short  papers. 

Bobrinskii,  N.,  Kuznetzov,  B.  &  Kuzyakin,  A.  1944.  Mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R. 

Simpson,  G.  G.  1945.  The  Principles  of  Classification  and  a  Classification  of  Mam- 
mals. Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  8§. 

Ognev,  S.  I.  1931,  1935.  Mammals  of  Eastern  Europe  and  Northern  .isia,  2  and  j. 

PAl.AEARt:TIC;  AND  IXDIAX   MAMMALS   1 758-1946 

Simpson  1045)  cli\idcs  li\ing  members  nf  this  Order  into  two  superfamilies: 
Canoidea  ^ containing  the  families  Canidac,  Ursidae,  Procyonidae  and  Mustclidae) ; 
and  Feloidca  (containing  the  families  Vivcrridae,  Fehdae  and  Hyaenidae).  These 
superfamilies  correspond  to  the  suborders  Aeluroidea  and  Arctoidea  of  Pocock 
(1041),  and  other  authors.  \Ve  prefer  to  follow  Simpson  and  regard  these  two  groups 
as  of  superfamily  rank.  The  classification  of  Simpson  is  simpler  than  that  of  Pocock, 
and  more  conservativa.  It  is  here  followed,  with  some  small  generic  modifications. 

Neither  Simpson  nor  Pocock  give  the  Seals  (Pinnipedia)  ordinal  rank.  Simpson 
(p.  121)  lists  them  as  a  suborder,  and  Pocock  considered  them  as  part  of  the 
"Arctoidea".  However,  other  authors,  as  Miller,  G.  Allen,  Ognev  and  Bobrinskii 
treated  the  Pinnipedia  as  a  distinct  order.  Simpson  (p.  232)  seems  to  suggest  that  the 
group  is  an  old  one,  widely  separated  from  the  Carnivora  as  here  understood,  and 
the  convenience  of  giving  the  group  ordinal  rank  seems  so  marked  that  we  here 
follow  Miller  and  others,  and  regard  the  Pinnipedia  as  an  order  distinct  from  the 

FAMILIES:  Canidac,  page  216 
Felidae,  page  300 
Hyaenidae,  page  299 
Mustelidae,  page  243 
Procyonidae,  page  242 
Ursidae,  page  235 
Viverridae,  page  279 

FAMILY     C  A  \  I  D  A  E 

Genera:  Alopcx,  page  222 

Canis,  page  2 1 7 

Ciwn,  page  233 

Fennecus,  page  231 

Lycaon,  page  234 

Nvctereutes,  page  222 

Vulpes,  page  223 
Simpson   dix'ides    existing   Canidae   into    three    subfamilies,    one   of  which,    the 
Otocyoninac,  is  extralimital  and  doubtless  valid.  The  Cuoninae,  or  Simocyoninae  as 
listed  by  Simpson,  containing  Cuon  and  Lycaon,  is  not  supported  by  Pocock,   1941, 
2:  146. 

We  know  of  no  paper  which  specially  compares  the  various  genera  of  Canidae 
with  each  other.  Our  translation  of  Ognev's  key  to  the  genera  of  Canidae  in  the 
U.S.S.R.  indicates  that  in  Nxcterades  the  posterior  edge  of  the  mandible  has  a  lobate 
process  separated  by  a  notch  from  the  markedly  elevated  angular  process,  the  latter 
being  short,  round,  and  indistinctly  separated  from  the  condylar  process  by  a  shallow 
hollow,  thereby  differing  from  the  mandibles  of  Canis,  Vulpes  and  Alopex  (and  (in 
B.M.  material)  also  from  that  of  Fninceus).  Bobrinskii  (p.  139)  gives  a  figure  of  the 
skull  of ,,\V(7(7V7//(y,  which  may  be  compared  with  Miller's  figures  o( Canis,  Vulpes  and 



Alopex.  There  are  also  external  differences,  such  as  the  short  ears,  and  rather  short 
limbs,  by  which  Nyctereutes  may  be  separated  from  Canis,  etc.  Generic  characters  of 
Canis,  Vulpes  and  Alopex  are  given  by  Miller  (191 2,  304);  and  those  of  Canis  and 
Vulpes  are  compared  with  Cuon  by  Pocock  (1941,  80).  Fennecus  is  like  a  small  Vulpes, 
but  with  enormous  bullae  and  ears.  Pocock  did  not  retain  it  as  a  genus,  but  there 
seems  httle  doubt  that  it  should  be  retained.  It  antedates  Vulpes.  Lycaon  is  largely 
extralimital,  but  is  included  on  the  basis  of  a  note  in  G.  Allen  (1939)  on'  skulls  from 
Tanezrouft,  Algeria,  which  is  within  the  North  African  Pala'earctic ;  it  differs  from 
the  other  Palaearctic  genera  in  the  suppression  of  the  pollex,  and  is  very  different 
from  the  others  in  general  appearance,  its  characters  including  spotted  body,  large 
rounded  ear,  and  relatively  very  large  size. 

Mivart,  i8go.  Monograph  of  the  Canidae,  still  seems  to  be  the  best  general  work  on 
this  family.  There  are  good  figures  of  all  the  leading  species,  but  it  is  out  of  date  in 
some  ways,  for  instance  as  regards  genera  now  recognized. 

Genus  CANIS  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.   Canis   Linnaeus,   Syst.   Nat.    loth   ed.    /.•    38.   Canis  familiaris   Linnaeus    (the 

domestic  dog). 
1816.   Thos  Oken,  Lehrb.  d.  Naturgesch.  j,  2:   1037.  Thos  vulgaris  Oken  =  Canis 

aureus  Linnaeus. 
1816.  Lupus  Oken,  Lehrb.  d.  Naturgesch.  3,  2:  1039.  Canis  lupus  Linnaeus. 
1837.   Vulpicanis  Blainville,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Paris,  Zool.  8,  2 :  279.  Canis  aureus  Linnaeus. 
1839.   Sacalius  H.  Smith,  Jardine's  Naturalists  Library,   Mamm.  2j:  214.   Sacalius 

aureus  [Canis  aureus  Linnaeus). 
1841.   Oxygous  Hodgson,  Calcutta,  J.N. H.  2:  213.  Canis  aureus  Linnaeus. 
1855.  Lupulus  Gervais,  H.N.  Mamm.  2:  60-62.  Not  Lupulus  Blainville,  1843. 
1869.  Dieba  Gray,  Cat.  Carn.  Pachyd.  &  Edentate  Mamm.  B.M.  180.  Canis  anthus 

F.  Cuvier. 
1906.   Lupulella  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Beobachter,  4j:  363.  Canis  mesomelas  Schreber. 
1906.  Schaeffia  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Beobachter,  ^7.-  364.  Canis  adustus  Sundevall. 
1906.  Alopedon  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Beobachter,  4y:  365.  Canis  thooides  =  Canis  anthus 

Cretzschmar  nee  Cuvier. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list : 
Canis  aureus,  page  220 
Canis  lupus,  page  2 1 8 

For  the  characters  of  the  two  Palaearctic  species  see  Miller  (19 12,  305)  and 
Pocock  (194 1,  82).  For  a  note  on  the  characters  of  the  three  widely-distributed 
African  species  of  Jackals,  C.  aureus,  C.  adustus  Sundevall,  1846,  and  C.  mesomelas 
Schreber,  1778,  see  Hollister,  1918,  Bull.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  gg:  loi.  Hilzheimer, 
in  1906,  named  a  subspecies  of  Jackal  Canis  lupaster  grayi,  from  Morocco  and  Tunis, 
and  G.  Allen,  in  his  Checklist  of  African  Mammals,  for  no  apparent  reason,  lists  this 
form  as  a  race  of  the  otherwise  Ethiopian  species  Canis  adustus.  Hilzheimer  said 
that  his  race  was  the  same  as  that  figured  by  Gray,  1868,  P.^-S.  503.  This  figure 
is  oi Canis  aureus  subsp.  It  bears  no  close  resemblance  to  the  skull  oi Canis  adustus,  and 
there  is  little  evidence  that  adustus  occurs  in  any  part  of  Palaearctic  North  Africa. 


p.\i.aearc;tic  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 

Canis  lupus  Linnaeus,  1758  \Volf 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  formerly  widely  distributed  in  Europe,  in- 
(.iudins;  the  British  Isles,  but  now  extinct  in  Western  Europe  except  for  Portugal, 
Spain,  Italy,  Sicily,  Sweden  and  (occasionally)  Norway.  Widely  distributed  in  the 
U.S.S.R.  The  western  limit  of  the  Russian  wolves  fluctuates  considerably,  since  the 
animals  are  much  given  to  wandering,  but  may  be  taken  as  a  line  running  from 
Sweden,  through  Finland,  and  then  along  the  eastern  borders  of  the  Baltic  States, 
East  Prussia,  Poland  and  Czechoslovakia;  thence  through  Rumania  to  Yugoslavia 
and  Bulgaria,  with  occasional  extensions  into  Northern  Greece  and  Turkey.  The 
Asiatic  range  includes,' according  to  Bobrinskii,  Russian  Asia  ("all  over  the  Union, 
except  Crimea  and  \arious  northern  islands,  but  inhabits  Sakhalin,  Bolshoi  Lyakhov- 
skii  Island,  the  south  island  of  Novaya  Zemlya  and  Kolgucv") ;  Mongolia,  Korea, 
Japan  (if  not  extinct  there),  Tibet;  Kansu,  eastwards  to  Chihli  in  China  (perhaps, 
also  other  parts  of  China) ;  in  India,  from  Baluchistan  and  Kashmir  southwards,  at 
least  to  Dharwar,  and  eastwards  to  Bengal,  and  in  South-A\'cstern  Asia,  from  Persia, 
Iraq,  Asia  Minor,  Palestine  and  Arabia.  Widely  distributed  in  North  America. 
For  review,  sec  Pocock,  1935  P-Z-S-  647. 

Cams  lupus  lupus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Canis  lupus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /;  39.  Sweden. 

1792.   Cams  lupus  flavus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  137.  France  and  Germany. 

1804.   Canis  lupus  niger  Hermann,  Obscrv.  Zool.   32,  not  of  Kerr,    1792.  Forest  of 

Hagcnau,  Alsace. 
1804.   Cajiis  lupus  communis  Dwigubski,  Pn>d.  Faun.  Ri;ss.  10.  Russia. 
1839.   Cams  lupus  var.  canus  dc  Selys  Longchamps,   Etudes  de   Micromamm.    144, 

nom.  nud. 
1839.   Cams  lupus  var.  Julvus  dc  Selys  Longchamps,  luc.  cil.,  nom.  nud. 
1841.  Lupus  onentalis  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  3G7.  Europe. 
1863.   Canis  lupus  var.  major  Ogerien,  H.N.  du  Jura,  j:  64.  Lower  slopes  of  the  Jura. 
1863.   Canis  lupus  var.  minor  Ogerien,  loc.  cil.  Higher  portions  of  the  Jura. 
1910.   Canis  lupus  lycaon  Trouessart,  Faune  Mamm.  Europe,  90.  Pyrenees. 
(?)  1911.  Lupus  aliaicus  Noack,  Zool.  Anz.  35:  465.  Chulyshman  Glacier,  Altai. 
(?)  1922.   Canis  lupus  var.  onentalis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  350,  nom. 

nud.  Xec  \Vagner,  1841. 
!?)  1922.   (auiis  lupus  var.  argunensis  Dybowski,  loc.  cil.,  nom.  nud. 
Range:  Northern  and  Clentr.i!  Europe,  and  forest  zone  of  the  Li.S.S.R. 

Canis   lupus  albus  Kerr,    1 792 

1792.   Canis  lupus  albus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  137.  Near  Jenisca,  in  the  eastern  part  of 

Asiatic  Russia. 
(.^J  i<)22.   Canis  lupus  var.  kamlschalicus  Dybowski,  .\rch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  350. 

Kamtchatka,  nom.  nud. 
ir)23.   Ganis  (sic)  lupus  luruchanensis  Ognev,  Biol.  Mitt.  TimiriazelF,  /;    113.  Turuk- 

hansk  region  'on  Northern  Venesei),  Siberia. 
1?)  1926.   Cams  lupus  dvbowskii  Domanicwski,  Pracc  Z.  Mus.  Warsawa,  5.-  52.  Goly- 

gina,  South-\\'estern  Kamtchatka. 
Range:  whole  tundra  and  liirest-tundra  area  of  LLS.S.R. 



Canis  lupus  campestris  Dwigubski,  1804 

1804.  Canis  lupus  campestris  Dwigubski,  Prod.  Faun.  Ross.   10.  In  deserts  between 

Black  Sea  and  Caspian,  Kirghizia,  to  River  Yenesei. 
(?)  1882.  Canis  lupus  var.  desertorum  Bogdanov,  \.H.  Khibinsk  Oasis  and  Desert 

Kizilkum,  30.  {N.V.)  Kizil  Kum  Desert,  Russian  Turkestan. 
(?)  1923.   Canis  lupus  cubanensis  Ognev,  Biol.  Mitt.  Timiriazeff,  /;  1 14.  Maikop  district, 

Kuban  region,  Southern  Russia  (Caucasus). 

Bobrinskii  lists  only  one  subspecies  of  C.  lupus  from  the  deserts  and  steppes  of 
Central  Asia  and  Kazakstan,  which  he  calls  C.  /.  desertorum,  but  it  would  seem  that 
campestris  Dwigubski  antedates. 

Canis  lupus  pallipes  Sykes,  1831 

1 83 1.  Canis  pallipes  Sykes,  P.Z.S.  loi.  Deccan,  India.  Range:  the  plains  of  Northern 

India  from  Bengal  to  Sind,  south  to  Dharwar,  also  Baluchistan,  and  thence 

westwards  to  Iraq  and  Northern  Arabia. 

Canis  lupus  hodophilax  Temminck,  1839 

1839.  Canis  hodophilax  Temminck,  Tijdschr.  Natuurl.  Geschied.  Physiol.  5.-  284  (see 

Harper,  1940.  J.  Mammal.  2j:  192).  Hondo,  Japan. 
1844.  Canis  hodopylax  (sic)  Temminck,  Fauna  Japon.  Mamm.  38,  pi.  9.  Nippon  or 

Hondo,  Japan. 
1885.  Canis  lupus  japonicus  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  BerHn,  141. 
Range:  Hondo,  Japan  (said  to  be  extinct,  Kuroda,  in  Harper  (1945)  ). 

Canis  lupus  chanco  Gray,  1863 

1863.  Canis  chanco  Gray,  P.Z.S.  94.  Chinese  Tartary. 

1847.  Lupus  laniger  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J.N. H.  j:  474.  Tibet.  Not  C.  laniger  H.  Smith, 

1874.  Canis  niger  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  655,  pi.  78.  Not  of  Kerr,  1792.  Hanle,  Kashmir. 
1883.  Canis  ekloni  Przewalski,  Third  Journey  to  Tibet,  216,  nom.  nud. 
1907.  Lupus  filchneri  Matschie,  in  Filchners  Exped.  to  China,  \Viss.  Ergebn.  10,  i: 

153.  Siningfu,  Kansu,  China. 
1907.  Lupus  karanorensis  Matschie,  loc.  cit.:  159.  Karanor,  in  the  Gobi. 
1907.  Lupus  tschiliensis  Matschie,  loc.  cit.:  160.  Coast  of  Chihli,  China. 
1923.  Canis  lupus  coreanus  Abe,  Dobuts.  Zasshi.  55.-  383.  Onpeimen,  near  Seoul,  in 

Keikido  Province,  Korea. 

Range:  Russian  Pamir,  Chinese  Turkestan,  Tianshan,  Tibet,  Mongolia,  Northern 
China  (including  Shensi). 

Canis  lupus  signatus  Cabrera,  1907 

1907.  Canis  lupus  signatus  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  j:  195.  Escoril, 
Madrid,  Spain. 

Canis  lupus  deitanus  Cabrera,  1907 

1907.  Canis  lupus  deitanus  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  7:  197.  Mora- 
talla,  Murcia,  Spain. 

P  219 

PALAEARC:TIC:  and   IXDIAX   mammals   1758-1946 

CIanis  Lupfs  iTALicus  AltobcUo,  1921 

iq2i.  Canii  lupus  italicus  Altobcllo,  Fauna  DcU'Abruzzo  del  Molisc,  Mammiferi,  ^; 
41.  Abruzzi,  Italy. 

CIanis  lupus  kurjar  Bolkay,  1925 

1925.  Cams  lupus  kurjak  Bolkay,  Nov.  Mus.  Saraje\'o,  Xo.  i,  9.  Teslie,  Bosnia, 

Cams  lupus  h.'^ttai  Kishida,  1931 

1931.   Canis   lupus  hatlai   Kishida,    Lansania,   jj,    25:    73.    'A'.I'.)    City  of  Sapporo, 

Hokkaido,  Japan. 
1935.  Canis  lupus  rex  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  659.  Yezo  (=  Hokkaido).  Extinct  in  Hokkaido, 

but  sun-ivint;  in  .Sakhalin  and  perhaps  in  the  Kuriles  (Harper,  1945). 

Canis  lupus  ar.^bs  Pocock,  1934 

1934.  Canis  lupus  arahs  Pocock,  Ann.  .Mag.  N.H.  i ^:  636.  Ain,  Southern  Arabia, 
1,500  ft. 

Canis  aureus   Linnaeus,  1758  Asiatic  Jackal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Balkan  States,  Rumania,  Greece;  Russian 
Turkestan  (Western  and  Southern  Turkmenia,  Tadzhikistan,  whole  course  of  Amu- 
Darya,  Samarkand  and  Bokhara  districts.  Middle  Syr-Darya),  Persia,  Iraq,  Asia 
Minor,  Afghanistan  'according  to  Bobrinskii),  Syria,  Palestine,  Arabia;  Baluchi- 
stan and  Sind,  south  through  Peninsular  India  to  Ceylon,  eastwards  to  Nepal, 
Assam,  Burma  and  Siam.  Egypt,  Libya,  westwards  to  Morocco,  Rio  de  Oro,  thence 
southwards  to  Senegal,  the  .Sudan,  Somaliland,  Abyssinia  and  Kenya. 

C.^Nis  aureus  aureus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Cams  aureus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  lOth  cd.  /.■  40.  Proxince  of  Lar,  Persia. 

1 84 1.   C  anis)  aureus  vulgaris  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  i^.-  383. 

(?)  1841.  Canis  dalmatinus  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  -'.■  383.  Dalmatia. 

1858.   Canis  aureus  typicus  or  var.  caucasica  Kolenati,  Reiseerinerungen,  /.'  96. 

(?)  1892.  Canis  aureus  balcanicusBrwim^i,  Glasnik  Hrvatskoga  Naravoslovnoga  Drustva, 
Zagreb,  /.■  317.  Drava  River,  C^roatia.  See  Pocock,  1938,  P.Z.S. ,  Ser.  B.  108: 
37,  39,  in  which  it  is  sugge^tcd  that  dalmatinus  and  balcanicus  are  possibly 
synonyms  of  C.  a.  anthus  Cuvier,  1820,  from  Senegal,  evidently  introduced 
into  Europe. 

1896.  Cams  hadramauticus  Noack,  Zool.  .-\nz.  if/:  356.  .\rabia.  Noack's  species  is  a 
composite  one  made  from  a  jackal  and  a  wolf;  the  jackal  was  chosen  as 
Icctotype  by  Matschie  (sec  Xlorrison-Scott,   1939,  Mov.  Zool.  41:  201). 

1916.  Canis  indicus  kola  Wroughton,  J.  Bomljay  N.H.  Soc.  2^:  651.  Palanpur, 
Gujerat,  Western  India. 

Range:  Iraq,  Persia,  Baluchistan,  Western  India  Clutch,  Sind,  Gujtrat),  Arabia, 


Canis  aureus  syriacus  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  1833 

1833.  Canis  syriacus  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm.  text  2,  sig.  z, 

pi.    16.    Coast   of  Lebanon,   between   Beirut   and   Tripoli.    Range:    Syria, 


Canis  aureus  lupaster  Hemprich  &.   Ehrenberg,  1833 

1833.   Canis  lupaster  Hemprich  cS:  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm.  2,  sig.  ff.  Fayum, 

1833.   Canis  sacer  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symp.  Phys.  Mamm.  2,  sig.  ff.  Fayum, 

Range:  Egypt,  Palestine  (part),  according  to  Bodenheimer,  and  Libya. 

Canis  aureus  indicus  Hodgson,  1833 

1833.  Canis  aureus  indicus  Hodgson,  Asiat.  Res.  18,  2:  237.  Nepal.  Range:  Nepal, 
Sikkim,  Bhutan,  Assam,  Burma,  Siam. 

Canis  aureus  moreoticus  L  Geoffroy,  1835 

1835.  Canis  aureus  var.  moreotica  Geoffroy,  Exped.  Sci.  de  Moree,  Zool.  pi.  i.  Morea, 

1 84 1.   Canis  ^raecus  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  383.  Peloponesus,  Greece. 
Range:  Greece,  Asia  Minor  and  Caucasus  (Pocock,  who  used  this  name  for  the 
European  jackals). 

Canis  aureus  algirensis  Wagner,  1841 

1839.  Sacalius  barharus  H.  Smith,  Nat.  Lib.  Jardine  Mamm.  25.-  218.  Tunis.  Not  of 

Shaw,  1800. 
1841.   Canis  aureus  algirensis  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  384.  Algeria. 
1841.   Canis  aureus  tripolitanus  \V'agner,  loc.  cit.  No  locality;  Tripoli,  Tunis  implied. 
(?)  1906.  Canis  lupaster  grayi  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Beobachter,  ^j:  367.  Morocco  and 

1906.  Canis  studeri  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Beobachter,  4J:  368.  Tunis. 

Canis  (?)  aureus  cruesemanni  Matschie,  1900 

1900.  Canis  cruesemanni  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,   145.  Menam,  Siam. 
Status  doubtful;  based  on  living  captive  specimens. 

Canis  aureus  soudanicus  Thomas,  1903 

1903.   Canis  aureus  soudanicus  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  /.•  295.  El  Obeid,  Kordofan,  .Sudan. 
(?)  1826.  Canis  variegatus  Cretzschmar,  in  Riipp.  Atlas  Reisc  nOrdl.  Afrika,  Saugeth.  31, 

pi.  10.  Not  Canis familiaris  variegatus  Gmelin,  1788.  Nubia  and  Upper  Egypt. 
1906.  Canis  doederleini  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Anz.  30:  1 16.  Upper  Egypt. 
1921.   Thos  aureus  nubianus  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  21:  264.  To- 

replace  variegatus  Cretzschmar,  preoccupied. 

Canis  aureus  naria  Wroughton,  19 16 

1916.  Canis  naria  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  651.  Virajpet,  Southern 
Coorg,  3,000  ft.,  India.  Range:  Southern  Peninsular  India. 


Canis  aureus  LANKA  Wroughton,  1916 

1916.   Canis  lanka  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  652.  Mankeni,  East  Pro- 
vince, Ceylon. 

Canis  aureus  maroccanus  Cabrera,  1921 

1921.   Thos  lupaster  maroccanus  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  :'/.•  263. 
Mogador,  Morocco. 

C.-^Nis  aureus  ecsedensis  Kretzoi,  1947 

1947.   Thos   aureus   ecsedensis   Kretzoi,    Ann.    Mus.    Nat.    Hung,    ^o:    287.    Tyukod, 

Szatniar,  Hungary.  Proposed  to  replace  huns,aricus. 
1938.   Canis  aureus  hungaricus  Ehik,  Ann.  Mus.  Nat.  Hung,  jj/  (Zool.) :  i  i.  Said  to  be 

preoccupied   by  Canis  fanuliaris  hungaricus  Margo,    1891,   the  reference  to 

which  has  not  been  traced. 
1897.   Canis  lupus  minor  Mojsisovico,  Das  Thicrleben  d.  Ost.  Ung.  Tielebenen,  244. 

Northern  Hungary.  Said  to  be  preoccupied  by  Canis  spelaeus  minor  Wagner, 

1 83 1,  the  reference  to  which  has  not  been  traced.  Not  of  Ogerien,  1863. 

Genus  ALOPEX  Kaup,  1829 

1829.  Alopex  Kaup,  Skizz.  Europ.  Thierw.  /;  83,  85.  Canis  lagopus  Linnaeus. 
1868.  Leucoevon  Gray,  P.Z.S.  521.  Canii  lagopus  Linnaeus. 

Bobrinskii,  1944,  Manimali  U.S.S.R.  146,  regards  Alopex  as  a  subgenus  of  Vulpes. 

I  species:      Alopex  lagopus,  page  222 

Alopex  lagopus  Linnaeus,  1 758  Arctic  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Norway,  Sweden,  Spitzbcrgcn,  Iceland, 
Arctic  regions  of  LI.S.S.R.,  from  European  Rtissia  to  Kamtchatka  and  the  Pacific, 
and  perhaps  south  to  Kurile  Islands;  also  in  Northern  North  America. 

Alopex  l.xgopus  lagopus  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.   Canis  lagopus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  40.  Lapland. 

1816.   Vulpes  arclica  Oken,  Lehrb.  d.  Naturgesch.  j,  2:  1033. 

1820.   Canii  vulpes  caerulea  Nilsson,  Skand.  Fauna,  /.■  88.  Lapland. 

1827.    [Canis  lagopus)  argcnteus  Billberg,  Synop.  Faunae  Scandinaviae,   14.  Lapland. 

1898.   Canis  lagopus  typicus  Barrett-Hamilton  &  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /;  287. 

Range:  apparently  the  mainland  range  of  the  species. 

.-Xlijpex  lagopus  fuliginosus  Bechstein,  1799 

1709.   Canis  fuliginosus  Bechstein,    Thomas   Pennants   allgem.    Uebersicht   d.   vierf. 
Thierc,  /.'  270.  Iceland.  A\ailablc  if  the  Iceland  race  proxies  distinguishable. 

Alopex  laoopus  spiTZBERCiENENsis  Barrett-Hamilt(in   &   Bonhote,  1898 
1898.   C.ani^  lagopus  spilzhergenensis  Barrctt-Hamiitnn  &  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i: 
2K7.  Spitzbcrgcn. 


Alopex  lagopus  beringensis  Merriam,  igo2 

igo2.   Vulpes  beringensis  Merriam,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  /j;  171.  Bering  Island, 

Bering  Sea,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1920.  Alopex  beringianus  Cherski,  Komandorskinesez,  Tokyo,  60  [M.V.) 

Genus  VULPES  Oken,  1816 

1775.   Vulpes  Frisch,  Natur-system  der  vierfuss.  Thiere,  15  (see  page  3). 

1816.    Vulpes  Oken,  Leiirb.  d.  Naturgesch,  j,  2:  1033,  1034.  Vulpes  vulgaris  Oken  = 

Canis  vulpes  Linnaeus  (see  page  3). 
1822.  Vulpes  Fleming,  Philosophy  of  Zool.  Edinburgh,  2:  184.  Canis  vulpes  Linnaeus. 
1839.  Cynalopex  H.  Smith,  Jardine's  Nat.  Library,  Mamm.  25.-   222.  Canis  corsac 


6  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Vulpes  bengalensis,  page  230         Vulpes  ferrilala,  page  231 
Vulpes  cana,  page  231  Vulpes  riippelli,  page  230 

Vulpes  corsac,  page  229  Vulpes  vulpes,  page  225 

In  an  attempt  to  correlate  the  work  of  Pocock,  1941,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  2:  1 10; 
Miller,  191 2,  Cat.  Mamm.  IV.  Europe;  Bobrinskii,  1944,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.;  and  G. 
Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  &  Mongolia,  and  to  add  notes  on  the  outlying  forms  of 
the  genus  from  Africa,  South-Western  Asia  and  Japan,  the  following  results  have 
been  obtained: 

1.  Back  of  the  ears  black  or  dark  brown,  contrasting  strongly  with  colour  of  head 

and  nape.  VULPES  VULPES 

(Forms   available   for  examination:   karagan,   crucigera,   aegyptiaca,   montana, 
atlantica,  flavescens,  pusilla,  griffithi,  japonica,  hoole,  beringiana,  arabica,  silacea, 
induta,  ichnusae,  anatolica,  palaestina.) 
Back  of  the  ears  generally  same  colour  as  the  head  and  neck,  never  strongly 

contrasted.  2 

2.  Tail  less  than  half  head  and  body  length;  ear  less  than  or  equal  to  half  the  length 

of  the  hindfoot  (according  to  the  published  measurements  of  Pocock,  G.  Allen 

and  Mivart).  3 

Tail  clearly  more  than  half  length  of  head  and  body  (normally).  Ear  clearly  more 
than  half  length  of  hindfoot.  4 

3.  Skull  much  larger;  bullae  appear  larger;  muzzle  long  and  narrow;  upper  canine 

elongated,  clearly  larger  than  combined  length  of  P  4  and  M  i  in  upper  jaw. 

Skull  considerably  smaller;  bullae  appear  smaller;  muzzle  not  specially  elongated 
nor  narrow;  upper  canine  scarcely  or  only  a  little  exceeding  combined  length  of 
P  4  and  M  I  in  upper  jaw.  VULPES  CORSAC 

(Not  well  represented  in  London:  three  skulls  only  and  a  few  unmeasured 



4.  Tail  tip  clearly  contrasted  white;  cr,  in  the  case  (one  specimen  availablcl    of" 
Ziiiiidim.  \sh('iie  tail  appears  whitish.  WIPES  RUPFELU 

(Forms  a\ailable  for  examination:   >ii/i/>flli,  caesia,  zo'i'dim,  iabaen,  somaliae 
(Thomas,  11)18,  from  Somaliland).) 
Tail  tip  normally  clearly  contrasted  black;  never  sharply  contrasted  white. 


5.  Larger  species;    head   and   body   length,   with   few   exceptions,   not   less   than 

460  mm.  'j 

Smaller  species;  head  and  body  length  in  the  majority  of  specimens  does  not 
exceed  420  nmi.  7 

6.  Ear  length  normally  85  mm.  and  more.  VULPES  CHAMA  (Smith,  1833) 

(Extralimital;  from  South  Africa.) 
Ear  length  84  mm.  and  less,  but  in  the  very  considerable  series  in  the  British 
Museum,  only  three  specimens  as  long  as  81  mm.    VULPES  BENGALENSIS 

7.  Fur  very  thi(  k;  darker  in  colour;  a  dark  middorsal  line  traceable  in  all  .skins; 

black  tailtip  weaker.  Ear  (of  one  skin)  88  mm.  VULPES  CANA 

Fur  thin  and  short;  colour  pale;  no  middorsal  line;  black  t.iiltip  normally  \-cry 
sharply  contrasted.  Ear  not  exceeding  75  mm.  in  British  Museum  skins. 
(Extralimital)  VULPES  PALLIDA  Clretzschmar,  1826 

(Forms  a\ailable   lor  examination:  pallida,   Sudan;   edwardsi,   Rochebrune, 
1833,  Senegambia;  and  /((7/7<77;  Thomas  &  Hinton,  1921,  Northern  Nigeria.) 

Measurements  in  the  above  key  for  V.  cana  and  V.  ferrilata  are  mainly  based  on 
those  given  by  Pocock  (1941).  There  is  very  little  data  on  exact  measurements  of 
['(///'(■)  (-01  sac.  which  is  the  second  name  in  the  genus.  Measurements  given  by  G. 
Allen,  and  Misart,  suggest  that  it  is  correctly  placed  in  the  above  key.  In  appear- 
ance, hf!ii;al(')i^!\  is  not  very  widely  separated  from  it.  It  is,  according  to  Boljrinskii,  a 
larger  animal  than  V.  cana.  This  author  notes  it  as  with  ears  and  tail  comparatively 
short.  Viil/:f^  liiiiliila  seems  in  some  ways  the  most  distinct  of  the  species.  Its  dental 
and  cranial  characters  given  in  the  key  contrast  with  all  other  Indian  species.  I',  vulpes 
is  at  extreme  development  the  largest  species.  V.  li/ppelli  has  large  ears,  80  mm.  at 
lowest,  and  up  to  wjo  mm.  in  British  Museum  material.  Normally  it  is  larger  than 
pallida,  but  the  Arabian  race  may  sometimes  be  an  exception.  It  occurs  in  the  same 
general  neighbourhood  ?i%  pallida,  and  compared  with  its  immediate  allies  its  white 
tailtip  seems  \ery  distinctive.  We  can  trace  no  fox  in  Central  Tropical  .Africa;  that  is 
to  say,  south  of  the  Senegal-Northern  Nigeria-Sudan-Somaliland  line;  north  of 
Angola  and  South-\\cst  Ai'rica.  (The  British  Museum  possesses  I'ulpa  skins  Inim 
Angola.)  ['.  cfiama  seems  geographically  isolated  in 'the  south.  In  Africa,  V.  vuljja  is 
strictly  Palaearctic.  The  form  dorsalis  listed  by  G.  Allen  from  Senegal  is  a  jackal, 
pr<ibabh'  Caiiis  aureus;  ly|)<'  skin  in  British  Museum. 

G.  Allen,   H|  ;i),  listed  the  Libyan  form  cvrenaica  as  a  race  of  I',  pallida,  but  from  the 
description  it  is  much  more  likely  that  it  represents  V  riippelli. 



Vulpes  vulpes  group 

Vulpes  vulpes  Linnaeus,  1758  Common  Red  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  essentially  throughout  the  Palaearctic  region; 
in  South-Eastern  Asia  south  of  it  into  Yunnan,  Fukien,  and  Northern  Indo-China; 
and,  according  to  Pocock,  also  much  of  North  America. 

(In  detail:  British  Isles,  Ireland  included;  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Denmark, 
Norway,  Sweden,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Spain,  Portugal,  Italy,  Sardinia,  Poland, 
Rumania,  Greece,  doubtless  other  European  countries;  the  whole  of  the  U.S.S.R. 
("but  it  apparently  does  not  penetrate  into  the  interior  of  the  tundra,  and  fails  to 
occur  in  the  extreme  north  of  Siberia  and  on  nearly  all  the  islands  of  the  Arctic 
Ocean  and  Bering  Sea,  only  appearing  on  Kolguev  Island  and  the  south  island  of 
Novaya  Zemlya;  occurs  in  Sakhalin"  (Bobrinskii)  ) ;  Arabia,  Persia,  Afghanistan, 
Cyprus,  Palestine,  Iraq,  Asia  Minor;  Western  Sinkiang  (Ognev),  Mongolia,  Japan, 
Manchuria,  Tibet,  and  the  states  of  Yunnan  and  Fukien  northwards  in  China; 
India,  from  Rajputana,  Sind,  Cutch  and  Khandesh,  northwards  to  Baluchistan, 
VVaziristan,  Punjab,  Kashmir,  Sikkim;  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China;  Egypt,  Algeria, 
Libya  and  Morocco.) 

Vulpes  vulpes  vulpes  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Canis  vulpes  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  40.  Sweden. 

1758.  Canis  alopex  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  40.  Sweden. 

1816.  Vulpes  vulgaris  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  3,  2:  1034. 

1820.  Canis  nigro-argenteus  Nilsson,  Skand.  Fauna,  /.•  91.  Lofoten  Islands,  Norway. 

1827.   Canis  vulpus  nigrocaudaius  Billberg,  Synop.  Faunae  Scandinaviae,  12.  Uppland, 

1827.  Canis  vulpus  variegatus  Billberg,  loc.  cit.  13.  Uppland,  Sweden. 
1827.   Canis  vulpus  lineatus  Billberg,  loc.  cit.  13.  Skane,  Sweden. 
1830.   Vulpes  communis  Burnett,  Quart.  J.  Sci.  Lit.  Art.  iSsg,  2:  349,  nom.  nud. 
Range:  Scandinavia. 

Vulpes  vulpes  karagan  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.  Canis  karagan  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  Mammalia,  566.  Kirghiz  Steppes, 

Russian  Asia. 
181 1.  Canis  mclanotus  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /.•  44. 
1 926.   Vulpes  vulpes  karagan  nutio  ferganensis  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Budapest,  2j:  222.  Osh, 

Fergana,  Russian  Turkestan. 
1926.   Vulpes  vulpes  karagan  natio  pamirensis  Ognev,  loc.  cit.  Pamir  Mountains. 
Range:  Kirghiz  and  Kazakstan  steppes,  to  Mongolia. 

Vulpes  vulpes  crucigera  Bechstein,  1789 

1789.   Canis  crucigera  Bechstein,   Gemeinn.  Nat.   Deutschlands,   /.•   250.   Thuringia, 

1792.  Canis  vulpes  alopex  europaeus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.   142.  Burgundy,  France. 
1797.  Canis  vulpes  alba  Borkhausen,   Deutsche  Fauna,    /.•   33.   Vogelsberg,   Hesse, 

Germany.  Not  of  Kerr,  1792. 
1 797.   Cams  vulpes  nigra  Borkhausen,  loc.  cit.  Hesse  and  Thuringia,  Germany. 




1801.   Canis  vulpes  lutea  Bechstcin,  Gemcinn.   Nat.   Deutschlands,   /,  2nd  ed. :  628. 

Thuringia,  Germany. 
1801.   Canis  vulpes  cincra  Bechstein,  he.  eit.  Thuringia,  Germany. 

1832.  Canis  melanogaster  Bonaparte,  Iconogr.  Fauna  Ital.  /.■  fasc.  i .  Near  Rome,  Italy. 
1 84 1 .  Vulpes  hrpomelas  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  405.  Oberbayern,  Germany. 
(?)  1855.   Vulpes  vulgaris  meridionalis  Fitzinger,  Wissensch.  pop.  Nat.  der  Saugeth.  i: 

U)4.  Dalmatia.  (Published  in   1860  according  to  Miric,  D.,  Z.  Saugetierk. 
i960,  2-,:  45). 
Range:  British  Isles,  France,  Germany,  .Switzerland,  Italy,  Sardinia,  Greece,  forested 
parts  of  Northern  and  Gentral  Russia. 

Vulpes  vulpes  barb.'^ra  Shaw,  1800 

1800.  Canis  harbarus  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  /,  Mamm.  pt.  2,  311.  Barbary,  i.e.  coast  of 

North-Western  Africa. 
1916.  Vulpes  vulpes  acaab  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.   Soc.   Esp.   H.N.   .Madrid,   16:   384. 

Marraquex,  Western  Morocco. 

Vulpes  vulpes  aegyptl\ca  Sonnini,  1816 

1 8 16.  Canis  aegyptiacus  Sonnini,  Nouv.  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  6:  524.  Egypt. 

1820.  Canis  niloticus  Desmarest,  Encyclop.  Method.  Mamm.  204.  E.gvpt. 

1833.  Cams  anubis  Hemprich   &   Ehrenberg,  Symp.   Phys.   Mamm.  dec.  2,  sig.  ff. 

Fayum,  Egypt. 
1833.   Canis  vulpeeula  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  loc.  eit.  Fayum,  Egypt. 
Range:  Egypt,  Libya  and  Palestine  (according  to  Bodenheimer). 

Vulpes  vulpes  Montana  Pearson,  1836 

1836.  Canis  vulpes  montana  Pearson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  5;  313.  (January,  1836.) 


1837.  Canis  himalaieus  Ogilby,  P.Z.S.   1836,   103.   (20  February   1837.)   Mussooree, 

Kumion,  North-Western  India. 
1837.   Vulpes  nepalensis  Gray,  Charlesw.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  578.  Nepal. 
1888.   Vulpes  alopex  Blanford,  Mamm.  British  India,  153.  Not  of  Linnaeus,  1758. 

1906.  Vulpes  waeidelli  Bonhote,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  14;  P.Z.S.  303.  Kambajong,  Tibet. 

1907.  Vulpes  ladaeensis  Matschie,  AN'iss  Ergebn.  Filchners  Exped.  China,  10,  i:   167. 

Range:  Sikkim,  Yunnan,  Tibet,  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Punjab,  to  Gilgit. 

Vulpes  vulpes  atlantica  Wagner,  1841 

1841.   Cams  vulpes  var.  atlantica  Wagner,  Reisen  in  d.  Regenschai't  Algier,  5.-  31,  62, 

pi.  3.  Atlas  Mounta,ins,  Mitiya,  Algeria. 
i8-j8.   Vulpes  algeriensis   Loche,    Cat.    Mamm.   et   Oiseaux   observes   en   Algerie,   4. 

Wooded  parts  of  Algeria. 

Vulpes  vulpes  flavescens  Gray,  1843 

1843.   Vulpes  flavescens  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•   118.  Northern  Persia. 

1902.    Vulpes  vulpes  splendens  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  489.  Astrabad,  Persia. 

1912.   Vulpes  vulpes  flavescens  var.  cuierascens  Birula,  .'\nn.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St. 

Petersb.  ly:  254.  Khorasan,  Persia. 
Range:  Persia,  and  Palestine  (according  to  Bodenheimer). 

2  2(j 


VuLPES  VULPES  pusiLLA  Blyth,  1854 

1854.  Vulpes  pusillus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  2j;  729.  Salt  Range,  Punjab. 
1854.   Vulpes  leucopus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  23:  729.  Multan,  Punjab. 
1875.   Vulpes  persicus  Blanford,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  16:  310.  Shiraz,  Persia. 
Range:  North-^Vestern  India,  from  Punjab  to  Rajputana,  Sind,  Cutch  and  Khan- 
desh;  Baluchistan,  Southern  Persia  and  Iraq. 

Vulpes  vulpes  griffithi  Blyth,  1854 

1854.   Vulpes  griffithi  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  23:  730.  Kandahar,  Afghanistan. 
1845.   Vulpes  flavescens  Hutton,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  14:  344,  not  of  Gray,  1843. 
Range:  Afghanistan,  Waziristan,  Murree  in  Northern  Punjab. 

Vulpes  vulpes  japonica  Gray,  1868 

1868.  Vulpes  japonica  Gray,  P.Z.S.  517.  Japan.  Range  includes  Hondo,  Shikoku  and 
Kiushiu,  Japan. 

Vulpes  vulpes  hoole  Swinhoe,  1870 

1870.   Vulpes  hoole  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  631.  Near  Amoy,  Fukien,  Southern  China. 

1870.   Vulpes  lineiventer  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  632.  Near  Amoy,  Fukien. 

1907.   Vulpes  aurantioluteus  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  China,  10,  i  : 

168.  Tatsienlu,  Szechuan,  China. 
1923.   Vulpes  ferrilatus  eckloni  ]a.cohi,  Abh.  u.  Ber.  Mus.  f.  Tier.  u.  Volkcrk,  Dresden, 

16:  6.  Bamutang,  three  days  south-west  from  Batang,  Szechuan,  China.  Not 

of  Przewalsky,  1884. 
Range:  Szechuan,  eastwards  to  Fukien  in  Southern  China. 

Vulpes  vulpes  beringiana  Middendorff,  1875 

1875.  Canis  vulpes  var.  beringiana  Middendorff,  Uber  Nat.  Nord.  Ost.  Sibir.  4,  2; 

990.  Shore  of  Bering  Straits,  North-Eastern  Siberia. 
1903.   Vulpes  anadyrensis  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  ig:  167.  Marcova,  Anadyr 

Province,  Eastern  Siberia. 
191 1.   Vulpes  kamtschadensis  Brass,  Aus  dem  Reich.  Pelze,  456. 
1922.   Vulpes  alopex  var.  kamtschatica  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow  Nauk.   Lwow,   /.•   350. 

Kamtchatka,  nom.  nud. 
Range:  North-Eastern  Siberia,  including  Kamtchatka  and  Anadyr  region. 

Vulpes  vulpes  arabica  Thomas,  1902 

1902.  Vulpes  vulpes  arabica  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   10:  489.   Muscat,  Arabia. 
Ranges  south  to  Aden,  north-west  to  Syria  (B.M.). 

Vulpes  vulpes  alpherakyi  Satunin,  1906 

1906.   Vulpes  alpherakyi  Satunin,  Isv.  Kauk.  Mus.  2  {igoj):  46.  Geok  Tepe,  Aralsk 
subdistrict  of  former  Govt,  of  Elisabetpol,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Vulpes  vulpes  kurdistanica  Satunin,  1906 

1906.  Vulpes  kurdistanica  Satunin,  Isv.  Kauk.  Mus.  2  (igoj):  48-53.  Gelsk  Valley, 

Kars  district.  Western  Transcaucasia  {probably  in  extreme  North-Eastern 

Asia  Minor). 



VuLPES  vuLPES  icHNUSAE  Miller,  1907 

1907.   Viilpfs  iclmusae  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  391.  Sarrabus,  Sardinia.  Range: 
Sardinia,  Corsica. 

W'LPES  vi-LPES  iNDUTA  Miller,  1907 

1907.  Vulpes  indiiliis  Miller,  .'Vnn.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  392.  Cape  Pyla,  Cyprus. 

W'LPE.s  VULPES  siLACEA  Miller,  1907 

1907.   I'lilpis  vulpes  silaccus  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  393.  Near  Silos,  Burgos,  Spain. 

Vulpes  vulpes  tschiliensis  Matschie,  1907 

1907.   Vulpes  tschiliensis  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Filchncr  Exped.  to  China,   70,   i: 

1(39.  Peiping,  Chihli,  North-Eastern  Clhina. 
(?)  1923.    Vulpes  huli  Sowerby,  Nat.  in  Manchuria,  2:  44.  Manchuria. 
Range:  Chihli,  Shansi,  Shensi,  Kansu  in  Northern  China,  Manchuria? 

\'ULPES  VULPES  stepensis  Brauner,  1914 

1914.    Vulpes  vulpes  stepensis  Brauner,  Sapiski  Novoros  ob  Estest.  //.•  15.  {K.V.)  Steppes 

near  town  of  Kherson,  Russia.  Range:  Black  Sea-Azov  steppes,  Southern 


A'uLPES  VULPES  krimeamontana  Brauucr,  1914 

1914.    Vulpes  vulpes  knmeamontana  Brauner,   Sapiski  Novoros  ob.   Estest.   //.■    15-36. 
(N.V.)  Mountains  of  Crimea,  Southern  Russia. 

Vulpes  vulpes  caucasica  Dinnik,  1914 

1914.   Vulpes  alopex  var.  caucasica  Dinnik,  Svcrikankasa,  2:  449.  (N.V.)  Near  town  of 
Vladikawkaz,  Caucasus. 

Vulpes  vulpes  an.\tolica  Thomas,  1920 

1920.   Vulpes  vulpes  aualolica  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  121.  Smyrna,  Western  Asia 

Vulpes  vulpes  palaestina  Thomas,  1920 

1920.   Vulpes  vulpes  palaestina  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  122.  Ramleh,  near  Jaffa, 
Palestine.  Range:  Palestine  and  Lebanon. 

Vulpes  vulpes  jakutensis  Ognev,  1923 

1923.  Vulpes  vulpes  jakutensis  Ognev,  Biol.   Mitt.  Timiriaz.eiT,   /;    116.  Taiga    south 

from  town  of  Yakutsk,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Vulpes  vulpes  diluta  Ognev,  1924 

1924.  Vulpes  vulpes  cruagera  diluta  Ognev,  Faun.  Voronez  Gub.   102-110.  Steppe  of 

Kamennaia,  Bobrov  subdistrict  of  Govt,  of  Voronej,  Russia.  A  valid  race, 
according  to  Bobrinskii,  from  the  forest-steppe  areas  of  European  Russia. 

Vulpes  vulpes  schrencki  Kishida,  1924 

1924.   Vulpes  vulpes  schrencki  Kishida,  Mon.  Jap.   Mamm.  47.  Sakhalin.  Range:  to 
Kurile  Islands  and  Hokkaido. 


VuLPES  VULPES  sPLENDiDissiMA  Kishida,  1924 

1924.   Vulpes  vulpes  splendidissima  Kishida,  Mon.  Jap.  Mamm.  47.  North  and  Central 
Kurile  Islands. 

Vulpes  vulpes  peculiosa  Kishida,  1924 

1924.  Vulpes  peculiosa  Kishida,  Chosen.  Hanto  san  no  Kitsuna,  4.  {N.V.)  Korea. 

Vulpes  vulpes  ochroxantha  Ognev,  1926 

1926.   Vulpes  vulpes  ochroxantha  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Budapest,  2^:  225.  Aksai,  Semi- 
rechyia,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 

Vulpes  vulpes  tobolica  Ognev,  1926 

1926.    Vulpes  vulpes  tobolica  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Budapest,  25.'  227.  Obdorsk,  Govt,  of 
Tobolsk,  Siberia.  Range :  lower  parts  of  basin  of  middle  and  lovver  Ob  River. 

Vulpes  (?)  vulpes  dolichocrania  Ognev,  1926 

1926.   Vulpes  dolichocrania  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Budapest,  2j.'  232.  Sidemi,  region  of 

Southern  Ussuri,  South-Eastern  Siberia.  Not  listed  as  a  valid  form  by 

Bobrinskii,  1944. 

Vulpes  vulpes  alticola  Ognev,  1926 

1926.   Vulpes  vulpes  alticola  Ognev,  Bull.  Sci.  Inst.  E.xplor.  Caucas.  /.■  52,  56.  Lake 
Gokcha,  Transcaucasia  (Armenia). 

Vulpes  vulpes  daurica  Ognev,  1931 

1931.   Vulpes  vulpes  daurica  Ognev,  Mamm.  East  Europe,  2:  331.  Kharangoi,  45  km. 

west  from  town  of  Troizkosavsk,  Siberia. 
(?)  1922.   Vulpes  alopex  var.  ussuriensis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.■  350, 

nom.  nud. 
Range:   Amur,  Transbaikalia. 

Incertae  sedis 

Vulpes  alopex  var.  sibiricus  Dybowski,  1922,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,   /.•  350,  nom. 

Vulpes  kiyomasaiK.i'ihxAa.  &  Mori,  1929,  Lansania,  /.•  82,  North-Eastern  Korea;  based 

on  a  live  specimen  in  Seoul  Zoo. 
Vulpes  fuliginosus  Gray,  1863,  Cat.  Hodgson  Coll.  B.NL  6.  No  locality. 

Vulpes  corsac  group 

Vulpes  corsac  Linnaeus,  1 768  Corsac  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  South-Eastern  Russia  (Kalmuik  steppes), 
Volgo-Ural  steppes,  Russian  Turkestan  and  Kirghizia,  to  Chinese  Turkestan  (Zun- 
garia,  Bobrinskii),  Mongolia,  Transbaikalia,  and,  according  to  Bobrinskii,  Northern 
Manchuria,  and  Northern  Afghanistan.  (Blanford  quoted  it  from  Persia.) 



V'uLPES  CORSAC  coRSAC  Linnaeus,  1768 

1768.   Cariis  corsac  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  12th  ed.  3:  appendix,  223.  Steppes  between 

the  Ural  and  Irtish  Rivers,  Russian  Asia. 
1884.   Canis  ecklom  Przcwalski,  Reis.  Tibet,  i  i  i.  Kukunor. 
11)12.   Vulpfs  corsac  nigra  Kastschenko,  Ann.  Mus.  St.  Petersb.  /y;  393.  Transbaikalia. 

Not  of  Borkhausen,  1 797. 
(?)  1944.   Viilpes    corsac    scorodumovi    "Dorogostajski,     1935",    Bobrinskii,    Mamm. 

U.S.S.R.  146  (footnote).  Transbaikalia.  We  are  unable  to  trace  an  earlier 

reference  to  this  form  than  that  of  Bobrinskii,  1944,  and  that  author  states 

the  form  is  "of  very  doubtful  reality". 
Range;  northern   parts  of  range  of  the  species,    Chkalov(=Orcnburg  Province), 
Northern  Kazakstan,  Cis-Altai  steppes,  Xlongolia,  Transbaikalia. 

W'LPES    CORSAC    KALMYKORUM    OgnCV,    1 935 

1035.   Vulpi's  corsac  kalmvkorum  Ognev,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  3:  634.  Kalmuck  Steppe, 
Astrakhan,    South-Eastern   Russia. 

\'rLPES    CORS.XC    TURKME.MCA    OgnCV,    1 935 

1935.    Vulpes  corsac  lurkmenicus  Ognev,   Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  3:  635.  Turkmen  Desert, 
Russian  Turkestan. 

Vulpes  bengalensis  Shaw,  1800  Bengal  Fox 

Approxunatc  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Peninsular  India,  Travancorc, 
northwards  to  Sind,  Bihar  and  Orissa,  Kangra  in  Punjab,  Haldibari  (just  south  of 
Sikkim),  and  Nepal. 

Vulpes  be.\gale.\sis  Shaw,  1800 

1800.   Cams  bengalensis  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  /,  2:  330.  Bengal. 

1 83 1.  Cams  kokree  Sykes,  P.Z.S.  loi.  Deccan,  India. 

1833.  Cams  '  Vulpes)  indicus  Hodgson,  Asiat.  Res.  18,  2:  237.  India.  Not  Canis  aureus 

indicus  Hodgson,  loc.  cit. 

1834.  Canis  (Vulpes)  rufescens  Gray,  Hardwicke's  111.  Ind.  Zool.  2,  pi.  3.  India. 
1837.  Canis  chrysurus  Gray,  Charlesw.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  577.  Nepal. 

1837.  Vulpes  hodgsonii  Gray,  Charlesw.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  578.  Nepal. 

1838.  Vulpes  xanthura  Gray,  P.Z.S.  183J:  68.  Nepal. 

Vulpes  riippelli  Schinz,  1825  Sand  Fox 

Appniximatc  distribution  of  species:  Sudan,  Somaliland,  Asbcn,  north  to  Southern 
Algeria,  Libva  and  Egypt;  Sinai,  Southern  Arabia;  Persian  Baluchistan  and 

Vulpes  ruppllli  ruppelli  Schinz,  1825 

1825.   Cann  ruppelli  (sic)  Schinz,  Cuviers  Thierreich,  ./.•  508.  Dongola,  Sudan. 

182(3.   Cams  fa/mlicus  Cretzschmar,  in  Ruppell,  Atlas  zu  d.  Reise  im  nordl.  Afrika, 

Saugclh.    15.    Nubian    Desert    and    Kordofan.    Ranges    north    to    Egypt 

(  Fliiwerj. 


VULPES    RUPPELLI    ZARUDNYI    Birula,   I912 

191 2.  Vulpes  [Megalotis)  famelicus  zarudnyi  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Sci.  St.  Petersb. 
ly:  270.  Kala-i-bid,  Prov.  Makran  (Sargad),  Persian  Baluchistan.  Ranges 
into  Afghanistan  (B.\L). 

Vulpes  ruppelli  caesia  Thomas  &  Hinton,  192 1 

1 92 1.   Vulpes  riippellii  caesia  Thomas  &  Hinton,  Nov.  Zool.  28:  5.  Southern  side  Mt. 

Baguezan,  Asben,  Western  Sahara.  Ranges  north  to  Ahaggar,  Southern 


Vulpes  rijppelli  cyrenaica  Festa,  1921 

1 92 1.  Vulpes  cyrenaica  Festa,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Univ.  Torino,  j^,  740:  3. 
Near  Benghazi,  Cyrenaica,  Libya. 

Vulpes  ruppelli  sabaea  Pocock,    1934 

1934.   Vulpes  ruppelli  sabaea  Pocock,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i^:  636.  Rub  al  Khali,  Arabia. 

Vulpes  pallida  group 

Vxilpes  cana  Blanford,  1877  Blanford's  Fox 

Approximate   distribution  of  species:    Kopet   Dag,   in   South-^Vestern   Russian 
Turkestan;  Afghanistan,  North-Eastern  Persia,  Baluchistan. 

Vulpes  cana  Blanford,  1877 

1877.   Vulpes  canus  Blanford,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  46,  2:  321.  Gwadar,  Baluchistan. 
1907.   Vulpes  cana  var.   nigricans   Shitkow,   Zool.  Anz.  52.'  448.  Bokhara,  Russian 

Vulpes  ferrilata  group 

Vulpes  ferrilata  Hodgson,  1842  Tibetan  Sand  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tibet  and  Nepal. 

Vulpes  ferrilata  Hodgson,  1842 

1842.   Vulpes  ferrilatus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //.•  278.  Near  Lhasa,  Tibet. 

Genus  FENNECUS  Desmarest,  1804 

1804.  Fennecus  Desmarest,  Diet.  d'Hist.  Nat.  24,  Tabl.  meth.  Mamm.  18.  Fennecus 

arabicus  Desmarest  =  Canis  zcda  Zimmermann. 
181 1.  Alegalotis  lUiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  et  Avium,  131.  Canis  cerda  Gmelin  = 

Canis  zerda  Zimmermann. 

I  species:  Fennecus  z^rda,  page  231 

Fennecus  zerda  Zimmermann,  1 780  Fennec  Fox 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Morocco,  Algeria,  Libya,  Egypt,  thence  to 
Sinai  and  Arabia,  south  to  the  Sudan  and  Asben. 


PAl.AKARCriK:  AND    IXUIAX   MAMMALS    1758-1946 

Ff.n'  zerda  Zimmcrmann,  1 780 

I  780.   Cams  zerda  Zimniermaiiii,  Geogr.  Ges.  2:  247.  Sahara,  and  other  parts  iii'Xnrth 

Africa  behind  the  Atlas. 
1777.    Vulpcs  minimus  saarcnsis  Skjoldebrand,  K.  S\cnska  \'et.  Akad.  Hand!.  Sti»-k- 

holm,  j<?.-  267.  "This  name  if  considered  vahd  would  supersede  Cams  .yrda, 

but  although  the  author  states  that  he  wishes  to  include  the  animal  in  the 

Liiinean   system,   he   gives   a   trinomial    name"    (Glover  Allen'i.   Algerian 

1788.   Canis  cerdo  Gmclin,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.•  73.  Sahara. 
179'^.    Viverra  aurila  Meyer,  Zool.  Entdeck.  in  Xeu  Holland  u.  Africa,  91.  Biskra, 

Beni  Mezzab  and  Weryleh,  Algeria. 
1804.  Femiecus  arabicus  Dcsmarest,  Diet.  H.X.  24.  Tabl.  mcth.  Manmi.  18.  "Barbary, 

Nubia,  Ab)ssinia." 
181  I.   Mt-nalotis  cerda  Illiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  131. 
1820.   Femiecus  bnicei  Desmarcst,  Encyclop.  Meth.  Mamm.  235.  Libya,  Tunis,  Algeria, 

1827.   Cams  frmieciis  Lesson,  .\Lmuel  .\Limm.  ib8. 
1842.    Vidpes  denhamii  Boitard,  Le  Jardin  des  Plantes,  213.  "L-itcrior  of  Africa." 

Genus  NYCTEREUTES  Temminck,  1839 

1839.  Avcleiriilcs  Temminck,  in  Wan  der  Hoevens  Tijdschr.  Nat.  Ges.  Phys.  j;  285. 
Mrctcieules  z-ivernmis  Temminck. 

I  species:  Nvcteri-ules  procvonoides,  page  232 

Nyctereutes  procyonoides  Gray,  1834  Raccoon-Dog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Amur  and  Ussuri  region  of  Eastern  Siberia; 
Japan,  Manchuria,  states  of  Shansi,  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  south-eastwards  to  Fukien 
and  district,  in  C'.hina;  Tonkin,  in  Northern  Indo-Ghina. 

Nyctereltes  PROCA'ONOiDEs  PROCYONOIDES  Gray,  1834 

1834.   Cams  procyonoides  Gray,  Illustr.  Ind.  Zool.  2:  pi.  i.  Vicinity  of  Canton,  Southern 

China" {see  G.  Allen,  1938,  .\Limm.  China  &  Mongolia,  /.•  346). 
1904.  Nvctereutes  sinensis  Brass,  Nutzbare  Tiere  Ostasiens,  22.  Yangtze  \'allcy,  China. 
1907.  S'vctereutei  stegmanni  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Filchners  Exped.  to  China,  10,  i  : 

175,  i8u.  ifising-an-fu,  Chinkiang,  Kiangsu,  Southern  East  China. 
Ranc^e:  Clhinese  range  of  the  species,  except  Yunnan.  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China. 

Nyctereutes  procyonoides  viverrinus  Temminck,  1844 

1844.  .Xrclereiites  viverrinus  Temminck,  Siebolds  Fauna  Japonica,  .\Limm.  40,  pi.  8. 

(?J  1904.  .\vctcrcules  albus  Beard,  Scientific  American,  c)i:  287.  "Based  on  a  white 

specimen  in  the  New  York  Zoological   Park,  said  to  be  from   Hokkaido, 

Japan."  But  listed  as  a  \alid  race  for  Hokkaido  by  Kuroda,  1938,  .\Limm. 

Range  includes  also  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiushiu. 



Nyctereutes  procyonoides  ussuriensis  Matschie,  1907 

1907.  Nyctereutes  ussuriensis  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Filchners  Exped.  to  China,  10, 

1 :  1 78.  Near  mouth  of  Ussuri  River,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1907.  Nyctereutes  amurensis  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  179.  Amur. 

Nyctereutes  procyonoides  koreensis  Mori,  1922 

1922.  Nyctereutes  koreensis  Mori,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  607.  Giseifu,  near  Seoul,  Korea. 

Nyctereutes  procyonoides  orestes  Thomas,  1923 

1923.  Nyctereutes  procronoides  orestes  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  657.  North-western 

flank  Likiang  Range,  Yunnan,  about  10,000-12,000  ft.,  China. 

Genus  CUON  Hodgson,  1838 

1838.  Cuon  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /;  152.  Canis  primaevus  Hodgson. 

1839.  Chrysaeus  H.  Smith,  Jardine's  Nat.  Libr.  Mamm.  25.-   167.  Canis  dukhunensis 

1888.  Cyan  Blanford,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.•  142.  (Emendation  of  Cuon.) 
1888.  Anurocyon  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  2:  102.  Anurocyon  clamitans  Heude  = 

Canis  lepturus  Heude. 

Pocock  recognized  only  one  species  in  this  genus,  for  which  the  earliest  name  is 
C.  alpinus  Pallas,  181 1. 

I  species:  Cuon  alpinus,  page  233 

Cuon  alpinus  Pallas,  181 1  Dhole,  Red  Dog,  or  Indian  Wild  Dog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan  (Eastern  Pamirs, 
Tianshan  and  Tarbagatai  Mountains),  Russian  Altai,  .Southern  Cisbaikal  and 
Southern  Transbaikal,  Amur  and  Ussuri  regions  of  Eastern  Siberia;  Chinese 
Turkestan,  part,  according  to  Ognev,  probably  Southern  Tibet,  Korea,  Sakhalin; 
states  of  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Fukien,  in  China;  Peninsula  of  India,  from  Coorg  and 
Nilgiri  Hills  northwards  to  Kashmir,  thence  to  Nepal,  Burma,  Tenasserim;  Indo- 
China,  Malay  States,  Sumatra  and  Java. 

Cuon  alpinus  alpinus  Pallas,  181 1 

181 1.  Canis  alpinus  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /.•  34.  Near  Udskoi  Ostrog,  Amurland. 
Range  includes  Manchuria  and  Sakhalin. 

Cuon  alpinus  dukhunensis  Sykes,  1831 

1 83 1.  Canis  dukhunensis  Sykes,  P.Z.S.  100.  Deccan,  Peninsular  India.  Range:  India, 
south  of  the  Ganges. 

Cuon  alpinus  primaevus  Hodgson,  1833 

1833.  Canis  primaevus  Hodgson,  Asiat.  Res.  18,  2:  221.  Nepal. 

1863.  Cuon  grayiformis  Hodgson,  in  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgsons  Coll.  B.M.  2nd  ed.  5. 

Range:  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Bhutan. 

Note:  Osgood  (1932),  On  Indo-Chinese  Mammals,  Field  Mus.  N.H.^ool.  18:  193, 



et  seq.,  uses  for  the  Wild  Dogs  of  Indo-China  the  name  Cuon  rutilans  Muller,  1839, 
Temm.  Verh.  nat.  ges.  J\^ed.  oveiz-  bezitt.  -Zool.  27,  51,  which  according  to  Chasen,  1940, 
Handlist  Malaysian  Mamm.,  is  a  synonym  of  Cuon  alpinusjavanicus  Desmarest,  1820,  and 
came  from  Java.  These  Indo-Chinese  \Vild  Dogs  are  now  referred  to  C.  a.  aduslus 
Pocock  (below). 

Cuon  .•vlpinus  lepturus  Heude,  1892 

1892.  Cuon  lepturus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  2.  2  (footnote),   102.  Poyang 

Lake,  south  of  the  Yangtze,  Kiangsi,  Clhina. 
1892.  Amirocxon  clamitarn  Heude,  loc.  cit.  Taihu,  near  mouth  of  the  Yangtze,  Clhina. 

Cuox  .NLPiNUS  HESPF.Rius  Afauasiev  &  Zolotarev,  1935 

1935.  Cyan  alpinus  hespenus  Afanasiev  &  Zolotarev,  Bull.  Acad.  Sci.  U.S.S.R.  7:  427. 

Aksai  district  of  Semiryechensk  region,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 
(?)  1936.   Cuon  javanicus  jason  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  51.  Altai  Mountains. 

Cuon  alpinus  infuscus  Pocock,  1936 

1936.  Cuon  javanicus  infuscus  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  38,  fig.  la.  Moulmein,  Tena.sserim. 

Cuon  alpinus  fumosus  Pocock,  1936 

1936.   Cuon  javanicus  fumosus  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  49.  Western  Szechuan,  China. 

Cuon  alpinus  laniger  Pocock,  1936 

1936.   Cuon  javanicus  lanigcr  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  50.  Kashmir.  Probably  ranges  to  Lhasa, 
Southern  Tibet. 

Cuon  alpinus  adustus  Pocock,  1941 

1 941.   Cuon  alpinus  adustus  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  -.•  156.  Upper  Burma.  Range: 
Upper  Burma,  Indo-China. 

Genus  LYCAON  Brookes,  1827 

1827.  Lycaon  Brookes,  in  Griffith  Ckiv.  Anim.  Kingd.  5.-  151.  Lycaon  tricolor  Brookes  = 

Hyaena  picta  Temminck. 
1829.   Cyn'hyaena  F.  Cuvier,  Diet,  des  Sci.  Nat.  59;  454.  Hyaena  picta  Temminck. 
1842.  Hycnoidcs  Boitard,  Le  Jardin  des  Plantcs,  215.  Hyaena  picta  Temminck. 

I  species:  Lycaon  pictus,  page  234 

Lycaon  pictus  Temminck,  1820  African  Hunting  Dog 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Africa,  from  South-West  Africa  and  Kruger 
National  Park  (Transvaal),  northwards  to  Somaliland  and  the  Sudan,  Lake  Chad 
district,  Dahomey,  and  (apparently)  Southern  Algeria. 

(Lycaon  pictus  pictus  Temminck,  1820.  Extralimital) 

1820.  Hyaena  picta  Temminck,  Ann.  Gen.  Sci.  Phys.  j:  54,  pi.  35.  Coast  of  Mozam- 



Lycaon  pictus  sharicus  Thomas  &  Wroughton,  1907 

1907.  Lycaon  pictus  sharicus  Thomas  &  Wroughton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ig:  375.  Mani, 

Lower  Shari  River,  east  of  Lake  Chad  (French  Congo). 
1 915.  Lycaon  ebermaieri  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  369.  Lake  Chad  region. 

G.  Allen,   1939,  Checklist  African  Mammals,   191,  quotes  the  race  L.  p. 

sharicus  from  Tanezrouft,  Algeria. 


Genera:  Helarctos,  page  241 
Alelursus,  page  241 
Selenarctos,  page  239 
Thalarctos,  page  240 
Ursus,  page  235 

See  particularly  Pocock,  1932,  The  Black  and  Brown  Bears  of  Europe  and  Asia, 
J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  35,  i :  771 ;  and  J.  Bombay  KH.  Soc.  36,2:  loi .  In  this  paper,  a 
key  to  all  genera  listed  above,  except  Thalarctos,  will  be  found.  Miller  (1912,  285) 
gives  the  generic  characters  oi  Thalarctos.  Simpson  (1945,  225)  follows  Pocock  in  his 
classification  of  the  bears,  and  we  entirely  agree  with  his  remarks  on  the  species  and 
genera.  It  must  be  admitted,  however,  that  Selenarctos  might  be  considered  a  sub- 
genus oi  Ursus,  and  it  may  be  noted  that  Bobrinskii  (1944)  refers  all  Russian  bears, 
including  Thalarctos,  to  the  genus  Ursus,  in  which  fp.  136)  he  lists  three  subgenera. 
Pocock  (1941,  169)  gives  a  short  note  on  Thalarctos  compared  with  the  four  British- 
Indian  genera,  and  comparison  of  Miller's  figures  of  skulls  of  Thalarctos  and  Ursus 
with  Pocock's  figures  of  the  skulls  of  the  other  three  genera  enables  Thalarctos  to  be 
quite  easily  distinguished  by  skull  alone,  apart  from  its  somewhat  unique  external 
appearance.  Each  of  the  genera  listed  here  contains  one  species  only  in  the  present 

Genus  URSUS  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.   Ursus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  47.  Ursus  arctos  Linnaeus. 

1864.  Euarctos  Gray,  P.Z.S.  692.  Ursus  americanus  Pallas.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

1864.   .Myrmarclos    Gray,    P.Z.S.    694.    Myrmarctos    eversmanni    Gray  =  Ursus    arctos 

1898.  Ursarctos  Heude,  Mem.  H.  N.  Emp.  Chin.  4,  i :  17  (yesoensis). 
1898.  Melanarctos  Heude,  Mem.  H.X.  Emp.  Chin.  4,    i:   18.  Melanarctos  cavifrons 

Heude  =  Ursus  lasiotus  Gray. 
1923.   Mylarctos  Lonnberg,  P.Z.S.  91.  Ursus  pruinosus  Blyth. 

I  species  in  Eurasia : 

Ursus  arctos,  page  236 

Q  235 


Ursus  arctos   Linnaeus,  1758  Brown  Bear 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sweden,  Norway,  Finland,  Estonia,  Poland, 
Ci-echoslovakia,  Austria,  Yugoslavia,  Albania,  Rumania,  Bulgaria,  Greece,  Italy 
(Abruzzi  and  Trentino),  France  (Pyrenees  and,  doubtfully,  in  Forest  of  Vcrcors, 
(Drome),  Spain  (Pyrenees  and  Asturias).  Most  of  the  U.S.S.R.;  according  to  Bobrin- 
skii,  "whole  of  the  forest  zone,  whence  it  penetrates  in  the  summer  far  into  the 
lundra,  Karaginskii  Island  in  Bering  Sea,  the  Shantar  Islands,  Sakhalin.  Mountains 
ol' Central  Asia,  all  the  mountainous  parts  of  the  Caucasus;  does  not  occur  in  Crimea". 
Mongolia,  Manchuria,  Japan;  Tibet,  Kansu,  probably  Szechuan.  Syria  (extinct  in 
Palestine),  Persia,  Asia  Minor.  Kashmir,  Punjab.  Also  in  North  America. 

Ursus  arctos  arctos  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Ursus  arctos  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  47.  Sweden. 

1772.   Ursus  ursus  Boddaert,  Kortbegrip  van  het  zamcnstel  der  Nat.  /.•  46.   (jV.F.) 

Renaming  of  arctos. 
1788.   Ursus  arctos  niger  Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.■  100.  Northern  Europe. 
1788.   Ursus  arctos  fuscus  Gmelin,  loc.  cil.  Alps. 
1 788.   Ursus  arctos  albus  Gmelin,  loc.  cil.  Locality  unknown. 
1792.   Ursus  arctos  griseus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  184.  Germany. 

1797.  Ursus  arctos  rufus  Borkhausen,  Deutsche  Fauna,  /.■  46.  Swiss  and  Tirolean  Alps. 

1798.  Ursus  hadius  .Schrank,  Fauna  Boica,  /.•  55.  Forests  on  Bohemian  boundary. 

1 808.  Ursus  fuscus  Tiedemann,  Zool.  /.•  374.  Substitute  for  arctos ;  not  of  Gmelin,  1 788. 

1814.  Ursus  alpinus  Fischer,  Zoognosia,  ^.-  161.  .''Alps. 

1820.  Ursus  arctos  major  Nilsson,  Skand.  Fauna,  /;  112.  Southern  Scandinavia. 

1820.  Ursus  arctos  minor  Nilsson,  loc.  cit.  123.  Northernmost  Scandinavia. 

1827.  Ursus   arctos   brumieus   Billberg,    Synop.    Faunae   Scandinaviae,    15.    Northern 


1827.  Ursus  arctos  annulatus  Billberg,  loc.  cit.  15.  Northern  Scandina\ia. 

1827.  Ursus  arctos  argenteus  Billberg,  loc.  cit.  15.  NVirthern  Scandinavia. 

1827.  Ursus  arctos  mvnncphagus  Billberg,  loc.  cit.  iG.  Northern  Scandinavia. 

1828.  Ursus  formicarius  Billberg,   Syncips.   Faun.   Scand.   2nd  ed.    16.   Renaming  of 


1829.  Ursus  pvrenaicus  Fischer,  Synops.  Mamm.  142.  Asturias,  Spain. 
1829.   Ursus  norvegicus  Fischer,  loc.  cit.  Norway. 

(?)  1836.  Ursus  falciger  Reichenbach,  Regn.  Anim.  Icon.  /.■  32.  Pyrenees.  (N.V.) 
("afterwards  supposed  to  be  an  individual  of'U.fero.x'  See  Naturgesch.  des 
In-und  Auslands,  Raubsaugeth.  p.  299,  1852"  as  quoted  by  Miller,  191 2  Cat. 
Mamm.  W.  Europe,  286.  (U.fcro.x  =  U.  horrihilis  Ord,  from  North  America.) 

1840.  Ursus  cadaverimts  Evcrsmann,  Bull.  Soc.  Imp.  Nat.  Moscow,  11.  Renaming  of 
U.  arctos. 

1840.   Ursus  Iniigiroitrii  E\ersmann,  Inc.  cil.  Renaming  nf  formicarius. 

(?)  1847.  Ursus  euryrhimis  Nilsson,  Skand.  Fauna,  2nd  ed.  /.■  212.  ?  Sweden.  (Type  an 
individual  raised  in  captivity.) 

l8-,5.  Ur\in  arctos  aureus  Fitzinger,  W'iss.  pop.  Nat.  der  Saugcth.  /.■  372.  Eastern 

1864.   Ursus  arctos  var.  (i  1  normalis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  682.  (Renaming  c^i arctos.) 

1864.   Ursus  arctos  sub-var.  (a)  scandinaricus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  682. 

i!i()4.    Ursus  arctos  sub-var.  (c)  rossicus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  682,  iiom.  mid. 



1864.  Ursus  arclos  sub-var.  (f)  polonicus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  682.  Poland. 

1864.   Ursus  arctos  var.   (2)  grandis  Gray,   P.Z.S.  684.   "North  of  Europe,"  a  male 

purchased  at  Hull,  living  in  the  Zoological  Gardens  from  1852  to  1863. 
1864.   Ursus  arclos  var.   (4)  stenorostris  Gray,  P.Z.S.  685.  Poland,  based  on  Cuvier, 

1823,  Oss.  Fossiles,  4:  332,  2nd  var. 
1864.   Myrinarctos  eversmanni  Gray,  P.Z.S.  695.  Norway. 
(?)  1905.  Ursus  formicarius  (Eversmann)  Bieler,  C.R.  Sixieme  Congres  Internal,  de 

Zool.  Berne,  248.  Switzerland. 
(?)  1 92 1.   Ursus  arctos  marsicanus  Altobello,  Fauna  Abruzzo  e  Molise,   .Mamm.   15. 

Abruzzo,  Italy. 
Range:  European  range  of  the  species,  eastwards  as  far  as  the  Stanovoi  Range, 

Ursus  .\rctos  collaris  Cuvier  &  Geoffrey,  1824 

1824.   Ursus  collaris  Cu\ier  &  Geoffroy,  H.N.  Mamm.  pt.  42,  pi.  212.  Siberia. 

1864.   Ursus  arctos  var.  sibiricus  Gray,  P.Z..S.  682.  Siberia. 

1924.  Ursus  arctos  jeniseensis  Ognev,  Nature  &  Sport  in  Ukraine,  /,  2:  iio.  River 
Ungut,  taiga  in  mountains  in  surroundings  of  Krasnoiarsk,  Ycnessei  Pro- 
vince, Siberia. 

This  name  is  not  used  by  the  Russian  authors  Ognev  and  Bobrinskii,  but  the  name 
appears  to  be  the  second  valid  name  in  the  Palaearctic  for  the  species,  and  is  retained 
by  Pocock,  1932,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  55,  4:  793. 

Ursus  arctos  isabellinus  Horsfield,  1826  Red  Bear 

1826.  Ursus  isabellinus  Horsfield,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  Zool.   /j.-  334.  Mountains  of 

1873.  Ursus  leuconyx  Severtzov,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Mosc.  8:  79.  Upper  part 

of  valley  of  River  Naryn,  Tianshan  Mountains. 

1 924.  Ursus pamirensis  Ognev,  Nature  &  Sport  in  Ukraine,  7,2:  1 1 1 .  Pamir  Mountains. 
Range:  Tianshan,  Pamirs,  Afghanistan?  W'aziristan,  Kashmir,  Punjab.  Bobrinskii 

(1944)  lists  leuconyx  as  a  valid  form,  but  Pocock  (1932,  1941)  states  it  is  the  same  as 
isabellinus,  which  has  priority. 

Ursus  arctos  svriacus  Hemprich   &   Ehrenberg,  1828 

1828.   Ursus  svriacus  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  /.•  sig.  a,  pi.  i.  Near  \illagc 

of  Bischerre,  Mt.  Makmel,  Lebanon. 
191 7.  Ursus  schmitzi  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  33.  Mt.  Hermon,  Palestine. 

In  addition,  Pocock  appears  to  treat  the  following  names  as  synonyms: 
1 85 1.   Ursus  arctos  var.  meridionalis  Middendorff,  \'erh.  Russ.   Kais.   Min.  Ges.  80. 

1913.   Ursus  arctos  lasistanicus  Satunin,  Tr.  Obshch.  Chernomorsk  poberezh'ya,  2:  27. 

Black  Sea  coast. 
1919.   Ursus  arctos  var.   caucasicus  Smirno\-,    Bull.    .\Ius.   Cauc.    12:    iij.   Pasanaur, 

southern  slope  of  Central  Caucasus  mountains. 
1919.   Ursus  arctos  arctos  natio  dinniki  Smirnov,  Bull.  Mus.  Cauc.  12:   122.  Chatakh 

Borchalinsk  subdistrict  of  Govt,  of  Tiflis,  Caucasus. 

1925.  Ursus  arctos  smirnovi  Lonnberg,  Fauna  och  Flora,   /.•  28.  Northern  slopes  of 

main  chain  of  Caucasus. 



Ursus  arctos  syr[aclis  [contd.] 

1925.   Ursus  arctos  persicus  Lonnberg,  Fauna  och  Flora,  /;  28.  Mazanderan,  Northern 

Range;  Syria,  Asia  Minor,  Persia  and  the  Caucasus.  It  should  be  noted  that  Bobrin- 

skii   lists   two   races  of  this  species  from  the   Caucasus,  syriacus   (South-Western 

Transcaucasia!  and  caucasicus  (other  parts  of  the  Caucasus). 

Ursus  .•\rctos  beringi.^nus  Middendorff,  1853 

1853.  Ursus  arctos  var.  beringiana  Middendorff,  Sibir.  Reise,  ;■,  2 :  4,  pi.  i,  figs.  1-6. 

Great  Shantar  Island,  Sea  of  Okhotsk. 
1855.   Ursus  piscator  Pjjcheran,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.   y:  392.  Petropaulovski,  Southern 

(?)  i8q8.   Ursus  mandchuncus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Nat.Emp.  Chin.  4:  23-24,  pi.  7, 

figs.   i-K.  Near  Vladivostock.  Bobrinskii  thinks  that  this  should  probably 

stand  as  a  valid  race,  but  Pocock  synonymized  it. 
1924.  Ursus  arctos  kolvmensis  Ognev,  Nature  &  Sport  in  Ukraine,  /,  2  :  112.  Saborzevo, 

River  Kolyma,  north-west  of  Sea  of  Okhotsk. 
Range :  Siberia,  east  of  Stanovoi  Range,  particularly  in  Kamtchatka,  Ussuri  and 

Ursus  arctos  pruixosus  Blyth,  1854  Blue  Bear 

1854.  Ursus  pruinosus  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  22:  589.  Lhasa,  Tibet. 

1883.   Ursus  lagornviarius  Przewaiski,  Third   Journ.  in  Cent.  Asia,   216.   Kuku-Shili 

Range,  35°  N.,  92'  E.,  Tibet. 
Range:  Tibet,  Kansu. 

Ursus  arctos  lasiotus  Gray,  1867 

1867.  Ursus  lasiotus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  301.  Interior  of  Northern  China. 

1844.   Ursus  fcrox  Tcmmmck,  Fauna  Japonica,  29,  not  of  Rafinesque,  1817. 

1897.  Ursus  arctus yesoensis  Lydekker,  P.Z.S.  422.  Yeso  (=  Hokkaido),  Japan. 

1898.  Ursus  melanarctos  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  4:  17.  Yeso  (=  Hokkaido), 

1901.  Melanarctos  cavifrons   Heude,   Mem.   H.N.   Emp.   Chin.  5,    i:    i.   Tci-tci-tar 

(Tsitsihar),  North-\Vestern  Manchuria. 
(?)  1924.   Ursus  arctos  baikalcnsis  Ognev,   Nature   &   Sport   in   Ukraine,    /,   2:    112. 

Province  of  Irkutsk,  near  Lake  Baikal,  Eastern  .Siberia. 
Range:  Mongolia,  Manchuria,  Hokkaido  and  Kurilc  Islands,  Korea. 
The  following  races  may  be  of  doubtful  status : 

Ursus  arctos  crowt/ieri  Schinz,  1844,  Synops.  Mammalium,  /.■  302  (based  upon 
the  "Bear  of  Mount  .\tlas"  of  Blyth,  1841,  P.Z.S.  65.  "Foot  of  the  Tetuan 
mountains,  about  twcnty-fi\c  miles  from  that  of  the  Atlas."  Doubts  have 
been  thrown  on  the  existence  of  this  bear,  but  though  it  is  now  e.xtinct  it 
almost  certainly  did  exist  in  1844  (see  Harper,  1945,  Extinct  and  Vanishing 
Mammals  of  the  Old  World,  230)  ). 
Ursui  arctos  shanorum  Thomas,  1906,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  17.  Said  to  be  from  the  Shan 
.States,  LIppcr  Burma,  where  the  species  probably  does  not  occur.  .See 
Pocock  '  1 94 1,  18-)). 
f  V.H/s  (if(tn\  finsnu-riiis  Bolkay,  1 925,  Nov.  Mus.  .Saraje\'o,  /.•  8.  Bosnia,  Yugoslavia. 



Genus  SELENARCTOS  Heude,  1901 

1 90 1.  Selenarctos  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin,  j.-  2.  Ursus  thibetanus  Cuvier. 
1917.  Arcticonus  Pocock,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  129.  Ursus  thibetanus  Cuvier. 
1938.  Euarctos  G.  Allen,  Mamm.  China  &  Mongolia,  /.•  330  (in  part);  not  Euarctos 
Gray,  1864. 
I  species:  Selenarctos  thibetanus,  page  239 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  G.  Cuvier,  1823  Asiatic  Black  Bear 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Amur  and  Ussuri  regions  of  far  east  of 
Siberia;  Japan,  Manchuria,  Formosa;  most  of  China,  westwards  to  Kansu  and 
Szechuan,  south  to  Fukien  and  Hainan;  Indo-China,  Siam;  from  Burma  and  Assam 
westwards  to  Nepal,  Kashmir  and  Baluchistan;  Afghanistan  (Bobrinskii) . 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  thibetanus  G.  Cuvier,  1823 
1823.  Ursus  thibetanus  G.  Cuvier,  Ossements  Foss.  4:  325.  Sylhet,  Assam. 
1841.   Ursus  torquatus  Wagner,   in   Schreb.   Saugeth.   Suppl.   2:    144.   Renaming  of 

1876.  Ursus  sp.  (?  Melursus  labiatus)  Blanford,  E.  Persia,  47.  Not  of  Blainville,  181 7. 
Range:  from  Nepal  eastwards  through  Assam,  Burma,  and  Siam  to  Annam. 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  japonicus  Schlegel,  1857 

1857.  Ursus  japonicus  Schlegel,  Handl.  Dierkunde,  /.•  42.  (Assumed  to  be)  Japan. 

1897.  Ursus  rexi  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  72.  Japan. 

Range:  Hondo,  Kiushu,  PShikoku. 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  formosanus  Swinhoe,  1864 

1864.  Ursus  formosanus  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  380.  Formosa. 

(?)  1922.  Selenarctos  melli  Matschie,  Arch.  Nat.  88,  10:  34.  Hainan. 

Pocock  thought  this  was  either  a  synonym  oi  formosanus  or  the  typical  race.  G. 
Allen  (1938)  listed  it  as  a  valid  race  from  Fukien  and  Hainan. 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  gedrosianus  Blanford,  1877 

1877.  Ursus  gedrosianus  Blanford,  Proc.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  204.  Tump,  70  miles  north 

of  Gwadar,  on  the  Mekran  coast,  Baluchistan. 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  ussuricus  Heude,  1901 

1901.  Selenarctos  ussuricus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  5,   i :  2,  pi.  ii,  fig.   10. 

Ussuri  region,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1928.  Selenarctos  thibetanus  wulsini  Howell,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,   41:    115. 

Eastern  Tombs,  Chihli,  North-Eastern  China. 
Range:  Northern  China,  Manchuria,  Amurland  and  Ussuri,  Korea. 

Selenarctos  thibetanus  mupinensis  Heude,  1901 

1901.   Selenarctos  mupinensis  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  5,  i  :  2,  pi.  ii,  figs,  i,  2,  9. 

Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 
1901.  Selenarctos  leuconyx  Heude,  loc.  cit.,  figs.  3,  4,  8.  Taipei  Shan,  South- Western 

Shensi,  China. 




loot),   i'rsiis  tonjuatits  macthiUi  Lydekker,  P.Z.S.  609.  Tatsienlu,  Szechuan,  China. 
11^-20.  Visits  clarki  Sowerby,  J.   Mamm.  /.■  226.  New  name  for  leuconyx  Hcude.  A 

svnonvm  oi'/hihf tenuis  according;  to  G.  Allen  1  1 938) ,  but  a  valid  race  according 

to  Pocock. 
Rancjc  includes  Shcnsi,  .Szxchuan  and  Hupch,  China. 

Sele.\.a,rctos'us  lamger  Pocock,  1932 

1932.   Selenarctos  thihetanus  laniger  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  :::G:  i  15.  Aru,  Upper 

Lidder  Valley,  Kashmir. 
I?)  1864.   Ursus  torqualiis  var.  arhoreus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  688.  Darjeeling. 
Range:   Kashihir  and  Punjab. 

Genus  THALARCTOS  Gray,  1825 

1825.    Thalanios  Gray,  Ann.  Philosophy,  X.S.   10:  62,  July   1825.   Thalarctos  polaris 

Gray  =  Ursus  maritimiis  Phipps. 
1825.   Thalassarctos  Gray,  Ann.  Philosophy,  N.S.  10:  339.  November  1825. 
1896.   Thalassiarchus  Kobelt,  Bericht  Senckenbcrg.  naturf.  Ges.  Frankfurt  am  Main, 

93.  (Substitute  for  Thalarclos.) 

I  species :    Thalarctos  maritimiis,  page  240 

Thalarctos  maritimus   Phipps,  1774  Polar  Bear 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Arctic  regions  of  Europe,  Asia  and  North 
America.  "South  on  floating  ice  occasionally  to  the  northern  coast  of  Norway" 
(Miller).  In  U.S.S.R.,  "only  occurs  by  chance  on  European  coasts.  Does  not  penetrate 
far  on  to  the  mainland.  Numerous  on  sea  coasts  of  the  Kara,  Laptev,  Eastern  Siberian 
Seas  and  Clhukotskaya  Seas,  and  on  Dixon  Island,  the  Novosibirskie  Islands,  Med- 
\czhie  Islands  and  Wrangel  Island.  It  is  rare  on  the  west  coast  of  the  south  island  of 
Novaya  Zemlya,  and  common  on  the  northern  island  and  in  Spitzbergen.  On 
\'aigach  and  Kolguev  Islands  it  is  very  rare  and  occurs  only  in  winter.  Cases  are 
known  of  its  having  been  carried  on  icefloes  in  the  winter  to  the  Murman  coast  and 
Kanin  Peninsula.  In  Bering  Sea  it  is  already  rare  and  on  the  Anadyr  coast  only 
occurs  in  exceptional  cases.  It  is  not  known  to  occur  in  Kamtchatka,  but  has  several 
times  been  carried  on  icefloes  to  Sakhalin  and  was  once  observed  in  the  north  of  the 
Sea  of  Okhotsk  '  Tui  Bay)".  According  to  Kuroda's  list  (IQ38J  has  been  recorded 
from  Japan  iKiniles,  Hokkaido,  ?  Hondo;. 

Th.\larctos  m.\riti.\ius  maritimus  Phipps,  1774 

1774.   Ursus  maritimus  Phipps,  \'oyage  toward  North  Pole,  18",.  Spitzbergen. 

(?)  1776.   Ursus  marinus  Pallas,  Reise  durch  verschiedenc  Pro\inzcn  dcs  Russ,  Reichs, 

J.'  691.  Arctic  Ocean,  Siberia. 
1792.   Ursus  polaris  .Shaw,  Mus.  Leverianum,  /.■  7.  Renaming  ot  marinus. 
'')  1908.   Thalassarctos  jeriaaisis  Knottnerus-Mayer,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,    184. 

Jena  Island,  Spitzbergen. 
?J   1908.    Thalassarctos     spi/rhcrffcrisi',     Knottncrus-Mascr,     loc.     cit.     .Seven, 



Genus  HELARCTOS  Horsfield,  1825 
1825.  Helarctos  Horsfield,  J.  Zool.  2:  221,  233.  Ursus  malayanus  Raffles. 
I  species:   Helarclos  malayanus,  page  241 

Helarctos  malayanus  Rafiles,  1821  Malayan  Sun  Bear 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  Peninsula, 
Sumatra,  Borneo.  Possibly,  but  not  certainly,  from  Szechuan  or  some  adjacent 
region  of  Southern  China. 

Helarctos  malayanus  malayanus  Raffles,  1821 

1 82 1.   Ursus  malayanus  Raffles, Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  /5:254.Bencoolcn,  Sumatra. 
1901.  Helarctos  annamiticus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  5,  i.-  i,  pi.  i,  figs.  1-2. 

Annam,  Indo-China. 
1906.  Ursus  malayanus  wardi  Lydekker,  P.Z.S.  999.  Thought  to  be  from  Tibet  (or 

Szechuan  or  Yunnan,  G.  Allen). 
Range:  as  in  the  species,  except  Borneo. 

Genus  MELURSUS  Meyer,  1793 

1793.  Melursus  Meyer,  Zool.  Entdeck.  155.  Bradypus  ursinus  Shaw. 

1809.  Arceus  Goldfuss,  Verh.  Nat.  Saug.  301.  Bradypus  ursinus  Shaw. 

181 1.  Prochilus  Illiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  log.  Bradypus  ursinus  Shaw. 

1814.  Chondrorhy7ichus  Fischer,  Zoogr.  2-   H^-  Bradypus  ursinus  Shaw. 

I  species:   Melursus  ursinus,  page    241 

Melursus  ursinus  Shaw,  1791  Sloth  Bear 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Southern  Peninsula  of  India,  north- 
wards to  Central  Provinces,  Bihar,  Bengal  and  Assam.  ?  Darjeeling. 

Melursus  ursinus  ursinus  Shaw,  1791 

1 791.  Bradypus  ursinus  Shaw,  Nat.   Misc.   2  (unpaged),  pis.   58-59.   Patna,  on  the 

Ganges,  Bengal. 
1793.  Melursus  lybius  Meyer,  Zool.  Entdeckung.   156.  "Africa  interior." 
1809.  Arceus  niger  Goldfuss,  Verh.  Nat.  Saug.  301  (teste  Palmer). 
1817.   Ursus  labiatus  Blainville,  Bull.  Soc.  Philom.  74. 
1820.   Ursus  longirostris  Tiedemann,  Abhandl.  Bar.  Faulthier,  i  i. 
Range:  as  above,  Ceylon  excluded. 

Melursus  ursinus  inornatus  Pucheran,  1855 

1855.  Melursus  inornatus  Pucheran,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  j:  392.  Ceylon. 



FAMILY     P  R  O  C  V  O  N  I  D  A  E 

Genera:  Ailuropoda,  page  242 
Ail  III  us,  page  242 
Simpson  (1945,  226)  refers  the  Asiatic  Pandas  to  this  (principally  American) 
family,  as  a  subfamilv,  the  Ailurinae.  Pocock  referred  the  two  to  two  distinct  fiimilies, 
Ailuridae  and  Ailuropodidae.  G.  Allen  (1938)  referred  Ailiirus  to  the  Procyonidae, 
but  retained  the  family  Ailuropodidae.  While  the  differences  between  the  two  genera 
seem  very  wide,  we  follow  Simpson,  preferring  his  classification  to  the  very  split  one 
offered  by  Pocock  for  the  Raccoons  and  their  allies. 

Subfamily     Ailurinae 

Genus  AILURUS  Cuvier,  1825 

1825.  Ailurus  F.  Cuvier,  in  E.  Geoffroy  &  Cuvier,  H.N.  Mamm.  5  (50),  3.  Ailurus 

fulgens  Cuvier. 
1841.  Arcladurus  Gloger,  Gcmein.  Hand.  Nat.  /.■  xxviii.  A.  fulgens. 

1846.  Adurus  Agassiz,  Nomcnclator  Zool.  index,  Univ.  9.  Emend,  pro  Ailurus  Cuvier. 

I  species;  Ailurus  fulgnis,  page  242 

Ailurus  fulgens   F.  C;uvier,  1825  Red  Panda 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  ^'unnan  and  Szechuan,  in  China;  Northern 
Burma,  Sikkim  and  Nepal. 

Ailurus  fulgens  fulgens  F.  Cuvier,  1825 

1825.  Ailurus  fulgens  Cuvier,  in  Geoffroy  &  Cuvier,  H.N.  Manmi.  jj  (50):  Panda,  3. 
Locality  unknown  ("East  Indies"). 

1847.  Ailurus  ochraceus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  1 1  18.  "Sub  Himalayas," 

from  7,000  to  13,000  ft. 
Range:   Nepal  and  Sikkim. 

Ailurus  fulgens  styani  Thomas,  1902 

1902.  Ailurus  fulgens  styani  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   in:  251.  Vangliupa,  North- 

^\'estern  Szechuan,  China. 
?)  1874.  Ailurus  refulgens  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  Mamm.  380. 
R<uige:  .Szechuan,  ^'unu.m,  Northern  Burma. 

Genus  AILUROPODA   Milne-Edwards,  1870 

1870.  Ailurnpoda  Milne-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  ij,  art.   10:   i.  ihsus  tnelano- 
leucus  David. 

1870.  Pandaretos  Ger\'ais,  Nouv.  .\rch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  G:    161.  Ursus  melannlcucus 


1 87 1.  Ailuropus  .Miliic-Fxlwards,  in  David,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  7,  Bull.  92. 

I  species:   Ailiiro/ioda  melanoleuea,  page  243 


Ailuropoda  melanoleuca  David,  i86g  Giant  Panda 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  State  of  Szechuan,  in  China. 

Ailuropoda  melanoleuca  David,  1869 

i86g.   Ursus  melanoleucus  David,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  j.  Bull.  13.  Moupin, 
Szechuan,  China. 


Genera:  Aonyx,  page  278  Aides,  page  271 

Arcionyx,  page  274  Mellivora,  page  268 

Enhydra,  page  279  Melogale,  page  269 

Gulo,  page  250  Mustela,  page  251 

Luira,  page  275  Poecilictis,  page  267 

Martes,  page  244  Vormela,  page  266 

Pocock  divided  this  large  family  into  a  bewildering  number  of  subfamilies,  which 
are  reduced  by  Simpson  (1945)  so  far  as  living  Palaearctic  and  Indian  genera  are 
concerned,  to  four.  These  are  the  Mustelinae,  the  Melinae,  and  the  Lutrinae,  which 
are  recognized  by  virtually  all  authors,  and  the  Mellivorinae  which  does  not  seem 
strongly  differentiated  from  Mustelinae.  Simpson's  arrangement  is  simpler  than  that 
of  Pocock,  and  is  followed  here.  Of  the  genera  listed  above,  the  characters  of  eight 
are  dealt  with  by  Pocock  in  his  work  on  the  mammals  of  British  India  (1941).  Besides 
this  he  shows  (p.  423)  the  distinguishing  characters  ofMeles  compared  with  its  nearest 
ally  Arctonyx.  Meles  was  also  dealt  with  at  some  length  by  Miller,  1912,  Cat.  Mamm. 
Western  Europe,  341,  and  in  that  work  the  characters  of  Gulo  are  given  (p.  433). 
Miller  referred  Gulo  to  a  distinct  subfamily,  whereas  Pocock  thought  it  was  nearest 
the  Martens.  For  the  characters  oi  Enhydra  see  Pocock,  192 1,  P.^-S-  803-837,  "On 
the  External  Characters  and  Classification  of  the  Mustelidae".  In  this  work,  Enhydra 
is  given  subfamily  rank  under  the  name  "Lataxinae"  (p.  830).  On  p.  835  of  the  same 
work,  the  characters  of  the  African  Ictonyx  group  of  genera,  to  which  Poecilictis  belongs, 
are  given;  this  group  is  also  given  subfamily  rank.  There  has  been  an  increasing 
tendency  towards  genus-splitting  in  this  family  during  recent  years.  Even  Simpson 
lists  four  more  genera  than  are  here  admitted,  and  Pocock  about  the  same  number, 
but  their  extra  genera  do  not  agree.  We  retain  here  genera  which  are  universally 
admitted,  and  prefer  to  regard  the  possible  extra  genera  as  subgenera.  The  only 
genus  here  retained  which  is  not  of  \ery  longstanding  is  Poecilictis,  which  used  to  be 
referred  to  the  earlier-named  Ictonyx  Kaup,  1835,  but  which  seems  a  distinct  form  with 
peculiarly  enlarged  bullae  which  distinguish  it  from  Ictonyx  and  in  all  probability 
from  all  the  other  Palaearctic  genera  belonging  to  the  Mustelinae  as  here  understood. 
Pocock  referred  Martes  to  a  special  subfamily,  which  following  Simpson  is  here 
referred  to  the  Mustelinae.  He  also  made  a  special  subfamily  for  Helictis  (which  is 
antedated  by  Melogale  and  here  referred  to  that  genus),  which  Simpson  placed  in  the 


Subfamily     M  u  s  t  e  1  i  n  a  e 

Genus  MARTES  Pincl,  1792 

1773.   Maiiis  Friscli,  Xatur-systcm  der  \icrfuss.  Thierc,  11  (see  page  2). 

1792.   Martci  Pinel,  Actcs  Soc.  d'H.N.  Paris,  /;  55.  MarUs  domestica  Pinel  --^  Muslela 

foina  Erxleben. 
1821).  ^ibt'Uina  Kaup,  Entw.  Gesch.  u.  Nat.  Syst.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.■  31,  34.  Muslela 

zihiilina  Linnaeus. 
181)",.   Charronia  Gray,  P.Z.S.   108.  Mustela  flavigula  Boddaert.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
11)28.  Lamprogale  Ognev,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Mosc.  No.  2,  Zool.  26,  30. 

Proposed  to  replace  Cliarronia  on  the  grounds  that  it  is  preoccupied  by  an 

earHer  name  Ckaronia,  for  a  genus  of  mollusc. 

This  genus  was  formerly  known  as  Alustcla  by  many  authors,  as,  for  instance, 
Blanford,  1891.  What  is  now  known  as  Mustela  was  called  by  older  authors  Putorius. 

6  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Marks  flavigula,  page  249 
Marks  foina,  page  246 
Maries  gwatkinsi,  page  250 
Marks  marks,  page  245 
Marks  inelampus,  page  247 
Marks  .-jbellina,  page  248 

The  species  flavigula  and  gwatkinsi  belong  to  the  subgenus  Charronia,  which  is  fully 
compared  with  Maries  by  Pocock  (1941,  319,  326).  The  characters  of  the  two  species 
are  also  dealt  with  by  Pocock.  Miller  (1912)  compares  the  characters  of  martes  and 
foina,  which  apparently  are  not  always  very  easily  distinguishable.  A  translation  in 
our  possession  of  part  of  Ognev's  work  on  the  mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R.  contrasts 
M.  -ihellina  with  M.  marks  and  M.  foina,  and  states  that  m  zibelUna  there  are  15-16 
tail  \crtebrac,  whereas  in  the  other  two  species  there  are  20  and  more;  also  that  in 
zibellina  the  bullae  are  differently  shaped,  and  set  closer  together,  as  may  be  seen 
from  Bobrinskii's  figures  of  the  three  species'  skulls  (1944,  11 8).  Bobrinskii  states  that 
zibellina  has  the  tail  usually  less  than  half  head  and  body  length,  the  light  patch  on 
the  throat  is  often  absent,  and  the  top  of  the  head  is  usually  lighter  than  the  back, 
\\  hcrcas  in  martes  and  Joina  the  tail  is  usually  more  than  half  the  head  and  body  length, 
the-  light  spot  on  the  throat  is  well  developed,  and  the  top  of  the  head  is  the  same 
colour  as  the  back.  In  the  London  material,  however,  it  must  be  noted  that  M.  martes 
skins  have  the  tail  averaging  only  49  per  cent,  of  the  head  and  body.  There  remains 
for  discussion  the  Japanese  species  M.  melampus.  In  the  London  material,  this  has  the 
tail  on  average  about  44-47  per  cent,  of  head  and  body  length  {rcsemhlmii^  zibellina, 
therefore,  in  rather  short  tail) ;  a  white  throat  patch  seems  fairly  constant,  and,  at  least 
in  winter,  the  head  tends  to  be  paler  than  the  back,  all  characters  reminiscent  of 
Zibellina  except  the  throat  patch.  But  the  bullae  seem  to  be  definitely  of  the  martes- 
Joina  type,  and  do  not  seem  to  resemble  those  of  zibellina.  The  forelimbs  are  clearly 
contrasted  blackish,  more  so  than  in  our  zibellina  skins.  Therefore  the  conclusion  has 



been  reached  that  melampus  is  an  isolated  and  valid  species,  partly  combining  the 
characters  of  the  other  two  groups.  So  far  as  colour  is  concerned  it  in  no  way  resembles 
the  subgenus  Charronia  as  that  is  defined  by  Pocock.  But  it  must  be  noted  that  not  all 
our  skins  o^  melampus  bear  measurements. 

.Subgenus  MARTES  Pinel,  1792 

Martes  martes  Linnaeus,  1758  Pine  Marten 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  British  Isles,  Ireland  included;  Norway, 
Sweden,  Denmark,  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Italy, 
Northern  Spain,  Balearic  Islands,  Sardinia,  Bohemia,  Poland,  to  Russia,  from  White 
Sea  to  Caucasus,  and  eastwards  into  Western  Siberia,  roughly  to  lower  Ob  and  lower 
Irtish  Rivers.  British  Museum  localities  also  include  .Sumela  (Asia  Minor)  and  Astra- 
bad  i' Persia). 

Martes  martes  martes  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Mustela  martes  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  46.  Upsala,  Sweden. 
1816.  Mustela  sylvestris  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  j,  2:  1029.  Renaming  oi  martes. 
1820.  Martes  sjlvatica  Nilsson,  Skand.  Fauna.  Dagg.  Djur.  /.•  41.  Renaming  oi martes. 
1827.   Martes  vulgaris  Griffith,  Cuvier's  Anim.  Kingd.  §:  123.  Renaming  oi martes. 
1865.   Martes  abietum  Gray,  P.Z.S.  104. 

Range:  Europe,  north  of  the  Mediterranean;  Russia,  as  far  as  the  \Vhite  Sea  and  a 
line  from  Kiev  to  Vitebsk. 

Martes  martes  latinorum  Barrett-Hamilton,  1904 

1904.   Mustela  martes  latinorum  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   i^:  389.  Nurri 
Mountains,  Sardinia.  Range:  Italy,  Sardinia,  Balearic  Islands. 

Martes  martes  notialis  Cavazza,  191 2 

1912.   M{ustela)  martes  va.r.  notialis  Cavazza,  Ann.  Mus.  Civ.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova,  3A, 
5  (45):  181.  South  of  Abruzzi,  Southern  Italy. 

Martes  martes  lorenzi  Ognev,  1926 

1926.  Martes  martes  lorenzi  Ognev,  Bull.  Sci.  Inst.  Expl.  Caucas.  /.•  47.  Storojevaia, 
Kuban  district,  Caucasus. 

Martes  martes  ruthena  Ognev,  1926 

1926.  Martes  martes  ruthena  Ognev,  Bull.  Sci.  Inst.  Expl.  Caucasus,  /.■  49,  56.  Dmit- 

rovsk    subdistrict,    Moscow    Govt.,    Russia.    Range:    Central    regions    of 

European  Russia. 

Martes  martes  borealis  "Kuznetzov,  1941,"  Bobrinskii,  1944 
1944.  M{artes)   m{artes)   borealis  Bobrinskii,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  121.  Not  of  Radde, 
1862.  Northern  areas  of  European  Russia,  excluding  Kola  Peninsula. 



Martes  martes  uralensis  "Kuznetzov,  1941,"  Bobrinskii,  1944 
1944.   M{arles)  m[arla)  uralensis  Bobrinskii,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  121.  Whole  area  of  the 
Ural  Rane;e. 

We  are  unable  to  trace  the  original  reference  to  the  last  two  named  forms. 

Martes  foina  Erxleben,  1777  Beech  Marten,  or  Stone  Marten 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Europe,  including  Spain,  Italy,  Bosnia, 
France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Germany,  Denmark,  Switzerland,  Crete,  Poland,  Fin- 
land (Ognev),  Russia  (Ukraine,  Crimea,  Caucasus,  Transcaucasia  (part)  and  Western 
Russia,  according  to  Bobrinskii) ;  Russian  Turkestan  (mountain  areas),  northwards  to 
the  Altai;  Asia  Minor,  Persia,  Afghanistan,  Syria  and  Palestine;  Baluchistan, 
Kashmir,  Punjab;  Chinese  Turkestan,  Mongolia,  Manchuria  (Bobrinskii),  Tibet. 
Possibly  parts  Northern  China.  Perhaps  to  Sikkim. 

Martes  foina  eoina  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.  Miisida  foina  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  /.•  458.  Germany. 

1792.   Martes  domestka  Pinel,  Actes  Soc.  H.N.  Paris,  /.•  55.  France. 

1801.  M  I)  s  hi  a  foina  alba  Bechstein,  Gemeinn.  Nat.  Deutschlands,  2nd  ed.  /.■  759. 

Thuringia,  Germany. 
1869.   Mustela  martes  \a.Y.  fagorum  Fatio,  Faune  Vert.  Suisse,  /.•  318. 
Range:  Europe,  as  above,  except  Southern  Spain;  probably  eastwards  into  Russia. 

Martes  (?)  foina  toufoeus  Hodgson,  1842 

1842.  Mustela?  toufoeus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //.•  281.  ?  Lhasa,  Tibet. 
Despite  Pocock's  contention  that  this  is  allied  to  M.  melampus,  it  looks  much 
more  like  M.  foina.  Its  range  is  adjacent  to  that  of  foina,  very  far  from  melampus. 
From  notes  left  by  him,  Chaworth-Musters  evidently  intended  to  treat  it  as 
foina.  See  also  Pocock  (1941,  322,  footnote).  We  cannot  trace  that  the  form 
"ka?isuensis"  noted  by  him  on  this  page  was  ever  described. 

Martes  foina  intermedia  Severtzov,  1873 

1873.  Mustela  intermedia  Severtzov,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscow,  8,  2:  61. 

1876,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  45.  Basin  of  the  Chu,  Tallas,  and  Naryn,  from 

4,000  to  9,000  ft..  Eastern  Turkestan. 
1879.   Martes  leueolachnaea  Blanford,  Second  Yarkand  Miss.   Mamm.  26.  Varkand, 

Chinese  Turkestan. 
1914.   Martes  foina  altaica  Satunin,  Conspectus  Mamm.  Ross.  /.•   iii.  Altai. 
1919.   Martes  toufoeus  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  26:  343.  Not  of  Hodgson, 

Range:    Russian    and    Chinese    Turkestan,    Tianshan,    Afghanistan,    Baluchistan, 
Western  Persia,  Kashmir. 

Martes  foina  mediterrane.\  Barrett-Hamilton,  1898 

1898.  Mustela  mediterranea  Barrett-Hamilton,  .A.nn.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  442'.  Sierra  de 
Jerez,  Cadiz,  .Spain. 



Martes  foina  syriaca  Nehring,  1902 

1902.  Mustela  foina  syriaca  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  145.  Wadi  Syr  (which 
runs  into  Wadi  Kefren,  a  tributary  of  lower  Jordan),  Syria. 

Martes  foina  bunites  Bate,  1906 

1906.  Mustela  foina  bunites  Bate,  P.Z.S.  igo§,  2:  318.  Kontopalo,  Kania,  Crete. 

Martes  foina  nehringi  Satunin,  1906 

1906.  Mustela  foina  nehringi  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kauk.  Mus.  Tiflis,  2:   120,  292.  Tiflis, 

Martes  foina  bosniaca  Brass,  i  g  1 1 

191 1.  Martes  foina  bosniaca  Brass,  Aus  der  Reiche  der  Pelze,  468  (spelt  "bosnia''  in 
index,  p.  xiii).  Bosnia,  Yugoslavia. 

Martes  foina  milleri  Festa,  1914 

1914.  Martes  foina  milleri  Festa,  Boll.  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  2g,  686:  7. 
Aghios  Isidoros,  Island  of  Rhodes,  Eastern  Mediterranean. 

Martes  foina  rosanowi  Martino,  19 17 

1 91 7.  Martes  rosanowi  Martino,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Crimee,  y:  i.  (Reprint  only  seen.) 
North-western  slope  of  Chatyr  dag  Mountains,  Crimea,  Southern  Russia. 

Martes  foina  kozlovi  Ognev,  1931 

1 93 1.  Martes  foina  kozlovi  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia,  2:  631.  Kam  (valley 
of  River  Mekong),  Eastern  Tibet. 

Martes  melampus  Wagner,  1841  Japanese  Marten 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Japan  (Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiushiu,  Tsushima) 
and  Korea. 

Martes  melampus  melampus   Wagner,  1841 

1841.  Mustela  melampus  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  229.  Japan. 
1865.  Martes  japonica  Gray,  P.Z.S.  104.  Japan. 
1865.  Martes  melanopus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  105. 

1905.  Mustela  melampus  bedfordi  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  10,  P.Z.S.  2:  183.  Washika- 
guchi,  Nara  district,  east  of  Osaka,  Southern  Hondo,  Japan. 

Martes  melampus  tsuensis  Thomas,  1897 

1897.  Mustela    melampus   tsuensis   Thomas,    Ann.    Mag.    N.H.    ig:    161.    Kamoze, 
Tsushima  Islands,  Japan. 

Martes  melampus  coreensis  Kuroda  &   Mori,  1923 

1923.  Martes  melampus  coreensis  Kuroda  &  Mori,  J.  Mamm.  4:  27.  Tenan,  Southern 
Chusei  district,  Korea. 



Martes  zibellina  Linnaeus,  i  758  Sable 

Approximate  distribution  ofspccies:  from  the  Pcch<ira  River  and  Ural  Mountains, 
eastwards  intermittently  throu£jh  Siberia  to  Kamtchatka,  Sakhalin  and  the  Ussuri 
region,  south  to  the  Altai  Mountains,  mirth  to  the  Arctic  Circle,  and  somewhat 
beyond  in  Middle  Siberia.  Manchuria,  Mongolia  and  Japan.  (Now  only  surviving 
in  indi\idual  isolated  areas,  Bobrinskii.) 

Martes  zibeli.ina  zjbejaasa  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Miisli'la  zil'elli'id  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /.'  46.  Surroimdings  of  Tobolsk, 

Tomsk  Govt.,  Siberia  (Ognev). 
185-,.   Miistcla  Z'beHina  \'ar.  asiatica  Brandt,  Mem.  Phys.  Nat.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petcrsb. 

;.-  6,  pi.  I. 
185",.   Mustela  .zibellina  \ar.  aiha  Brandt,  loc.  at.  j:  14,  pi.  2,  fig.  5. 
1855.   Miislela  zil'fllina  var.  Jiisco-Jiavescens  Brandt,  loc.  cit.  pi.  2,  fig.  6. 
1855.   Mustela  zibellinn  var.  ochracea  or  ferruginea  Brandt,  loe.  cit.  \i\.  3,  fig.  8. 
1855.   Mustela  zibellina  var.  maculata  Brandt,  loc.  cit.  pi.  3,  fig.  g. 
1855.   Mustela  .zibellina  \'ar.  rupcstris  Brandt,  loc.  cit.  pi.  2. 
1855.   Mustela  zibellina  var.  svlvestris  Brandt,  loe.  cit.  pi.  2. 
Range:  Pechora  basin.  Northern  Urals,  Ob  plain. 

\L\RTES    ZIBELLINA    BRAGHYURA    Tcmmiuck,    1 844 

1844.  Mustela  brachyura  Tcmminck,  Sicbolds  Faun.  Japon.  Mamm.  33.  Japan. 
(Veso  —  Hokkaido  and  the  Kurilos.) 

ALxRTES    ZIBELLIN'.^    K.\MTSHADAI,ICA    Birula,    I918 

IQ18.   Mustela  zibellina   subsp.   kamtshadalica   Birula,    C.R.    Mus.    Zool.   Acad.    Sci. 

Petrogr.  82.  [j\.V.  Reference  according  to  Ognev.)  Kamtchatka. 
(?)  1922.   Mustela  zibellina  var.  kamtschatica  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Iavow,  i: 

349,  nom.  nud. 

^L•\RTES    ZIBELLINA    PRINCEPS    Birula,    1 922 

1922.   Mustela  zibellina  princeps  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  2:::  8. 

Bargusin  Mountains,  Transbaikalia. 
?)  1922.   Mustela  zibellina  var.  baiealcnsis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.   Lwovv,   i: 
349,  nom.  nud. 


1925.  Martes  zibellina  veniseensis  Ognev,  J.  NLimm.  6:  277.  Forest  on  plain  along 
Ycnesei  River,  Krasnoiarsk  district.  Eastern  Siberia.  Range:  Taiga  between 
the  .Angarra  and  the  Sayan  foothills  fBobrinskii). 

Martes  zibellina  sajanensis  Ognev,  1925 

1925.  Martes  zibellina  sajanensis  Ognev,  J.  Mamm.  G:  278.  Orsyba  River,  northern 
part  of  Sayan  Mountains,  Midfllc  Siberia. 

M.-\RTEs   zibellina  s.\halinensis  Ognev,  1925 

192',.  Maries  zibellina  sahalinensis  Ognev,  J.  Mamm.  (j:  ^ji).  \\'ederniko\o,  Sakhalin 



Martes  zibellina  hamgyenensis  Kishida,  1927 

1927.   Martes  zibellina  coreensis  Kishida,  Choju  Chosahokoku,  4:  130.  Korea.  Not  of 

Kuroda  &  Mori,  1923.  [N.V.) 
1927.   Martes  zibellina  hamgyenensis  Kishida,  Dobuts  Zasshi.  jp;  509  {N.V.) 
1931.   Martes  zibellina  hangiengensis  Kishida  &  Mori,  op.  cit.  43:  380,  nom.  mid.  (N.V.) 

These  references  are  from  Kuroda. 

Martes  zibellina  tungusensis  "Kuznetzov,  1941,"  Bobrinskii,  1944 
1944.   M[artes)  z(ibellina)  tungusensis  Bobrinskii,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  120.  Basins  of  the 
Nizhnaya  and  Podkamennaya  Tungusha  (Middle  Siberia). 

Martes  zibellina  arsenjevi  "Kuznctzov,  1941,"  Bobrinskii,  1944 
1944.   M{artes)  z{ibellina)  arsenjevi  Bobrinskii,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.   120.  Ussuri  basin, 
Eastern  Siberia. 

Martes  zibellina  schantarica  "Kuznetzov,  1941,"  Bobrinskii,  1944 

1944.  Miartes)  z{ibellina)   schantaricus  Bobrinskii,   Mamm.   U.S.S.R.    120.   Shantar 

Islands,  Lower  Amur,  Eastern  Siberia. 
(?)  1922.  Mustela  zibellina  var.  amurensis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  349, 

nom.  mid. 

We  are  unable  to  trace  the  original  reference  to  the  last  three  listed  races,  which 
are  without  description  in  Bobrinskii,  1944. 

Subgenus  CHARRONIA  Gray,  1865     [Lamprogale  Ognev,  1928) 

Martes  flavigula  Boddaert,  1785  Yellow-throated  Marten 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  Amur  and  Ussuri  regions  of  Eastern  Siberia; 
Korea,  Manchuria,  throughout  the  principal  states  of  China  (Chihli,  perhaps, 
excepted),  Tibet,  Formosa;  Burma,  Assam,  thence  westwards  to  Kashmir  and  North- 
\Vest  Frontier;  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java  and  Borneo. 

Martes  flavigula  flavigula  Boddaert,  1785 

1785.   Mustela Jlavigula  Boddaert,  Elcnch.  Anim.  88.  Locality  ujiknown,  traditionally 

fixed  as  Nepal  (Pocock). 
1792.   Mustela  melina  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  183.  Locality  unknown. 
1800.   Viverra  quadricolor  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  Mamm.  /,  2:  429.  Locality  unknown. 
1800.  Mustela  leucotis  Bechstein,  Uebers.  vierf.  Thiere,  2:  375.  Locality  unknown. 
1828.  Mustela  hardwickei  Horsfield,  Zool.  J.  4:  239,  pi.  8.  Nepal. 
1842.   Galidictis  chrysogaster  H.  Smith,  Jardine's  Nat.  Lib.  jj,  Mamm.  i:  167.  Mus- 

soorie,  Kumaon,  Northern  India. 
1901.   Mustela  flavigula  typiea  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  y:  343. 
1901.   Mustela  flavigula  kiiatunensis  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  348.  Kuatun,  North- 

Western  Fukien,  Southern  China. 
1910.   Mustela  flavigula  szetchuensis  Hilzheimer,   Zool.   Anz.  jjj.-   310.   Sungpanting, 

Szechuan,  China. 




1922.   Charronia  melli  Matschie,  in  Mcll,  Arch.  Nat.  88,  sect.  A,  10:  17,  34.  Kwantung, 

Southern  China. 
1930.   Charronia yuenshanensis  Shih,  Bull.  Dept.  Biol.  Sun  Yatsen  Univ.  Canton,  No.  9, 

3.  Yuen  Shan,  Wuchanghsien,  Hunan,  China. 
Range:  Kashmir  to  Tibet  and  Southern  China,  north  to  Shcnsi,  Kansu. 

Martes  flavigul.'^  aterrim.^  Pallas,  181 1 

181  I.  Viverra  aterrima  Pallas,  Zoographia,  /.-  81.  Between  the  Uth  and  Amur  Rivers, 
Eastern  Siberia. 

1862.  Mustela  (Martes)-flavigula  var.  borealis  Raddc,  Reise  Ost.  Sib.  /.•  19,  24.  Moun- 
tains of  Bureinsk,  Siberia. 

1922.  Charronia  flavi gill  a  koreana  Mori,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  610.  Korio.  near  Seoul, 

M.-\RTES  FL.'^viGULA  CHRYSospiLA  Swinhoe,  1 866 

1866.   Marlfs  chrysospila  Swinhoe,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   18:  286.   Mountain  forests  of 

Central  Formosa. 
1870.   Martes  flavigida  xan/hospila  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  623.  Forests  of  Central  Mountains 

of  Formosa. 

Martes  fl.'^vigula  pemnsul.^ris  Bonhote,  1901 

iqoi.  Mustela  flavigula  pemmiilaris  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  y:  346.  Bankasun, 
Tenasserim.  Range:  to  Malay  Peninsula. 

Martes  flavigula  lxdochinEiNSIs  Kloss,  1916 

1 916.  Martes  flavigula  indochinensis  Kloss,  P.Z.S.  35.  Klong  Menao,  South-Eastern 
Siam.  Range:  Northern  Tenasserim,  Siam,  Annam. 

Martes  gwatkinsi  Horsfield,  1851  South  Indian  Yellow-throated  Marten 

Approximate    distribution    of  species:    Nilgiri    Hills,    Coorg    and    Travancore, 
Southern  India. 

Martes  gwatkinsi  Horsfield,  1851 

1851.   Martes  gwatkinsii  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  E.  Ind.  Co.  99.  Madras,  Indi;i. 

Genus  GULO   Storr,  1780 

1775.   Culo  Frisch,  Natur-system  der  vierfuss.  Thiere,  17    see  page  2). 
1780.   Giilo  Storr,  Prodr.  .\ieth.  Mamm.  34.  Tab.  \.  Mustela  gulo  Linnaeus. 

I  species:  Gulo  gulo,  page  250 

Gulo  gulo   Linnaeus,  1758  Glutton,  or  Wolverine 

Approximate  distribution  of  species;  Norway  and  Sweden;  "right  across  the  taiga 

and  forest-tundra  zone  of  Eastern  Europe,  Asia  and  North  America.  In  the  summer 

it  invades  the  tundra,  as  far  as  the  sea  coast.  In  Eastern  Eumpe  and  Western  Siberia 


it  extends  roughly  as  far  south  as  the  latitude  of  Sverdlovsk,  but  occurs  in  an  isolated 
area  south-west  of  Kiev.  In  the  more  eastern  parts  of  Asia  it  extends  south  to  the 
Altai,  Tuva  Republic,  Mongolia  and  Northern  Manchuria,  inclusive.  It  does  not 
occur  in  the  Transbaikal  steppes.  In  the  south  of  the  Ussuri  region  it  is  rare.  It  occurs 
in  Sakhalin  and  the  Shantar  Islands"  (Bobrinskii). 

GuLO  GULO  GULO  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Mustela  gulo  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  45.  Lapland. 

1780.  Gulo  sibirica  Pallas,  Spic.  Zool.  2,  14:  35,  Tab.  2. 

1792.  Ursus  gulo  albus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  Syst.  Cat.  No.  381,  igo.  Kamtchatka. 

1816.  Gulo  vulgaris  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  3,  2:  1004.  Renaming  oi gulo. 

1820.  Gulo  borealis  Nilsson,  Skand.  Faun.  Dagg.  Djur.  /.•  95.  Renaming  o{ gulo. 

1820.  Gulo  arcticus  Desmarest,  Mammalogie,  174.  Renaming  oi gulo. 

1829.  Gulo  arctos  Kaup,  Entw.  Gesch.  Nat.  Syst.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  68.  Renaming  of 

1 9 10.  Gulo  luscus  Trouessart,  Faune  Mamm.  d'Europ.  71.  Not  of  Linnaeus,.  1766. 
1 918.  Gulo  biedermanni  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  147.  Mountains  south  of 

Lake  Teletzkoie,  Siberian  Altai. 
1918.  Gulo  ivachei  Matschie,  op.  cit.  147.  North  of  Beluha  Mountains,  in  upper  reaches 

of  River  Katun,  Siberian  Altai. 
1922.  Gulo  kamtschaticus  Dybowsky,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,   /.•  349,  nam.  nud. 


Genus  MUSTELA  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Mustela  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  45.  Mustela  erminea  Linnaeus. 

1775.  Putorius  Frisch,  Natur-system  der  vierfuss.  Thiere,  11  (see  page  2). 

1817.  Putorius  Cuvier,  Regne  Anim.  /.•  147.  Mustela  putorius  Linnaeus.  \'alid  as  a 

1829.  Arctogale  Kaup,  Entw.  Gesch.  Nat.  Syst.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  30.  Mustela  erminea 

1829.  Ictis  Kaup,  Entw.  Gesch.  Nat.  Syst.  Europ.  Thierw.  /.•  35,  40,  41.  Mustela 

vulgaris  Erxleben  =  Mustela  nivalis  Linnaeus.  Not  of  Schinz,  1824-1828. 

1840.  Foetorius  Keyserling  &  Blasius,  Wirbelth.  Europ.  68.  Mustela  putorius  Linnaeu;. 

1841.  Gale  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  234.  Mustela  vulgaris  Erxleben  = 

Mustela  nivalis  Linnaeus. 
1841.  Lutreola  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  239.  Viverra  lutreola  Linnaeus. 
1865.  Gymnopus   Gray,    P.Z.S.    118.    Mustela    leucocephalus   Gray  =  Alustela    nudipes 

Desmarest.  Not  of  Brookes,  1828. 
1871.  Mustelina  Bogdanov,  Proc.  Imp.  Univ.  Kazan,  /.•  167.  Mustela  lutreola  Linnaeus. 
1 87 1.  Hydromustela  Bogdanov,   Proc.   Imp.   Univ.   Kazan,   /.•    167.   Mustela  lutreola 

1899.  Eumustela  Acloque,  Faune  de  France,  Mamm.  62.  Based  on  vulgaris  and  erminea. 
igii.  Kolonokus  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kauk.  Mus.  j.-  264.  Mustela  sibirica  Pallas. 
1 92 1.  Plesiogale  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  805.  Mustela  nudipes  Cuvier.  Not  of  Pomel,   1853. 
1947.  Pocockictis  Kretzoi,  Ann.  H.N.   Mus.  Hung,  ^o.-  285.  To  replace  Plesiogale 

Pocock.  Mustela  nudipes  C\i\'\ev. 


8  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  hst: 

Mustela  altaica,  page  259  Muslela  nivalis,  page  256 

Mustela  erminca,  page  253  Mustda  putorius,  page  264 

Muslela  kathiali,  page  259  Mustela  sibirica,  page  260 

Muslela  hihrola,  page  262  Muslela  strigidorsa,  page  264 

Miller,  H)I2,  Cat.  Mamiii.  Western  Europe,  382,  divided  Mustela  into  three  sub- 
genera, Mustela.  Lutreola  and  Putorius,  and  gave  characters  for  the  three  groups.  These 
subgenera  are  recognized  by  Bobrinskii,  1944,  Mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  and  the 
characters  given  by  Miller  are  more  or  less  confirmed.  Pocock,  on  the  other  hand, 
gave  Putorius  generic'rank,  and  appeared  to  ignore  Lutreola. 

Russian  authors  recognize  two  species  of  the  subgenus  Putorius,  which  are  said  to 
occur  together  in  some  places:  M. putorius,  characterized  by  having  the  tail  nearly  all 
black,  the  underparts  blackish,  black  predominating  on  upper  side  of  body,  and  the 
skull  with  hardly  any  postorbital  constriction;  and  M.  eversnianni ,  with  only  the 
terminal  half  of  the  tail  black,  the  underparts  light-coloured,  the  upper  parts  with 
vcllowish  straw-colour  predominating,  and  the  skull  with  a  marked  postorbital  con- 
striction. The  Ferret,  ^[.  p.  furo  of  Linnaeus,  antedates  eversmanni,  but  in  external 
appearance  seems  to  agree  more  with  eversmanni  than  putorius.  Pocock  thought  it  was 
a  semi-domesticated  descendant  of  putorius,  and  stated  that  its  skull  was  like  that  of 
putorius,  not  eversmanni.  He  thoroughly  reviewed  the  group,  1936,  P.^.S.  691,  and 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  all  members  of  the  subgenus  Putorius  are  one  species. 
According  to  Bohrinskii,  putorius  and  eversmanni  inhabit  diflerent  types  of  country,  the 
latter  "avoids  both  woodland  areas  densely  grown  with  bushes,  and  human  settle- 
ments", unlike  putorius.  On  account  of  intermediate  characters  within  the  subgenus, 
we  prefer  tentatively  to  fallow  Pocock  and  list  all  Polecats  in  one  species  only, 
M.  putorius. 

An  attempt  to  correlate  the  work  of  Miller,  Bobrinskii,  G.  Allen  and  Pocock  with 
regard  to  the  species  of  the  subgenus  Mustela,  and  to  include  outlying  forms  not  dealt 
with  by  those  authors,  as,  for  instance,  from  Japan,  South-^Vestern  Asia  (where  the 
subgenus  is  rare)  and  North  Africa  leads  to  the  f  lUowing  provisional  results.  M. 
stngidorsa  differs  from  all  others  by  its  narrow,  pale  middorsal  stripe.  The  soles  of  its 
feet  are  naked.  The  two  species  lutreola  and  sibirica  stand  somewhat  apart  from  the 
remainder  in  that  the  underparts  are  only  very  little  paler,  if  at  all,  than  the  upper 
parts.  [M.  sibirica  can  ha\e  a  white  chin.)  They  differ  from  each  other  cranially,  as 
noted  by  Miller  (191 2)  [Lutreola,  subgenus,  for  .U.  lutreola,  while  sibirica  appears  to 
agree  with  subgenus  Mustela) ;  and  as  figured  by  Bobrinskii  ( 1 944,  1 24) .  In  the  remain- 
ing species,  the  underparts  are  normally  clearly  lighter  coloured  than  the  upperparts, 
except  of  course  in  the  winter  coat  of  those  forms  which  turn  completely  white. 
.U.  erminea  is  characterized  by  its  very  sharply  contrasted  black  tailtip,  which  is  re- 
tained even  in  the  wholly  white  winter  coat  when  present.  We  prefer  to  regard  the 
oullving  .\/.  hibernica  from  Ireland  as  a  race  of  erminea.  As  discussed  below,  it  appears 
that  ermineu  oc(  urs  in  Algeria.  There  remain  the  nivalis  group  and  the  altaica  group. 
In  these,  the  IjKk  k  tailtip  is  usually  absent  or  is  represented  by  a  few  dark  hairs  only 
at  the  end  ol  the  tail.  In  the  Eastern  Asiatic  .\/.  altaica  and  .\L  kathiah  the  tail  ap]jears 


not  specially  shortened,  and  so  far  as  we  can  discover  is  nearly  always  at  least 
100  mm.  in  length.  We  do  not  think  that  G.  Allen  was  correct  in  making  kathiah  a 
subspecies  oi  altaica,  as  the  two  seem  to  occur  in  the  same  general  neighbourhood  in 
Himalayan  India.  Pocock  has  given  characters  to  separate  the  two  species,  and  we 
retain  kathiah.  In  M.  nivalis  the  colour  is  not  Very  different  from  the  altaica  type,  but 
the  tail  is  normally  very  shortened,  being  less  than  loo  mm.  in  length  so  far  as  is 
ascertainable,  except  in  North  Africa.  A  broad  view  is  here  taken  of  the  species  M. 
nivalis.  Some  authors  prefer  to  regard  some  of  the  eastern  races  as  subspecies  of  the 
North  American  AI.  rixosa  Bangs  (Putorius  rixosus  Bangs,  1896,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washing- 
ton, 10:  21,  Saskatchewan,  Canada),  but  Bobrinskii  refers  all  the  Russian  and 
Siberian  weasels  to  M.  nivalis.  The  possibility  that  there  is  a  larger  and  a  smaller 
species  of  the  nivalis  group  cannot  however  be  finally  dismissed.  The  names  suhpalmala 
(1832,  Egypt),  numidica  {1855,  Morocco)  and  algirica  (1895,  Algeria)  are  available  for 
the  North  African  members  of  the  subgenus  Mustela.  The  first  is  obviously  a  large 
member  of  the  nivalis  group,  in  that  there  is  no  suspicion  of  a  black  tailtip.  The 
second  has  a  short  black  tailtip,  according  to  Cabrera,  but  as  figured  by  him  looks 
more  like  subpalmata,  the  dark  tip  being  poorly  contrasted,  and  a  specimen  in  the 
British  Museum  from  IVIorocco  seems  to  have  no  black  tip.  The  form  algirica  was 
described  by  Thomas  as  a  race  of  A/,  erminea,  and  certainly  seems  to  be,  on  account  of 
the  black  tailtip.  Its  feet,  also,  are  whiter  than  our  other  North  African  skins. 
Cabrera,  and  following  him  G.  Allen,  placed  it  in  synonymy  oi numidica.  The  question 
cannot  be  settled  without  more  specimens,  but  if  it  is  a  synonym,  then  numidica  repre- 
sents erminea,  and  if  not,  then  both  nivalis  and  erminea  occur  in  North-West  Africa. 
Tentatively,  the  latter  conclusion  has  been  adopfed.  The  large  Egyptian  weasel 
[subpalmata)  can  have  the  tail  over  100  mm.  in  length,  though  it  seems  always  under 
half  the  head  and  body  length  in  our  specimens,  which  is  not  normal  in  M.  altaica  and 
M.  kathiah  so  far  as  measurements  of  these  are  available. 

Cranial  characters  used  by  Bobrinskii  to  separate  M.  altaica  and  sihirica  from  M. 
nivalis  and  erminea  are  not  constant  in  the  British  Museum  material  when  specimens 
from  outside  the  U.S.S.R.  are  considered. 

Of  other  outlying  forms,  M.  itatsi,  Japan,  often  given  specific  rank,  does  not  seem 
certainly  separable  from  M.  sibirica.  The  form  stoliczkana  (Yarkand)  and  the  small 
form  russelliana  fSzechuan)  seem  to  represent  the  nivalis  group,  and  the  recently 
described  tonkinensis  (Indo-China)  may  also  be  a  largish  southern  member  of  the  same 
group;  it  is  not  a  representative  oi kathiah,  since  the  latter  occurs  in  the  same  area. 

The  only  other  species  in  Asia  is  M.  nudipes  Cuvier,  182 1,  from  Sumatra,  Malava 
and  Borneo;  on  this,  see  Pocock,  1941,  Fauna  Brit.  India.  2:  379. 

Subgenus  MUSTELA  Linnaeus,  1 758 
Mustela  erminea  group 

Mustela  erminea  Linnaeus,  1758  Stoat  ^Ermine) 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Europe,  from  Arctic  south  to  Pyrenees -and 
Alps  (including  British  Isles,  west  to  Ireland,  Sweden,  Norway,  France,  Belgium, 



Holland,  Denmark,  Switzerland,  Germany,  Poland,  Czechoslovakia) ;  Russian  range 
Efiven  by  Bobrinskii  as  "whole  of  Eastern  Europe  except  Novaya  Zemlya  and  Crimea. 
The  Northern  Caucasus,  where  it  is  very  rare.  Does  not  occur  in  Transcaucasia. 
\\'hole  of  Siberia  to  the  Shantar  Islands  and  Sakhalin.  Kotelnuii  Island  (Novo- 
sibirskie  group).  Kazakstan  (except  for  the  extreme  south),  Kirghizia  and 
Tadzhikistan".  Mongolian  .\ltai,  Kashgaria,  Japan;  Afghanistan;  Kashmir;  Algeria. 
.\lso  in  North  America. 

MiiSTEL.\  ERMINEA  ERMi.\E.\  Linnacus,  1758 

1758.   Mustela  erminca  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /.•  46.  Sweden. 

17Q2.   Mustela  t-rminea  hvherna  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  181. 

1816.   Mustela  herminea  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  5,  2:  1026.  Renaming  of  erminea. 

1827.   Mustela  erminea  maculata  Billberg,  .Synops.  Faun.  Scandinaviae,  8.  Scandinavia. 

Range:  Norway,  Sweden,  Kola  Peninsula  in  Northern  Russia. 

Mustela  erminea  aestiv,\  Kerr,  1792 

1792.   Mustela  erminea  aestiva  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  181.  Germany. 

1820.   Mustela  erminea  major  Nilsson,  Skand.  Faun.  Dagg.  Djur.   /.•  34.  Carlskrone, 

Blekinge,  Sweden. 
(?)  1920.  Putorius  ermineus  giganteus  Burg,  Der  W'cidmann,  48,  388.  (M.V.) 
(?)  1920.  Putorius  ermineus  alpestris  Burg,  he.  cit.  [N.W) 

P.ange:  Continental  Europe,  from  Southern  Sweden  south  to  Alps  and  Pyrenees, 
eastwards  through  Russia  to  Kazakstan. 

Mustela  erminea  hibernic.\  Thomas  &   Barrett-Hamilton,  1895 

1895.  Putorius  hihernicus  Thomas   &   Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.   /j.-   374. 
Enniskillen,  Co.  Fermanagh,  Ireland.  Range  includes  the  Isle  of  Man. 

MusTEL.'V  erminea  algiric.\  Thomas,  1895 

1895.  Putorius  ermineus  algirieus  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   i§:  451.   Near  Algiers, 

Mustela  erminea  ferghanae  Thomas,  1895 

1895.  Putorius  ermineus  ferghanae  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i§:  452.  Mt.  Kara  Karyk, 

Ferghana,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 
1908.   Mustela  ivhiteheadi  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  18:  882.  Kaghan  Valley, 

Hazara,  Northern  India. 
Range:    Eastern   Russian  Turkestan,   southwards   to   Kashmir;   also,   according  to 
Ognev,  Kashgar  and  Afghanistan. 

Mustela  .vrctica  Merriam,  1896 

1896.  Putorius  arctuus  .Merriam,  North  Amer.  Fauna,  //.•  15.  Point  Barrow,  Alaska. 
(?)  1922.   Putorius  eiminea  \\\r,  kamtschatiea  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.• 

341),  nom.  iiud. 
(?J  1944.   Mu\tela  etmmea  digna  Hall,  Proc.  C^alif.  .Acad.  Sci.  I'j;  559.  Kamtchatka. 



MusTELA  ERMINEA  STABiLls  Barrctt-Hamilton,  1904 

1904.  Putorius  ermineus  stabilis  BaTTett-Hamihon,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  13:  394.  Blandford, 
Dorset,  England.  Range:  mainland  of  Great  Britain. 

MuSTELA   ERMINEA    RICINAE    Miller,    I907 

1907.  Putorius  erminea  ricinae  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  395.  Islay  House,  Island  of 
Islay,  Hebrides.  Range  also  includes  Island  of  Jura,  Hebrides. 

MuSTELA    ERMINEA    MINIMA    Cavazza,    I912 

191 2.  P{utorius)  ermineus  var.  minimus  Cavazza,  Ann.  Mus.  Civ.  Stor.  Nat.  Genova, 
3A,  5  (45):  194.  Monte  Rosa,  Switzerland. 

MuSTELA    ERMINEA    LYMANI    Hollister,    I912 

191 2.  Mustela  lymani  Hollister,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  60,  14:  5.  Tapucha,  Altai  Moun- 

tains, Siberia. 

Mustela  erminea  Nippon  Cabrera,  1913 

1913.  Mustela  nippon  Cabrera,  Bol.  Soc.  Esp.  /j.-  392.  Sinano,  Hondo,  Japan. 

Mustela  erminea  tobolica  Ognev,  1923 

1923.  Arctogale  erminea  tobolica  Ognev,  Biol.  Mitt.  TimiriazefF,  /.•  112.  Tara,  Tobolsk 
Govt.,  Western  Siberia. 

Mustela  erminea  transbaikalica  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Mustela  erminea  transbaikalica  Ognev,  Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscou,  Sect. 

Zool.  2:    14,   29.   Sosnovka,  Bargusin  forest,   east  shore  of  Lake  Baikal, 


Mustela  erminea  orientalis  Ognev,  1928 

1928.   Mustela  erminea  orientalis  Ognev,   Mem.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.   Moscou,  Sect. 
Zool.  2:  15,  29.  Village  Pochodskoie,  Kolyma  River,  North-Eastern  Siberia. 

1914.  Mustela  kanei  G.  Allen,  Proc.  New  Engl.  Zool.  Club,  5.'  58.  Nijni  Kolymsk, 

Eastern  Siberia.  Not  of  Baird,    1857.  Recorded  from  Sakhalin,   Kuriles 
and  Hokkaido.  But  see  also  Hall,  1944,  Proc.  Calif  Acad.  Sci.  23:  555. 

Mustela  erminea  mongolica  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Mustela  erminea  mongolica  Ognev,  Mem.  Sect.  Zool.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscou,  2: 

18,  29.  Dundu-Saichan,  Mongolian  Altai. 

Mustela  erminea  baturini  Ognev,  1929 

1929.  Mustela  erminea  baturini  Ognev,  Bull.   Pacif   Sta.  Vladivostock,  2,  5:  9,  40. 

Bolshoi  Shantar  Island,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Mustela  erminea  ognevi  Jurgenson,  1932 

1932.  Mustela  erminea  o^««)i  Jurgenson,  Zool.  Anz.  g8:  1 1 .  Delta  of  River  Tas,  extreme 
north  of  Central  Siberia. 

Mustela  erminea  shnitnikovi  Ognev,  1935 

1935.  Mustela  erminea  shnitnikovi  Ognev,   Mamm.   U.S.S.R.  j.'   37.   Kopal  district, 
Semirechyia,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 


I'AI.Al'.ARCTIC:  AND   IM)IA\    MAMMALS    1 738-1946 

1036.   Aliistila  mninca  karaoinensis  ]uTs,civm,  Hull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscciu,  Sec.  Biol.  4^: 
•2^0,  -J.!;.  Karaoinski  Island,  otT  iKirth-cast  coast  of  Kamtchatka. 

MUSTEL.\    ERMINE.X    N.MMIIVI   JurgCIlSon,    I938 

103B.   Miislilii  iiminca  //(///mor;  Jurscnson,  Trav.  Res.  Etat.  Altai,  /.•   124.  Source  of 
the  Khataiit;a,   Tuiukhansk  district  (Northern  Yenesei),  Siberia. 

MfSTEL.\    ERNUM.X    M.\RTINOI    nom.   IIOV. 

11)31.   Miiilihi  tiniinai  hirulai  Martino,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Lcnin<;rad,  ^i:  J08. 
Aktiuhinsk,  Kir<j;hi/  Steppes,  Russian  Asia.  Not  of  Oc;nc\',  1928. 

Incertae  ii-dis 

Putorius  ermiiK  11  wir.  w7)/«('(;  Dybowski,  1922,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwovv,  /.•  349,  ito/n. 
mid.  Not  of  Pallas,  1773. 

MnUila  nivalis  S>'oup 

Mustela  nivalis   l.iiin.ieus,  1766  Weasel.  Type  of  G'a/c  Wagner,  1841, 

if  further  subgeneric  di\ision 
of  the  genus  is  required. 
.Appro.ximalc  di^triliution  of  species :  Europe,  including  Britain,  France,  Belgium, 
Holland,  Denmark,  Norway,  Sweden,  Germany,  Poland,  Switzerland,  Portugal. 
.Spain,  Italy,  Sicily,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania;  also  Sardinia,  Malta  and  Crete.  In  the 
U.S.S.R.,  the  whole  Union,  according  to  Bobrinskii,  although  its  presence  has  not 
been  established  in  the  north  of  the  Taimyr  Peninsula,  and  the  interior  of  Kizil-Kum 
and  Kara-Kum  dcscits,  and  it  does  not  occur  in  the  islands  of  the  Arctic  Ocean.  Asia 
Minor;  Afghanistan;  Mongolia,  Koiea,  Japan;  Chinese  Turkestan;  Szechuan,  in 
China;  Egypt,  Algeria,  Morocco;  ?  Indo-China.  Perhaps  also  in  North  America. 

MusTEi-.x  xiv.\i,rs  MVAijs  Linnaeus,  1766 

1766.   Mu\ltla  nivalis  Linnaeus,  .Syst.  Nat.  12th  ix\.  1:  bi).  Pro\ince  of  Wsterbotten, 

1777.   Miiilila  vulgaris  Erxleben,  Syst.  Rcgn.  Anim.  /.•  471.  "Temperate  Europe." 

Listed  as  a  \alid  race  by  Ognev,  1935,  Mamm.  L..S..S.R.  3'.'  f)8,  lor  Southern 

Rirssian  li)calitics,  but  considered  a  synonym  by  Miller,  1912. 
iBi  I.   Mii\h'la  ,»(//('  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ro.sso-Asiat.  94.  Renaming  ol  vulgaris. 
1820.   Muililii  minor  Nilsson,  .Skand.  Fauna,  /.•  35.  Renaming  of  nivalis. 
1853.  Putorius  miiiulus  Pcjmel,  C'at.  Meth.  et  Descr.  \'ert.  Foss.  Loire,  51.  Near  Paris, 

1869.   Foelorius pusillus  Fatio,  Faune  \'ert.  Suisse,  /.•  332.  Not  of  De  Kay,  1842. 
1900.  Putonu\  nivalis  Ivpicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ^:  42. 
1908.  Putorius  nivalis  \ar.  monticola  Cavazza,  Richerche  sui  ^'Putorius  nivalis"  e  sui 

"Putorius  irrniiii'us"  D'ltalia,  37  iM.V.,  see  Miller,  1912,  412).  High  valle)s  of 

the  Alps. 
Range:  Europe,  fnjm  ,\rctic  coast  to  Alps  and  Pyrenees,  and  from  Britain  eastwards 
into  Russia. 



MusTELA  NIVALIS  BOCCAMELA  Bechstein,  1800 

1800.  Mustela  boccamela  Bechstein,  Pennant,  Ubers.  vierf.  Thiere,  2:  395.  Sardinia. 
(?)  1868.   {Mustela  vulgaris)  var.  fulva  Mina  Palumbo,  Ann.  Agric.  Sicil.   12:  53. 

(JV.F.)   Probably  Le  Madonie,  Sicily.  See  Miller,   1913,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc. 

Washington,  26:  80.  Not  of  Kerr,  1792. 
(?)  1868.    {Mustela  vulgaris)  var.  albipes  Mina  Palumbo,  loc.  cit.  54. 
1869.   Mustela  vulgaris  var.  meridionalis  Costa,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  della  R.   Univ.  di 

Napoli,  40.  Southern  Italy. 
1900.  Putorius  nivalis  italicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  45.  Grezzana, 

highlands  of  Verona,  Italy. 

1900.  Putorius  nivalis  siculus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.  j.-  46.   Marsala, 


1 90 1.  Mustela  ilctis)  dombrowskii  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  231.  Siulnita, 

Rumania.  Ognev  thinks  that  this  is  a  synonym  of  vulgaris,  which  is  listed 

above  under  AI.  nivalis  nivalis. 
1905.  Foetorius  pusillus  major  Fatio,   Arch.   Sci.   Phvs.   Nat.   Geneve,    ig,   4:   512. 

Poschiavo,  Grisons,  Switzerland.  Not  of  Nilsson,  1820. 
(?)  1920.  Putorius  boccamela  alpinus  Burg,  Der  Weidmann,  51,  409.  {N.V.) 

Range:  Italy,  south  coast  of  France,  Sicily,  Malta,  Sardinia,  Switzerland,  Rumania. 

Mustela  nivalis  subpalmata  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  1833 

1833.  Mustela  subpalmata  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm.  3,  2,  k  verso. 
In  houses,  Cairo  and  Alexandria,  Eg>'pt. 

Mustela  nivalis  numidica  Pucheran,  1855 

1855.  Putorius  numidicus  Pucheran,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  j:  393.  Tangier,  Morocco. 

1865.  Mustela  erminea  var.  (i),  africana  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1 1 1.  Algiers,  Algeria.  Not  africana 
Desmarest,  1818,  Nouv.  Diet.  H.N.  ig:  376,  which  is  shown  by  Cabrera, 
1 914,  to  have  been  based  on  a  South  American  species. 

1904.  Putorius  nivalis  atlas  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  13:  323.  Atlas  Moun- 
tains, Morocco. 

(?)  1908.  Putorius  nivalis  var.  corsicanus  Cavazza,  Ricerche  sui  "Putorius  nivalis"  e  sui 
'"Putorius  ermineus"  d'ltalia,  37.  Corsica.  {N.V.  See  Miller,  igi2,  412.) 

Range:  Morocco,  Algeria,  Malta,  Azores,  ?  Corsica.  Miller  suggests  it  was  intro- 
duced in  Malta  and  the  Azores.  Both  Miller  and  G.  Allen  (1939)  give  this  large 
form  specific  status. 

Mustela  nivalis  stoliczkan.\  Blanford,  1877 

1877.  Mustela  stoliczkana'QXa.nioTA,].  As\3.t.  Soc.  Bengal,  46,  2:  260.  Yarkand,  Chinese 
Turkestan.  Ognev  also  quoted  it  from  Djarkent  (Eastern  Russian  Turkestan) 
and  the  Gobi,  and  it  occurs  Afghanistan  (B.M.). 

Mustela  nivalis  nikolskii  Smirnov,  1899 

1899.  Foetorius  vulgaris  var.  nikolskii  Smirnov,  Poslonjivotn.  Krymea,  59  (appendix  to 
68,  Zap.  Imp.  Akad.  Nauk).  (.^V.r.)  Near  Simferopol,  Crimea,  Southern 


I'ALAEARtrriC;  and   INDIAN  MAMMALS   1758-1946 

MusTELA  NIVALIS  iBERiCA  Barrctt-Hamiltoii,    1900 

igoo.  Puloriiis  nivalis  ibericus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  45.  Seville,  Spain. 
Range  inrludcs  Portugal  and  Balearic  Isles. 

MusTELA  NIVALIS  PALLIDA  Barrett-Hamilton,  1900 

1900.  Puloriiis  nivalis  pallidiis  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.   Mag.   N.H.  5.-  48.   Kokand, 
Ferghana,    Eastern   Russian   Turkestan. 

MusTELA  NIVALIS  c.'^uc.xsiCA  Barrett-Haniiltou,  1900 

1900.  Piitoriiis  nivalis  caiicasiciis  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  §:  48.  Hotshal 
Mountains,  iQ,aot)  ft.,  Caucasus. 

MuSTELA    NIV.\L1S    PVGMAE.V  J.  Allen,    I903 

1903.  Putorius  [Arclogale]  firgmaeusj.  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H    iij:  176.  Gicliiga. 

west  coast  of  Okhotsk  Sea,  Eastern  Siberia. 
(?)  1922.  Ictis  nivalis  var.  kamtschatica  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.■  349, 

nom.  niid. 
iq26.   Mustela  punctata  Domaniewski,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Polon.  H.N.  5.'  55.  Darasun, 

Eastern  Transbaikalia. 
1938.   Mustela  rixosa  pygmaea  G.  Allen,  Manim.  Cihina  cS:  Mongolia,  /.•  383. 
Range:  Eastern  .Siberia,  Manchuria,  Mongolia. 

Mustela  nivalis  g.^linthi.\s  Bate,  1906 

1906.  Putorius  nivalis  galinthias  Bate,  P.Z.S.  /poj,  2:  319.  Crete.  (Listed  as  a  distinct 

species  alliecl  to  ''africana"  =  numidica  by  Miller  (1912).) 

Mustela  niv.^lis  dinniki  Satunin,  1907 

1907.  Putorius  nivalis  dinniki  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kaukas.  Mus.  Tiflis,  jj.-   105  (Russian), 

151  (German).  .Sta\Topol,  Caucasus. 

Mustela  nivalis  russelliana  Thomas,  191 1 

191 1.   Mustela  russelliana  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  4;  P.Z.S.  168.  Tatsienlu,  Szechuan, 

China.  G.  Allen  ( 1938)  retains  this  as  a  species,  suggesting  it  is  near  stoliczkana. 

Based  on  one  adult  female  and  three  other  immature  specimens. 

MusTEL.\  Niv.^Lis  NAMiYEi  Kuroda,  1 92 1 

1921.   Mustela  rixosa  namivei  Kuroda,  J.  Mamm.  r.-  209.  Awomori,  Northern  Hondo, 

(?)  1936.   Mustela  pygmaea  resoid'una  Kishida,  Dobuts  Zasshi.  ^8,  4:   177.  Hokkaido, 

(?)  1936.   Mustela  prgniaea  caraftensis  Kishida,  loc.  eit.  S.ikhalin. 
Ranges  to  the  Kuriles. 

Mustela  nivalis  mosanensis  Mori,  1927 

1927.   Mustela  nivalis  mosanensis   Mori,  J.   Clhosen  N.H.   Soc.  §:   28.  Vengan,   near 
Mosan,  Korea. 

Mustela  nivalis  trett.^ui  Kleinschmidt,  1937 

1937.  Mustela  trettaui  Kleinschmidt,  Falco,  23-   ■  ■•  Germany. 


MusTELA  (?)  NIVALIS  TONKiNENSis  Bjorkegren,  1942 

1942.  Mustela  tonkinensis  Bjorkegren,  Ark.  Zool.  jjjB,  15:  i.  Chapa,  Tonkin,  Indo- 

Mustela  altaica  group 

Mustela  altaica  Pallas,  181 1  Alpine  Weasel 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  from  Ussuri  region  west- 
wards to  region  of  Lake  Baikal,  Altai  Mountains,  and  mountains  of  Eastern  Russian 
Turkestan  (Tarbagatai,  Balkash  region,  Tianshan,  Pamir) ;  Mongolia,  Manchuria 
and  Western  Sinkiang  (Ognev);  Tibet;  states  of  Kansu,  Szechuan  and  Shansi,  in 
China;  Himalayas,  from  Kashmir  to  Sikkim. 

Mustela  altaica  altaica  Pallas,  1 8 11 

181 1.  Mustela  altaica  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  98.  Altai  Mountains. 

1823.  Putorius  alpinus  Gebler,  Mem.  Soc.  Imp.  Nat.  Mosc.  6:  212.  Mines  of  Liddersk, 

Altai  Mountains. 
1914.  Mustela  sacana  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j.'  566.  Near  Przewalsk,  Djarkent, 

Semirechyia,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 
Range:  Siberia  and  China,  as  listed  under  the  species.  G.  Allen  recognizes  only  this 
form  in  China,  but  Pocock  thought  the  next  race  occurred  in  Tibet,  Kansu  and 

Mustela  altaica  temon  Hodgson,  1857 

1857.  Mustela  temon  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  26:  207.  Sikkim. 
(  ?)  1872.  Putorius  astutus  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  7,  Bull. :  92. 

Moupin,  Szechuan.  G.  Allen  thinks  this  name  is  a  synonym  of  A/,  kathiah. 

Against  this  opinion  see  Pocock,  1941,  353  (footnote). 
191 1.  Mustela  longstaffi  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  20:  931.  Teza,  Upper 

Sutlej  Valley,  Northern  India,  14,000  ft. 
Range:  Himalayas  (Sikkim  to  Gilgit  and  Karakorum  Mountains)  and  Tibet. 

Mustela  altaica  raddei  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Kolonocus  alpinus  raddei  Ognev,  Mem.  Sect.  Zool.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscou, 
No.  2 :  9,  28.  Kulusytaevsk  village,  near  Tareinor,  Transbaikalia. 

Mustela  altaica  birulai  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Kolonocus  alpinus  birulai  Ognev,  Mem.  Sect.  Zool.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat.  Moscou, 
No.  2:  10,  28.  Liangar,  Western  Pamir  Mountains. 

Mustela  kathiah  Hodgson,  1835  Yellow-bellied  Weasel 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Karakorum  Mountains;  Kumaon  and  Nepal, 
eastwards  to  Assam,  Burma,  Indo-China;  Hupeh,  ?  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Kwantung 
and  Fukien  in  Southern  China. 


PAl.AKARCriC:  AND   IXDIAX   MAMMALS    i7-,8-iCi4r) 
MUSTELA    KATHIAH    KATHIAH    HodgSOn,    1 835 

1835.   Miistela  (Piitorius)  kathiah  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  4:  702.  The  Kachar, 

northern  region  of  Nepal. 
1837.   Muitda  (Putorius)  auriventer  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  6:  563. 
1895.   Piiloriiis doisalisTroueiiS3.Tt,  Bull.  Mns.  H.N.  Paris,  /,•  235.  Tatsienlu,  Szechuan, 

(?)  iqio.  Arclogalt  tsaidamensis  Hilzheimer,  Zcxil.  Anz.  jjj.'  309.  Tsaidam  Mountains, 

\Vestern  Kokonor.  G.  Allen  (  1938,  380)  suggests  this  is  the  same  -as  either 

kathiah  or  altaica,  it  is  not  clear  which. 
1922.  Arclogalc  rtuili  Matschie,  Arch.  Nat.  88,  Sect.  A,  10:  17.  Kwantung,  Southern 


MusTEL.\  K.\THiAii  CAPORiAccoi  de  Bcaux,  1935 

1935.   Muslfla  kathiah  cajioriaccoi  de  Beau.x,  Atti  Soc.  Ligust.  14:  65.  Baltoro,  Kara- 
korum  Mountains,  Kashmir. 

Muitiia  siliirica  group 

(Mustela  sihirica  is  type  oi'  h'olonokus  Satunin,  if  further  subgeneric  division  of  the 
genus  is  required.) 

Mustela  sibirica   Pallas,  1773  Siberian  Weasel 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  In  the  U.S.S.R.,  "whole  of  the  forest  part  of 
Siberia  north  approximately  to  the  limit  of  the  full-grown  forest,  and  south-west  to 
the  Altai  and  adjoining  areas,  inclusive.  Does  not  occur  in  Kamtchatka,  the  Shantar 
Islands  and  Sakhalin.  \Vest  of  the  Ural  range  it  extends  as  far  as  Bashkiria,  the  ad- 
joining part  of  Cihkalovsk  Province,  the  eastern  half  of  Tatary  and  Kirov  Pro\-ince" 
(Bobrinskii).  Japan,  Formosa,  and  throughout  China,  Manchuria,  Tibet.  Himalayan 
India,  fmni  Kashmir  eastwards  to  Northern  Burma.  Ja\a. 

MlSTF.LA  SIBIRICA  siEiRi<:.\   Pallas,  1773 

1773.   Miistila    sihirica   Pallas,    Reise.   Russ.    Reichs.    ;■,   appendix:    701.    \'orposten 

Tigerazkdi,  near  Ust-Kamenogorsk,  Western  Altai. 
(?)  1904.   Miistiia  iibuica  miles  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j\-  391.  Dauria, 

Transbaikalia,  Eastern  Siberia. 
11)1  I.  h'olonokui  sihiricus  australis  Satunin,   .Mitt.  Kauk.  Mus.  5.'  265,  280.  Tyumen 

district.  Western  .Siberia. 
Range:  Russia  and  Siberia  as  under  the  species,  except  the  Far  East. 

-Mustela  sibirica  sibhemachal.\n.'\  Hodgson,  1837 

1037.   Mustila    'Piitoruis]    uilihtinaiiialaNin   Hi)d<,'s(inv    ].   .\siat.    Soc.   Bengal,    6:   563. 

ic'!j2.   Mintila  hinuriiilis  Blyth,  J.  .\siat.  .Soc.  Bengal,  //.'  99,  280  (footnote).  .Sikkim. 
1M43.   Mustila  liiin/ii'lilii  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.■   118.  Bhutan. 
Range:  Ne])al  In  lihutan,  5,000-16,000  ft. 


MUSTELA    SIBIRICA    CANIGULA    HodgSOIl,    1 842 

1842.  Mustela  canigula  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //.■  279.  Lhasa,  Tibet.  Perhaps 

ranging  to  Nepal. 

Mustela  sibirica  hodgsoni  Gray,  1843 

1843.  Mustela  hodgsoni  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  1 18.  Himalayas.  Range:  Kashmir 

and  Western  Himalayas,  from  Chamba  to  Garwhal,  7,000-9,000  ft. 

Mustela  sibirica  itatsi  Temminck,  1844 

1844.  Mustela  itatsi  Temminck,  Fauna  Japonica,  Mamm.  34,  pi.  vii,  fig.  2.  Japan. 
1844.  Mustela  natsi  Temminck,  op.  cit.  34  (footnote).  This  form  is  tentatively  included 

as  a  race  of  j\/.  sibirica  on  the  basis  of  the  B.M.  material. 
Range:  Hokkaido,  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiushiu,  Iki  Island,  Japan. 

Mustela  sibirica  davidiana  Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.  Putorius  davidianus  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  7,  Bull.:  92 

(footnote).  Kiangsi,  Southern  China. 
1904.  Putorius  sibiricus  noctis  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j.-  390.  Sanyentze, 

Fukien,  South-Eastern  China. 
1913.   Mustela   (Lutreola)    taivana  Thomas,   Ann.    Mag.   N.H.    12:   91.    Mt.   Arizan, 

8,000  ft.  Formosa.  (For  status,  see  Pocock,  1941,  370.) 
1922.  Lutreola  melli  Matschie,  Arch.  Nat.  88,  Sect.  A,  10:  35.  Canton  region.  Southern 


Range:  South-Eastern  China,  north  to  Hupeh,  and  Formosa. 

Mustela  sibirica  fontanieri  Milne-Edwards,  1871 

1871.  Putorius fonlatiierii  Milne  Edwards,  Rech.  Mamm.  205,  pi.  61,  fig.  i.    Peiping 
(Pckin),  China. 

1907.  Lutreola  stegmarini  Matschie,  ^Viss.  Ergebn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  China,  10,  i  : 

150.  Near  Tsingtao,  Shantung,  China. 

Range:  Northern  China,  Shantung,  Chihli,  Shensi  and  Shansi. 

Mustela  sibirica  moupinensis  Milne-Edwards,  1874 

1874.  Putorius  moupinensis  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  Mamm.  347,  pis.  59  (fig.  2)  and  60 

(fig.  4).  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 
1910.  Lutreola  major  Hilzheimer,    Zool.   Anz.   j§:   310.   Near   Sungpan,   Northern 

Szechuan,  China.  Not  of  Fatio,  1905;  nor  Nilsson,  1820. 
191  o.  Lutreola  tafeli  Hilzheimer,  loc.  cit.  Near  Sungpan,  Szechuan,  China. 
1 92 1.  Mustela  hamptoni  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2j:  500.  Mt.  Imaw-bum, 

Kachin  Province,  9,000  ft..  Northern  Burma. 

Range:  Szechuan,  Kansu,  Yunnan  and  Northern  Burma. 

Mustela  sibirica  quELP.^RTis  Thomas,  1908 

1908.  Lutreola  quelpartis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  53.  Quelpart  Island,  Korea. 


palae,\rc:tic:  and  indian  mammals  1758-1946 


igii.   MiisUia  manchurica  Brass,  Reiche  Pelze,  490.  Manchuria. 

1 93 1.  Kolonocus  sibiricus  katsurai  Kishida,  Dobuts  Zasshi.  4;):  380,  nom.  nud. 

Range  includes  the  Far  East  of  Siberia. 

MusTELA  SIBIRICA  SHO  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Lutnola  ilatsi  sho  Kuroda,  on  New  Mamm.  from  Riu  Kiu  Islands  and  vicinity, 

Tokyo,   10.  Miyanoura,  Yakushima  Island,  Japan.  Range:  Tanegashima 

and  Yakushima,  south  of  Japan. 

MusTELA  SIBIRICA  coREANA  Domauiewski,  1926 

1926.  Kolonocus  sibiricus  coreanus  Domaniewski,  Ann.  Zool.  Mus.  Polon.  5.-  55.  Seoul, 

1 93 1.  Kolonocus  sibiricus  peninsulae  Kishida,  Dobuts  Zasshi.  4;^:  380,  nom.  nud. 

MusTELA  SIBIRICA  CHARBiNENSis  Lowkashkin,  1934 

1934.   -^ii'^l'l"  [Kolonocus]  sibirica  charbinensis  Lowkashkin,  China  J.  Sci.  &  Arts,  20: 
40.  Krcstowsky  Island,  in  Sungai  River,  near  Harbin,  Manchuria. 

MuSTELA    SIBIRICA    ASAII    Kuroda,    1 943 

1943.  Muslela  sibirica  asaii  Kuroda,  Bull.  Biogeogr.  Soc.  Tokyo,  ij,  8:  55.  Oshima 
Island,  Izu  Islands,  Japan. 

Muslela   lutreola   group 
For  this  group,  Lutreola  Wagner,  1841,  is  available.  It  is  given  subgeneric  rank 
by  many  authors. 

Mustela  lutreola  Linnaeus,  17G1  European  Mink 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  from  Western  France,  eastward  to  the  Tobol 
and  Irtish  Rivers  in  Western  Siberia;  south  to  Austria,  Hungary,  Rumania  and 
Transcaucasia;  north  to  Finland  and  Northern  Russia  (Harper,  1945).  (Bobrinskii 
states  it  ranges  to  Northern  Caucasus  only,  not  Transcaucasia,  and  quotes  it  also 
from  Yugoslavia  and  Italy.)  Distribution  includes  Poland. 

Mustela  lutreola  lutreola  Linnaeus,  1761 

I  761.    Viverra  lutreola  Linnaeus,  Faun.  Succ.  5.  Finland. 

1777.  Lutra  minor  Er;<lcben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anini.  /.•  4-,:.  Renaming  cA lutreola. 

1792.   Mustela  Lutra  fulva  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  173.  Renaming  ui  lutreola. 

(?)  1839.   Mustela  lutreola  var.  alba  de  Selys  Longchamps,  Etudes  Micromamm.  46, 

nom.  nud. 
(?)  1B63.   Putorius  alpinus  Ogcrien,  H.N.  du  Jura,  j.-  59.  Highest  portions  ofjura.  Not 

ofGeblcr,  1823. 
1879.   Lutreola  europaea  Homeyer,  Zool.  Garten,  20:  184.  Substitute  for  lutreola. 
1912.   MuUela  (Lutreola)  lutreola  ivvborgensis  Matschie,  S.B.  Gcs.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  347. 

\'iborg,  Finland. 
Range:  according  to  Bobrinskii,  Finland,  northern  part  of  Russia  as  far  south  as 
Leningrad  Province,  Gorki,  Sverdlovsk,  possibly  Bashkiria. 



191 2.  Muslela  {Lutreola)  lutreola  cylipena  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  348. 

East  Prussia. 
191 2.   Mustela  [Lutreola]  lutreola  budina  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  349.  Ortelsburg,  East  Prussia. 
1912.   Mustela  (Lutreola)  lutreola  varina  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  351.  Schwerin,  Mecklenburg, 

1 91 2.   Mustela  {Lutreola)  lutreola  albica  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  351.  River  Levitz,  tributary 

of  Elbe,  Mecklenburg,  Germany. 
1 91 2.  Mustela  [Lutreola]  lutreola  glogeri  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  354.  Brieg,  Silesia. 
Range:  Lat\ia,  Lithuania,  Germany,  ?  Western  White  Russia. 

Mustela  lutreola  biedermanni  Matschie,  191 2 

1912.  Mustela  [Lutreola]  lutreola  biedermanni  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  353. 

Malicorne,  South-\Vestern  France. 
1912.   Mustela  [Lutreola)  lutreola  aremorica  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  354.  Near  Vimont,  Caen, 


Mustela  lutreola  transsylvanica  Ehik,  1932 

1932.  Mustela  lutreola  transsylvanica  Ehik,  Allat.  Kozlem,  2g:  142.  Kovaszna,  Tran- 

1932.  Mustela  lutreola  hungarica  Ehik,  Allat  Kozlem,  2g:  142.  Komitate  Turoc 
Hungary.  Not  Mustela  eversmanni  hungarica  Ehik,   1928. 

Bobrinskii  only  recognizes  one  race  from  Hungary,  which  he  quotes  under  the 
preoccupied  name  hungarica  from  Hungary,  Rumania,  Southern  Germany,  Yugo- 
slavia, Italy,  apparently  Bessarabia. 

Mustela  lutreola  turovi  "Kuznetzov  &  Novikov,"  1939,  Bobrinskii,  1944 
1944.  L[utreola)  l{utreola)  turovi  Bobrinskii,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  127.  No  exact  locality, 

'"The  Caucasus  mink;  distributed  south  of  the  proceeding  form"  (=  M.  I. 

borealis,  here  renamed  novikovi).  ^Ve  are  unable  to  trace  any  other  reference 

to  this  form  than  that  given  here. 

Mustela  lutreola  novikovi  nom.  nov. 

1939.  Lutreola  lutreola  borealis  Noviko\-,  The  European  Mink  (Leningrad),  63.  Valley 

of  the  River  Byonki,  near  Milet,  Bogorodsk  region,  Moscow  Govt.,  Russia. 

Range:   Estonia,   Eastern   Latvia,   White  Russia,   across  central  zone  of 

European  U.S.S.R.  to  Bashkiria,  apparently  as  far  south  as  the  forest-steppe 

zone.  Not  Mustela  jiavigula  var.  borealis  Radde,  1862. 

Mustela  lutreola  binominata  nom.  nov. 

1939.  Lutreola  lutreola  caucasica  Novikov,  The  European  Mink  (Leningrad),  63. 
Station  Prochladnaya,  Northern  Caucasus.  Not  of  Barrett-Hamilton,  1900. 

Alustela  strigidorsa  group 

Referrable  to  Pocockictis  Kretzoi,  1947,  if  further  subgeneric  division  of  the  genus 
is  required. 


i'ai.aearctk:  axd  Indian  mammals  i7-,8-i94r, 

Mustela  strigidorsa  Gia\-,  1853  Back-striped  Weasel 

Approximate  distribiitidii  of  species:  Nepal,  Sikkini,  Assam,  Burma,  Tcnasscrini 
and  Indo-China. 

Mustela  strigidorsa  Gray,  1853 

i8-,3.   Miislela  stri^odorsa  Gray  (Hodgson  MS.),  P.Z.S.  igi.  Sikkim. 
i8r,5.   Mustela  ^lrii;.idorsa    Hnrsficid,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  107. 
Range :  as  abov  c. 

Suhgciuis  PUTORIUS  Cinier,  181 7 

Mustela  putorius  Linnaeus,  1758.  European  I^)lrcat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species  (as  understood  by  Pocock.  1936):  Britain, 
Norway,  Sweden,  Holkand,  Germany,  France,  Belgium,  Denmark,  Poland,  Switzer- 
land, south  to  Spain,  Italy,  Rumania;  Finland.  The  greater  part  of  Russia,  north  to 
^Vhite  Sea,  south  to  Crimea,  Northern  Caucasus,  etc.,  Kazakstan  and  Southern 
Siberia  as  far  cast  as  the  Amur  region,  approximately.  Mongolia,  and  Palaearctic 
parts  of  China  (southwards  about  to  Szechuan);  Tibet;  Kashmir;  Palestine,  accord- 
ing to  Bodenheimcr;  Morocco.  The  distribution  of  the  Ferret  is  of  course  subject  to 
modification  by  human  agency. 

MiSTEL.\  PUTORIUS  PUTORIUS  Linnacus,  1758 

1758.  Miistda  putorius  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /:  46.  Sweden. 

1 78-).   Mustela  litis  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  87.  Renaming  oi^ putorius. 

1795.  Mustela  furo-pulorius  Link,  Beytr.  Naturgesch.  /.■  83. 

1798.    Viverra  foetens  Thunberg,    Bcskrifning   pa    Svenske    Djur,    i -,.    Renaming   of 

1801.   Mustela  putorius  albus  Bechstein,  Gcmeinn.  Dcutschlands,  2nd  ed.  /.•782. 

Thuringia,  Germany.  Not  alba,  he.  cil.  "]-)<>. 
1827.   Putorius    vulgmrs    Grifhth,    Cuvier's    Anim.     Kingd.    j:     120.    Renaming    of 

(?)  1839.   Mustela  putorius  flavieans  dc  Sclys  Longchamps,  Etudes  de  Micromamm. 

145,  uom.  nud. 
(?)  1839.   Mustela  putorius  \ar.  vison  de  Sclys  Longchamps,  loc.  eit.,  nam.  nud. 
1843.  Putorius  Joetidus  Gray,  List.  Spec.  Mamm.  B.M.  64.  Renaming  oi^ putorius. 
1851.   Putorius  verus  Simashko,  Russ.  Fauna,  2:  357. 

1863.  Putorius  iiifectus  Ogcricn,  H.N.  du  Jura,  3:  59.  Substitute  i'nv  putorius. 
1904.  Putorius  putorius  manium  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  XLag.  N.H.  /  j.-  390.  Teufin, 

Apfenzell,  Switzerland. 
i()2(3.   Putorius  putorius  stantsehinskii   Mehmclcr,    Wiss.    .Mitt.    Univ.    Smolensk,    137. 

Smr)lensk  Govt.,  Russia. 
(?)  1929.   Mustela  putorius  orientalis  Brauncr,   Ukr.   Misl.   ta  Ribalka,   2-3,  8-9.  No 

locality.  Not  of  Ognev,  1928.  (.Y.r.) 

Range:   Europe,  from  Scandina\ia  to  Northern  Spain  and   Mediterranean  coast, 
westwards  to  Britain,  eastwards  to  the  Ural  Mountains. 



MusTELA  puTORius  FURO  Linnaeus,  1758.  Ferret 

1758.  Mustela  furo  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /;  46.  "Africa." 
1865.  Pittorius  foetidus  var.  subrufo  Gray,  P.Z.S.  no.  Bred  in  captivity.  See  page  252 
for  discussion  and  status. 

Mustela  putorius  eversmanni  Lesson,  1827 

1827.  Mustela  eversmanni  Lesson,  Man.  de  Mamm.  144.  Between  Orenburg  and 
Bokhara,  Russian  Turkestan. 

1842.   Mustela  putorinus  'Qlyth,  ].  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //,  i:  281. 

(?)  1944.  M(uslela)  ev{ersmanm)  satunini  "Migulin,  1928,"  Bobrinskii,  Mamm. 
U.S.S.R.  126.  Nagaiskie  steppes.  We  are  unable  to  trace  the  reference  from 
Migulin,  1928.  Bobrinskii  treats  M.  eversmanni  as  a  distinct  species. 

Mustela  putorius  larvatus  Hodgson,  1849 

1849.  Putorius  larvatus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  .Soc.  Bengal,   18:  447.  Utsang,  north  of 

Sikkim,  in  Southern  Tibet. 
1851.  Putorius  tibetanus  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  E.  Ind.  Co.  105.  Utsang,  Southern 

Range:  Tibet  and  Kashmir.  Bobrinskii  considers  this  as  a  subspecies  of  eversmanni. 

Mustela  putorius  aureola  Barrett-Hamilton,  1904 

1904.  Putorius  putorius  aureolus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  ^L^g.  X.H.  ij:  389.  Ferrol, 
Province  of  Coruiia,  Spain. 

Mustela  putorius  michnoi  Kastschenko,  19 10 

1910.  Putorius  eversmanni  var.  michnoi  Kastschenko,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St. 

Petcrsb.  ij:  271.  River  Kiran,  20  km.  from  Troizkosavsk,  Transbaikalia. 
1913.  Mustela  lineiventer  Hollister,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  26:  2.  Tchegan- 

Burgazi  Pass,  Little  Altai,  Siberia. 
Range:  Transbaikal  steppes,  according  to  Bobrinskii,  who  thinks  it  may  be  the  same 
as  larvatus  and  regards  it  as  a  subspecies  oi  eversmanni. 

Mustela  putorius  tiarata  Hollister,  1913 

1913.  Mustela  tiarata  Hollister,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  26:  2.  Chiuningchow, 
150  miles  east  of  Lanchow,  Kansu,  China.  Range:  Mongolia,  Kansu, 
Shansi,  Szechuan.  Treated  as  a  subspecies  oi eversmanni  by  G.  Allen. 

Mustela  putorius  talassica  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Putorius  eversmanni  talassicus  Ognev,  Mem.  Sect.  Zool.  Soc.  Amis.  Sci.  Nat. 
Moscou,  2:  26,  30.  Talassky  Alatau  (north-east  of  Tashkent),  Russian 
Turkestan.  (Bobrinskii  gives  Dzhinak  Golodnaya  Steppe  as  the  locality.) 

Mustela  putorius  hungarica  Ehik,  1928 

1928.  Mustela  eversmanni  hungarica  Ehik,  Ann.  H.N.  Mus.  Hung.  2§:  37.  Magyarova, 

(?)  1944.  .M(ustela)    ev(ersmanni)    occidentalis   "Brauner,    1929,"    Bobrinskii,    \Limm. 

U.S.S.R.   126.  Former  Kherson  Govt.,  Russia.  W^e  are  unable  to  trace 

reference  from  Brauner,  1929. 


pai-aearc:tio  and  Indian  mammals  1 7^,8-1946 

MrsTELA  puTORU's  AMURENSis  Ognev,  1930 

IQ30.  Piitorius  evenmanni  amurerisis  Ognev,  Okhntnik,  No.    ii:   25.  Blagosveschcnsk 
region  of  Amur  Basin,  Eastern  Siberia. 

MuSTEL.-\    PUTORRS    ROTHSC.HILDI    PoCOck,    1 932 

1932.   MuUfla putorius  rotkschildi  Pocock,  .Scot.  Nat.  Edinb.  103.  Malcoci,  Dobrudscha, 

MUSTEL.\    PUTORIIS    .XNGLIA    PoCOck,    1 936 

1936.  Pulorius  pu/orius  angiitis  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  G94.  Liangammarch,  Brecknockshire, 

MUSTELA    PUTORIUS    .\UREA    PoCOck,    1 936 

1936.   Piitorius  pulorius  aureus  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  703.  Kazan,  Central  Russia. 

MUSTEI,.\    PUTORIUS    ADMIR.VFA    PoCOCk,    1 936 

1936.   Pulorius  pulorius  adrniralui  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  706.  Chihfeng,  Chihii,  North-Eastern 

AIUSTELA    PUTORIUS    CALEDONIAE    Tctlcy,    1 939 

1939.  Pulorius  pulorius  caledoniae  Tetley,  P.Z.S.  Ser.  B.,  37.  Lochinver,  Sutherland, 

Incerlae  sedis 

Mustda  rasarhdyi  Krctzoi,  1942,  Eoldt.  Kozl.  Budapest,  jr.-  349,  new  name  for: 
Muslda  hungarica  Vasarhelyi,  1942,  Zool.  Anz.  Leipzig,  /jj/.-  221-226;  not  of  Ehik, 

1929   {M.  eversmanni  hungarica)   nor  of  Ehik,    1932    (M.  lulrcola  hungarica). 

Hungary.  (N.V.) 

Genus  VORMELA  Blasius,  1884 

1884.    ]'ormeIa  Blasius,  Bericht  der  Naturforsch.  Gescllsch.  in  Bembcrg,  /j.-  9.  Mustela 
sarmatica  Pallas  =  Muileia  pcrrgusna  Guldenstaedt. 

I  species:    I'onnela  pcrcgiisna,  page  266 

Vormela  peregusna  Guldenstaedt,  1770  Marbled  Polecat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Rumania,  Bulgaria,  Black  Sea  steppes, 
Crimea,  Ciscaucasia,  and  Kazakstan  to  Western  Altai  foothills,  Transcaucasia;  Asia 
Minor,  Palestine,  Syria,  Iraq,  Persia,  Afghanistan;  Baluchistan;  Mongolia. 

VOR.MEI.A  PEREGUSNA  PERF.GUS.N'.-\  Gtildcnstacdt,  1770 

1770.   Minlcla  pert-gusna  Guldenstaedt,  Nov.  Comm.  Acad.  Sci.  Imp.  Pctrop.  14,  i: 

441.  Banks  of  the  River  Don,  Southern  Russia. 
I  77  I.   Muslda  sainialica  Pallas,  Reise  Prov.  Russ.  Reichs,  /.•  453.  Along  the  Volga 

River,   Southern  Russia.   ^\ccording  to  Chaworth-Musters,   Sysran;  text, 

Inc.    cil.  I.-    175.) 



1935.  Vormela  peregusna  peregusna  natio  intermedia  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  N.  Asia, 

5;    70.   Village   Starogradskaia,   River  Terek,   Kisljar  subdistrict,   Terek 
district,  Caucasus. 
Range:  eastwards  to  Western  Siberia. 

Vormela  peregusna  alpherakii  Birula,  1910 

1910.  Vormela  sarmatica  alpherakii  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  St.  Petersb.  i§:  333.  Trans- 

caspia,  near  Ashabad. 
1910.  Vormela  koshewnikowi  Satunin,   Zool.   Anz.  36:   59.   Ashabad,   near  Persian 

border,  Russian  Turkestan. 
1910.   Vormela  tedshenika  Satunin,  Zool.  Anz.  36:  60.  Tejen  Oasis,  "Oase  Tedschen," 

Russian  Turkestan. 
Range :  Russian  Turkestan,  part,  Persia,  Afghanistan,  Baluchistan. 

Vormela  peregusna  negans  Miller,  1910 

1910.   Vormela  negans  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  38:  385,  pi.  17.  Ordos  Desert 

(about   100  miles  north  of  Yulinfu,  Northern  Shensi),   Inner  Mongolia. 

Ranges  into  Eastern  Turkmenia,  according  to  Bobrinskii. 

Vormela  peregusna  euxina  Pocock,  1936 

1936.  Vormela  peregusna  euxina  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  718.  Malcoci,  Dobrudsha,  Rumania. 

Vormela  peregusna  syriaca  Pocock,  1936 

1936.   Vormela  peregusna  syriaca  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  720.  Tiberias,  Syria.  Range:  to  Western 
Iraq.  (Specimens  in  B.M.  (of  this  race?)  from  Palestine.) 

Vormela  peregusna  ornata  Pocock,  1936 

1936.   Vormela  peregusna  ornata  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  721.  Neighbourhood  of  Lake  Baikal, 

Genus  POECILICTIS  Thomas  &  Hinton,  1920 

1920.  Poecilictis  Thomas  &  Hinton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5.-  367.  Mustela  libyca  Hemp- 
rich  &  Ehrenberg. 

I  species:  Poecilictis  libyca,  page  267 

Poecilictis  libyca  Hemprich  &   Ehrenberg,  1833  Libyan  Striped  Weasel 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Northern  Africa,  from  Morocco  and  Algeria 
to  Libya  and  Egypt,  south  to  the  Sudan  and  Northern  Nigeria. 

Some  earlier  authors,  Trouessart  included,  quoted  this  species  from  Asiatic  Turkey, 
but  we  have  not  been  able  to  verify  it  as  occurring  in  any  part  of  Asia,  and  suspect 
these  allusions  were  caused  by  confusion  with  some  other  small  striped  Mustelid. 

Poecilictis  libyca  libyca  Hemprich  &   Ehrenberg,  1833 

1833.  Mustela  libyca  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm.  2:  k  verso.  Libya. 
Range  includes  Lower  Egypt. 

s  267 

I'Al.AEARtlTIC:  AND  INDIAN"  MAMMALS   1758-1946 
POECILICTIS    LIBYCA    VAILLANTI    Lochc,    1 856 

1856.  ^orillii  vniUanlii  Lochc,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  8:  497,  pi.  22.  Algeria.  Range  includes 
Tunis  and  Morocco. 

Subfamily     M  e  1  1  i  v  o  r  i  n  a  e 

Genus  MELLFVORA  .Storr,  1780 

1780.   Mdlivora  StuFr,  Prodr.  Meth.  Mamni.  34,  and  Tab.  A,  Mamm.  Viverra  ratel 

Sparrmann  =  Viverra  capensis  Schreber. 
1827.  Ratellus  Gray,  Griffith's  Cuvier  Anini.  Kingd.  f^:  1 18.  Viverra  capensis  Schreber. 
1836.   Ursitaxus  Hodgson,  .Vsiat.  Res.  ifj:  61.  I'nilaxus  inauritus  Hodgson. 
1841.  .\/(7i7o/)'.v  Gloger,  Gemein.  Nat.  /.•  57.  Viverra  capensis  Schreber.  (Type  selected 

by  Pocock,  1941,  454-) 
1843.   Lipotus  Sundevall,  Svcnska  \'ct.  Ak.  Handl.  1842:  199.  I'rsus  mellivnrus  Ckuicr 

=   Viverra  capensis  Schreber. 

I  species:  Mdlivora  capensis,  page  268 

Mellivora  capensis  Schreber,  1776  Ratel,  or  Honey  Badger 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Turkmenia  (River  Atrek,  Kopet- 
Dag,  River  Tedshen) ;  Syria,  Palestine,  Afghanistan  (according  to  Bobrinskii),  Persia, 
Arabia;  India,  from  North-West  Frontier  and  Nepal,  south  to  Sind,  Cutch,  Bengal, 
thence  to  the  Madras  Presidency.  Morocco;  Ethiopian  Africa  from  Asben  on  the 
west,  the  Sudan,  Abyssinia  and  Somaliland  on  the  cast,  southwards  to  the  Transvaal, 
and  the  Cape  Province  (Little  Namaqualand  .uid  Uitenhage  district). 

(Mellivora  capensis  capensis  Schreber,  1776.  E.xtralimital) 

1776.    I'iverra  capensis  Schrcbci',  Saugcth.  pi.   125,  also  1777,  j:  451.  C'ape  of  Good 

Mellivor.-\  cape.nsis  iNDiCA  Kerr,  1792 

1792.   Ursus  indicus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  188.  India. 

1830.   Ratelus  mellivorus  Bennett,  Garclens  &  Menag.  Zool.  Soc.  Quad  i  :  i  ■;.  Interior 

of  Madras. 
1835.  Ratelus  indicus  Burton,  P.Z.S.  113.  Upper  Provinces  of  Bengal. 
1851.  Mellivora  ratel  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  E.  Ind.  Co.  120.  India. 
1862.   Mellivora  ratelus  PVaser,  Cat.  Z.  Gdns.  9. 

Range:    Sind,    Cutch,    Hazaribagh,    Western    India,    to    South- Western    Russian 

Mellivora  capensis  inaurita  Hodgson,  1836 

1836.    I'rsttaxus  inauritus  Hodgson,  .\siat.  Res.   i<):  61.   .Muckuanpur,  in  Idntliills  of 

Southern  Nepal.  Range:  foothills  of  Southern  Nepal,  possibly  Kumaon  and 

North-\\'est  Frontier. 



Mellivora  capensis  leuconota  Sclater,  1867 

1867.  Mellivora  leuconota  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  98,  pi.  8.  West  Africa.  Range:  northwards  to 
Southern  Morocco. 

Mellivora  capensis  wilsoni  Cheesman,  1920 

1920.  Mellivora  wilsoni  Cheesman,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  335.  Ram  Hormuz, 
500  ft.,  Arabistan,  South-Western  Persia. 

Mellivora  capensis  pumilio  Pocock,  1946 

1946.  Mellivora  capensis  pumilio   Pocock,   P.Z.S.    ii;j:    314.   Hadramaut,   Southern 

Subfamily     M  e  1  i  n  a  e 

Genus  MELOGALE  I.  Geoffroy,  1831 

1831.  Melogale  I.  Geoffroy,  Belanger,  Voy.  Zool.  Indes  Orient.  129  (19  March). 

Melogale  persona/a  Geoffroy. 
1831.  Helictis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  94  (5  August).  Helictis  moschata  Gray.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1922.  Nesictis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  194.  Helictis  everetti  Thomas,  from  Borneo. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Melogale  moschata,  page  270 
Melogale  personata,  page  269 

Some  authors,  including  Pocock,  have  referred  the  Ferret-Badgers  to  the  genus 
Helictis  Gray,  1831,  and  either  discarded  Melogale  I.  Geoffroy  under  the  impression 
that  it  dated  from  1834,  or  used  it  as  a  subgenus  of  Helictis.  But  Geoffroy's  name  dates 
from  19  March  1831,  a  few  months  earlier  than  Gray's  name  of  5  August  1831.  (For 
the  date  of  publication  oi  Melogale  I.  Geoffroy,  see  Sherborn,  1901,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H. 
j:  390.)  Pocock  (194 1,  396)  gave  the  characters  of  the  two  species  and  recognized  no 
subgenus.  Simpson  (1945,  1 14)  lists  both  Melogale  and  Helictis  as  full  genera.  We  take 
a  middle  view,  and  here  regard  Helictis  as  a  subgenus  of  Melogale. 

Subgenus  MELOGALE  I.  Geoffroy,  1831 

Melogale  personata  Geoffroy,  1831  Burmese  Ferret-Badger 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nepal,  Assam,  Burma,  Siam,  Indo-China. 

Melogale  personata  personata  Geoffroy,  1831 

1831.  Melogale  personata  I.  Geoffroy,  Belanger,  Voy.  Zool.  Indes  Orient.  137,  pi.  5. 
Near  Rangoon,  Burma.  Ranges  to  Assam,  Manipur. 



Melogale  personata  nipalensis  Hodgson,  1836 

1836.  Gulo  nipalensis  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  5;  237.  Nepal. 

1888.  Helictis  orientalis  Blanford,  Mamm.  Brit.   Ind.    173.  Not  of  Horsfield,    1821. 

Range:  Nepal  to  Bhutan  Duars. 

Melogale  personata  pierrei  Bonhote,  1903 

1903.   Hdictis pierrei  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  12:  592.  Near  Saigon,  Cochin-China. 

Melog.^le  personat.'>i  laotum  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Melogale  personata  laotum  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  194.  Nan,  200  m.,  .Siam. 
Ranges  into  Indo-China  (part). 

Melogale  person,\ta  tonquinia  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Melogale  tonquinia  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  195.  Yen-bay,  Songkoi  River, 
Tonkin,  North  Indo-China.  (Osgood  (1932)  thought  this  was  a  synonym  of 


Subgenus  HELICTIS  Gray,  1831 

Melogale  moschata  Gray,  1831  Chinese  Ferret-Badger 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  from  Szechuan  southwards  to  Yunnan, 
thence  to  Fukicn  and  Hainan;  Formosa;  Assam  and  Burma;  Indo-China. 

Melogale  moschata  moschata  Gray,  1831 

1831.  Helictis  moschata  Gray,  P.Z.S.  94.  Canton,  Kwantung,  Southern  China.  The 
range  includes  Yunnan  and  Hainan. 

Melogale  moschata  subaurantiaca  Swinhoe,  1862 

1862.   Helictis  subaurantiaca  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  355.  Formosa. 

1922.  Helictis  subaurantiaca  modesta  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  g:  196.  Bankoro, 
Formosa.  For  status,  see  Pocock  (1941,  404). 

Melog.\le  moschata  ferreogrise.'^  Hilzheimer,  1905 

1905.  Helictis  ferreo-griseus  Hilzheimer,  Zool.  Anz.  2g:  298.  Near  Hankow,  Hupeh, 
China.  Range:  Szechuan,  Fukien  and  adjacent  states,  China.  G.  Allen 
(1938,  396)  lists  a  specimen  from  Shansi — "probably  not  native  there". 

Melogale  mosch,\ta  millsi  Thomas,  1922 

1922.  Helictis  millsi  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  432.  Mokokchung,  Naga 
Hills,  5,000  ft.,  Assam.  Range  includes  Northern  Burma. 

Melog.\le  mosch.^ta  taxilla  Thomas,  1925 

1925.  Helictis  taxilla  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  500.  Ngai-tio,  Tonkin,  3,100  ft.,  Northern  Indo- 



Melogale  (?)  MoscHATA  SORELLA  G.  Allen,  1929 

1929.  Helectis  taxilla  sorella  G.  Allen,  Amer.  Mus.  Nov.  No.  358,  8.  Futsing,  Fukien, 
South-Eastern  China.  Not,  we  think,  "Helictis  taxilla  sorella",  as  Pocock 
(194 1,  401)  shows  that  taxilla  is  very  close  to,  if  not  identical  with,  millsi.  On 
the  other  hand,  G.  Allen  (pp.  396,  398)  lists  specimens  of  both  sorella  and 
ferreogrisea  from  Futsing,  Fukien.  Possibly,  therefore,  sorella  will  have  to  be 
given  specific  rank.  See  also  Pocock  (1941,  405). 

Genus  MELES  Brisson,  1762 

1762.  Aleles  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  13.  Ursus  meles  Linnaeus.  Hopwood  (1947,  P.Z.S. 
533-536)  would  disregard  Brisson  and  date  Meles,  with  type  Ursus  meles 
Linnaeus,  from  Boddaert,  1785,  Elench.  Anim.  /.•  45. 

1795.   Taxus  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy,  Mag.  Encyclop.  2:  187.  Ursiis  meles  Linnaeus. 

1815.  Melesium  Rafinesque,  Anal,  de  la  Nature,  59.  Renaming  of  Taxus. 

1925.  Meledes  Kastschenko,  Bull.  Acad.  Sci.  Ukr.  Phys.-Math.  /,  4:  21.  Meles  taxus 
arenarius  Satunin. 

I  species :  Meles  meles,  page  2  7 1 

Most  authors  seem  now  to  agree  that  there  is  only  one  valid  species  in  this  genus. 

Meles  meles  Linnaeus,  1758  Badger 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  except  that  it  does  not  occur  in  North  Africa, 
essentially  throughout  the  Palaearctic  region,  and  in  Southern  China  somewhat 
south  of  that  region. 

(In  detail,  British  Isles,  west  to  Ireland,  Norway,  Sweden,  Belgium,  France, 
Holland,  Denmark,  Germany,  ?  Switzerland,  Hungary  (B.M.),  Poland,  Spain,  Italy, 
Crete.  Widely  distributed  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  according  to  Bobrinskii  the  whole  of 
Russia  except  the  Pechora  basin;  Turkestan  and  across  Siberia  approximately  as  far 
north  as  a  line  from  Surgut-on-Ob  to  Nikolaevsk-on-Amur;  does  not  occur  in  Sak- 
halin; Chinese  Turkestan,  Tibet,  Mongolia,  Korea,  Japan.  Throughout  the  main 
states  of  China,  except,  evidently,  Yunnan.  Asia  Minor,  Persia  and  Palestine.  (Tate, 
1947,  quotes  M.  m.  leucurus  from  extreme  Northern  Burma.)  ) 

Meles  meles  meles  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Ursus  meles  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  48.  Upsala,  Sweden. 

1785.  Meles  taxus  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  /.■  80.  Europe. 

1788.  Ursus  meles  alba  Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.•  102. 

1788.  Ursus  meles  maculata  Gmelin,  loc.  cit. 

1808.  Taxus  vulgaris  Tiedemann,  Zoologie,  /."  376.  Renaming  of  Ursus  meles. 

1816.  Meles  europaeus  Desmarest,  Nouv.  Diet.  H.N.  3:  465.  Renaming  of  meles. 
1827.  Meles  communis  Billberg,  Synop.  Faun.  Scandinaviae,  16.  Renaming  of  meles. 
1827.  Afeles  communis  caninus  Billberg,  loc.  cit.  17.  Scandinavia. 

1899.  Aleles  meles  typicus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  384. 

1906.   Aleles  meles  britannicus  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kauk.  Mus.  2:   115.  Based  on  cranial 

measurements  of  English  specimens  recorded  by  Barrett-Hamilton,   1899, 

Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  384. 
Range:  from  Italy,  north  to  Scandinavia,  west  to  Ireland,  east  to  Russia. 



Meles  meles  anakuma  Temminck,  1844 

1844.   Meles  anakuma  Temminck,  Fauna  Japonica,  Mamm.  30,  pi.  6.  Environs  of 

Nagasaki  and  Awa,  Japan.  Range:  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiusiu,  ?  Hokkaido, 


Meles  meles  leucurus  Hodgson,  1847 

1847.   Taxidea  leueurus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  iG:  763,  pi.  29.  Lhasa,  Tibet. 

Meles  meles  amurensis  Schrenck,  1859 

1859.  Meles  taxus  amurensis  Schrenck,  Reisen  Amur-Lande,   17,  pi.  i,  fig.  i.  Amur 

region,  not  far  from  mouth  of  Ussuri  River. 
1891.   Meles  sehrenkii  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  103.  Alternative  name  for 

Range:  Amur-Ussuri  region,  Manchuria. 

Meles  meles  leptorhynchus  Milne-Edwards,  18G7 

1867.  Meles  leptorhynchus  Milne-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  8:  374.  Near  Pekin, 

Chihli,  China. 

1868.  Meles  chinensis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  207.  Amoy,  Clhina. 

1907.   Ateles  hanensis  Matschic,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  China,  10,  i  :  138. 

Hinganfu,  Shensi,  China. 
1907.   Meles  sinins^ensis  Matschie,  he.  (it.  Siningfu,  Kansu,  China. 
1907.   Meles  tsingtauensis  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  142.  Tsingtao,  Shantung,  China. 
Range:  China,  including  states  of  Chihli,  Shantung,  Chekiang,  Kiangsu,  Shansi, 
Shensi,  Hunan,  Fukien,  Kansu,  Szcchuan. 

Meles  meles  canescens  Blanford,  1875 

1875.  Mdes  canescens  Blanford,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  310.  Abadeh,  between  Shiraz 
and  Isfahan,  7,000  ft.,  Persia. 

Meles  meles  arenarius  Satunin,  1895 

1895.   Meles  taxus  arenarius  Satunin,  Arch.  Nat.  /;  i  i  i.  Ryn  Peski,  Astrakhan  Govt., 
South-Eastern  Russia.  Range:  Caucasus  steppes. 

Meles  meles  marianensis  Graells,  1897 

1897.   Meles  taxus  var.  marianensis  Graells,  Mem.  Real.  Acad.  Cien.  Madrid,  ij:  170. 
Central  Spain. 

1899.  Meles  meles  mediterraneus  Barrett-Hamilton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  4:  384.  Seville, 


MeLes  meles  siBiRicus  Kastschenko,  1900 

1900.  Meles  taxus  sibincus  Kastschenko,  Key  to  Mamm.  Tomsk,  table  15  (Russia), 

and  1 90 1,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  6:  611.  Plains  of  central 
part  of  Tomsk  Govt.,  Siberia. 

Meles  meles  raddei  Kastschenko,  1901 

1 90 1.  Meles  amurensis  raddei  Kastschenko,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  6: 

613.  Steppes  of  Transbaikalia,  Eastern  Siberia. 


Meles  meles  altaicus  Kastschenko,  igoi 

igoi.  Meles  amurensis  altaicus  Kastschenko,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb. 
6:  613.  Coast  of  Lake  Telezkoi,  South-Western  Russian  Altai. 

Meles  meles  minor  Satunin,  1905 

1905.  Meles  meles  minor  Satunin,  Priroda  i.  Ochota,   2:  467.   (M.V.)    1905,   Mitt. 
Kaukas  Mus.  2:  113  (German,  288).  Borzom,  Gouv.  Tiflis,  Transcaucasia. 

Meles  meles  arcalus  Miller,  1907 

1907.  Meles  arcalus  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  394.  Lassethe  Plain,  Crete. 

Meles  meles  blanfordi  Matschie,  1907 

1907.  Meles  blanfordi  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Filchner  E.xped.  to  China,  10,  i :  143. 
Kashgar,  Chinese  Turkestan. 

Meles  meles  tianschanensis  Hoyningen-Huene,  19 10 

1910.  Aleles  tianschanensis  Hoyningen-Huene,  Zur.  Biol.  Estlandisch.  Dachses,  63. 
Tianshan  Mountains. 

Meles  meles  melanogenys  J.  Allen,  191 3 

1913.  Meles  melanogenys  }.  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  ^2.'  433.  Musan,  Northern 


Meles  meles  rhodius  Festa,  1914 

1914.  Meles  meles  rhodius  Festa,  Boll-  Mus.  Zool.  Anat.  Comp.  Torino,  2g:  6.  Koskino, 

Island  of  Rhodes,  Eastern  Mediterranean. 

Meles  meles  ponticus  Blackler,  1916 

1916.  Meles  meles  ponticus  Blackler,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  75.  Scalita,  near  Trebizond, 
3,000  ft.,  Asia  Minor. 

Meles  meles  caucasicus  Ognev,  1926 

1926.  Meles  meles  caucasicus  Ognev,  Bull.  Sci.  Inst.  Expl.  Caucasus,  /.•  50,  56.  Near 
Vladikavkaz  (Ordzhonikidze),  Caucasus. 

Meles  meles  tauricus  Ognev,  1926 

1926.  Meles  meles  tauricus  Ognev,  Bull.  Sci.  Inst.  Expl.  Caucasus,  /.•  51,  56.  Chatyr- 
Dag,  Beshuisk  Forest,  Crimea,  Southern  Russia. 

Meles  meles  talassicus  Ognev,  1931 

1 93 1.  Meles  leptorhjnchus  talassicus  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  2:  478.  Southern  slopes 
of  Talasski  Alatau,  north-east  of  Tashkent,  Russian  Turkestan. 

Meles  meles  hept.neri  Ognev,  1931 

1 93 1.  Meles  meles  heptneri  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  2:  775.  Village  of  Aleksandro 
Nevskaia,  18  km.  north-west  of  Kisljar,  Daghestan,  Caucasus. 



Meles  meles  DANicis  Dcgcibol,  1933 

1933.   Meles    meles    danicus    Degerbol,    Danmarks    Pattcdyr    i    Fortidcn,    574,    634. 
SjacUand,  Denmark. 

Meles  meles  severzovi  Hcptner,  1940 

1940.  Meles  meles  severzovi  Heptner,  Z.  Sauget.  /j;  224.  Region  of  Arkit,  Chodscha- 

ata  Valley,  south  of  Tschatkal  Mountains,  near  Lake  Sarytschilek,  Russian 


Genus  ARCTONYX  F.  Cuvicr,  1825 

1825.  Arctomx  F.  Cuvier,  H.N.  Mamm.  j,  pt.  51,  pi.  and  text.  Arctonyx  collaris  Cuvier. 
1891.  Trichomanis  Hubrecht,  Notes  Leyd.  Mus.  13:  241 .  Trichomanis  hoevenii  Hubrecht 
(the  Sumatran  race  of  .-1.  collaris). 

I  species:  Arctonyx  collaris,  page  274 

Arctonyx  collaris  F.  Cuvier,  1825  Hog-Badger 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  all  the  larger  states  of  China;  Sikkim  Terai  to 
Assam  and  Burma;  Indo-China,  Siam  (south  at  least  to  Trang)  and  Sumatra. 

Arctonyx  collaris  collaris  F.  Cuvier,  1825 

1825.  Arctonyx  collaris  F.  Cuvier,  H.N.  Mamm.  j,  pt.  51,  pi.  and  text.  Bhutan  Duars, 

Eastern  Himalayas. 
1853.  Arctonyx  laxoides  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  22:  591.  Assam. 
1856.  Arctonyx  isonyx  Horsfield  (Hodgson  MS.),  P.Z.S.  398.  Sikkim  Terai. 
1863.  Arctonyx  collaris  taraiyensis  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson's  Coll.  B.M.,  2nd  ed.  7.  Sikkim 

Range:  Sikkim  Terai,  Bhutan  Duars,  Assam. 

Arctonyx  collaris  albogularis  Blyth,  1853 

1853.  Meles  albogularii  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  22:  590.  Eastern  Tibet.  (More 

likely,  perhaps,  from  Szechuan,  China?) 
1 87 1.   Meles    (Arctonyx)    obscurus   Milne-Edwards,    Rech.    H.N.    Mamm.    200,    202. 

Szechuan,  China. 
191  I.  Arctonyx  leucolaemus  orestes  Thomas,  Abstr.   P.Z.S.   27;   P.Z.S.  688.  Tsingling 

Mountains,  Shensi,  12,000  ft.,  China. 

1922.  Arctonyx  obscurus  incultus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  395.  Chinteh,  Anhwei 

(about  150  km.  west  of  Hangchow),  China. 
Range:  Southern  China,  northwards  to  Shensi.  For  status  of  this  race  (which  G. 
.Allen  thought  was  a  synonym  of  the  typical  race)  sec  Pocock  (1941,  427,  434). 

.\rctony.\  collaris  leucolaemus  Milne-Edwards,    1867 

1867.   Meles  leucolaemus  Milne-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  8:  374.  Near  Pckin, 
Chihli,  China. 

1923.  Arctonyx  leucolaemus  milne-edwardsii  Lonnberg,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  322.  Min- 

shan.  Southern  Kansu,  China. 



Arctonyx  collaris  dictator  Thomas,  19  lo 

1910    Arctonyx  dictator  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  5."  424.  Lamra,  Trang,  Lower  Siam. 
(?)  1 92 1.  Arctonyx  annaeus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  7;  524.  Nhatrang,  Annam, 

Arctonyx  collaris  consul  Pocock,  1940 

1940.  Arctonyx  collaris  consul  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  41:  465.  Thaundaung, 
near  Toungoo,  4,500  ft..  Lower  Burma.  Range:  Northern  Tenasserim  to 


Subfamily     L  u  t  r  i  n  a  e 

Genus  LUTRA  Brisson,  1762 

1762.  Lutra  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  13.  Alustela  Intra  Linnaeus.  Hopwood  (1947, 
P.Z.S.  533-536)  would  disregard  Brisson  and  date  Lutra  from  Briinnich, 
1 77 1.  Zool.  Fundamenta,  34,  42,  type  Mustela  lutra  Linnaeus. 

1806.  Lutris  Dumeril,  Zool.  Analytique,  12.  Modification  oi  Lutra. 

1 81 5.  Lutrix  Rafinesque,  Anal,  de  la  Nature,  59.  Substitute  for  Lutra. 

1865.  Barangia  Gray,  P.Z.S.  123.  Lutra  sumatrana  Gray. 

1865.  Lutrogale  Gray,  P.Z.S.  127.  'The  species  identified  by  Gray  as  monticola  Hodg- 
son, which  is  perspicillata  Geoffrey,  not  monticola  Hodgson."  Valid  as  a 

1867.  Lutronectes  Gray,  P.Z.S.  180.  Lutronectes  whiteleyi  Gray  =  Mustela  lutra 

192 1.  Hydrictis  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  543.  Lutra  maculicollis  Lichtenstein,  from  South  Africa. 
Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

3  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Lutra  lutra,  page  275 
Lutra  perspicillata,  page  277 
Lutra  sumatrana,  page  277 
Of  these,  L.  sumatrana  is  nearly  extralimital,  only  touching  the  region  now  under 
discussion  in  Indo-China.  L.  perspicillata  belongs  to  the  genus  or  subgenus  Lutrogale. 
Pocock  gave  this  generic  rank,  but  there  seems  to  be  too  much  tendency  to  genus- 
splitting  in  the  subfamily,  and  we  provisionally  regard  it  as  a  subgenus.  For  characters, 
see  Pocock  (1941),  in  which  the  three  species  are  discussed. 

Subgenus  LUTRA  Brisson,  1762 

Lutra  lutra  Linnaeus,  1758  Common  Otter 

Appro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  widely  distributed  in  the  Palaearctic  region, 
and  in  the  Indo-Malayan  region  as  far  as  Java. 

(In  detail,  known  from  British  Isles,  Ireland  included,  France,  Holland,  Belgium, 
Spain,  Italy,  Switzerland,  Norway,  Sweden,  Denmark,  Germany,  Bohemia,  Hun- 
gary, Rumania  (?  other  countries  in  Europe);  Poland;  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  according  to 


i'ai.a[-:arc:tk;  a\d  Indian  mammals  1758-1946 

Bobrinskii  it  is  widely  distributed  but  nearly  everywhere  rare;  it  fails  to  occur  only  in 
the  extreme  north-east  of  European  Russia,  the  extreme  north  of  Siberia,  Crimea, 
and  in  a  large  part  of  Kazakstan  and  the  lowlands  of  Central  Asia.  Chinese  Turkestan, 
Tibet;  Japan,  Formosa;  all  the  larger  states  of  China,  Chihli  perhaps  excepted; 
Hainan.  Ceylon,  Southern  India,  Kashmir  to  Nepal,  Assam,  Northern  Burma;  Indo- 
C^hina,  has  been  recorded  from  Siam.  Sumatra  and  Java.  Asia  Minor  (B.M.),  Persia, 
Palestine.  Morocco  and  Algeria.) 

LiTRA  n"rRA  LUTRA  Linuaeus,  1 758 

1758.   Mustda  lulia  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  45.  Upsala,  Sweden. 

1777.   Lustra  vulgaris  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  /.•  448.  Renaming  o{ Intra. 

i7C)2.  Mustela  Lutra  piscatoria  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  172.  Renaming  of  lutra. 

(?)  1816.  Lutra  ftuviatilis  Leach,  Syst.  Cat.  Spec.  Indig.  Mamm.  &  Birds  B.AL  6, 
num.  null. 

1827.  Lutra  vulgaris  var.  marinus  Billberg,  Synops.  Faunae  Scandinaviae,  28.  Coasts  of 
Scandinavia.  Not  of  Erxleben,  1777. 

1834.  Lutra  nudipt's  Melchior,  Den  Danske  Stats  og  Norges  Pattedyr,  50.  Coasts  of 
Northern  Norway. 

1 8  ^54.  Lutra  roensis  Ogilby,  P.Z..S.  1 1 1 .  Roe  Mills,  near  Newton  Lemavaddy,  London- 
derry, Ireland. 

1867.  Lutronectes  whiteleyi  Gra.y,  P.Z.S.  181.  Japan. 

1887.  Lutra  lutra  var.  japonica  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  No.  3:  22.  Re- 
naming of  ivhitelevi. 

(?)  iq22.  Lutra  vulgaris  var.  baicalensis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  349, 
noni.  nud.  Near  Lake  Baikal. 

(?)  1922.  Lutra  vulgaris  va.T.  amurensis  Dybowski,  loc.  cit.  Amur,  Ussuri  regions,  nom.  nud. 

(?)  1922.  Lutra  vulgaris  var.  kamtschatica  Dybowski,  loc.  cit.,  nom.  nud.  Kamtchatka. 

(?)  1936.  /.((/ra  .i7(7V;f;^(77  Goldman,  J.  Mamm.  ly:  164.  Pctropavlovsk,  Kamtchatka. 

Range:  European  and  .Siberian  range  of  the  species,  and  Japan  (including  Kuriles, 
Hondo,  .Shikciku,  Kiushiu). 

Li'TR.'^  LUTR.\   B.\RANG  F.  Cuvier,  1823 

1823.  Lutra  lutra  harang  F.  Cuvier,  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  Paris,  2j:  246.  Sumatra.  Range 
includes  Java,  also  Annam  and  Siam. 

Lltr.\   lutr.'\  \   F.  Cuvier,  1823 

1823.  Lutra  nair  F.  C:u\ier,  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  Paris,  2j:  247.  Pondicherry,  India. 

1837.   Lutra  indica  Gray,  Charlesworth's  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  580.  Madras. 

ir)20.  Lutra  lutra  cevlomca  Pfihle,  Arch.  Naturg.  8f;,  9:  72.  Nuwara  Eliya,  Ceylon. 

Range:  Ceylon  and  Southern  India  (known  from  Coorg,  Nilgiri  and  Palni  Hills). 

Ll  TRA    LUTRA    CHI.N'ENSIS    Gray,    1837 

1837.  Lutra  chimnsis  Gray,  Mag.  N.H.  /.■  580.  Probably  neighbourhood  of  Canton, 

Sijuthern  C-hina. 
1897.   Lutra  sinensis  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  283. 
(?)  1007.  Lutra  hanensis  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  iMKhner  Exped.  to  China,   10,   i: 

150.  Hsinganfu,  Shensi,  China. 
Raiit'c:  Chin.i,  Hainan  and  Formosa. 


LUTRA    LUTRA    MONTICOLA    HodgSOn,    1 839 

1839.  Lutra  monticolus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  8:  320.  Nepal.  Range:  Punjab, 
Kumaon,  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Assam. 

LuTRA    LUTRA    AUROBRUNNEA    HodgSOn,    1 839 

1839.  Lutra  aurobrunneus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  8:  320.  Nepal. 
1865.  Barangia  ?  nepalensis  Gray,  P.Z.S.   124.  Nepal. 

Range:  Nepal,  at  high  altitudes,  and  Garhwal. 

Lutra  lutra  kutab  Schinz,  1844 

1844.  Lutra  kutab  Schinz,  Syn.  Mamm.  354.  Kashmir.  Range:  to  Tibet. 

Lutra  lutra  angustifrons  Lataste,  1885 

1885.  Lutra  angustifrons  Lataste,  Actes  Soc.  Linn,  de  Bordeaux,  jg:  168,  237.  Algeria. 
A  doubtful  form;  synonym  of/,.  /.  lutra  according  to  Miller  (191 2),  but 
available  for  the  North  African  Otter  if  it  proves  racially  separable. 

1906.  Lutra  lutra  splendida  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  6:  360. 
Mogador,  Morocco. 

Lutra  lutra  seistanica  Birula,  191 2 

igi2.  Lutra  lutra  seistanica  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  ij:  274. 

River  Gilmend,  Seistan,  Persia. 
1915.  Lutra  lutra  oxiana  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  ig:  xxi.  River 

Pjandsh,  Pamir  Mountains. 

Range:  includes  Palestine. 

Lutra  lutra  meridionalis  Ognev,  1931 

193 1.  Lutra  lutra  meridionalis  Ognev,  Mamm.  E.  Europe,  2:  527.  Surroundings  of 
Teheran,  Northern  Persia. 

Lutra  sumatrana  Gray,  1865  Hairy-nosed  Otter 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Borneo,  Banka,  Sumatra,  Malay  States,  north 
to  Annam  in  Indo-China. 

Lutra  sumatrana  Gray,  1865 

1865.  Barangia  sumatrana  Gray,  P.Z.S.  123.  Sumatra.  (Range  as  above.) 

Subgenus  LUTROGALE  Gray,  1865 

Lutra  perspicillata  Geoffroy,  1826  Smooth-coated  Indian  Otter 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sumatra,  Malay  States,  Indo-China,  possibly 
Western  Yunnan,  Burma,  Assam,  Nepal  Terai,  Sind,  and  southwards  to  Travancore 
in  India. 


LUTRA    PERSPICILLATA    PERSPICILLATA    I.   Gcoffroy,    1 826 

1826.  Lutra  perspicillata  I.  Gcoffroy,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  9;  519.  Sumatra. 

1827.  Lutra  simung  Lesson,  Man.  Mamm.  156.  Sumatra. 

1839.  ■^"''■'z  taravensis  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  8:  319.  Nepal  Tcrai. 
1865.  Lutra  macrodus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  128.  Madras  (see  Pocock,  1941,  294). 
1879.  Lutra  ellioti  Anderson,  Zool.  Res.  Yunnan,  212.  Madras,  India. 
Range:  as  in  the  species,  excepting  Sind. 

LUTR.'\    PERSPICILLATA    SINDIC.\    PoCOck,    1940 

1940.  Lutrogale  perspicillata  sindica  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  41:  517.  Chak, 
Sukkur  district.  Western  Sind,  India.  Range:  Indus  Valley,  from  Bahawal- 
pur  (Northern  Rajputana)  to  Sind. 

Genus  AONYX  Lesson,  1827 

1827.  Aonyx  Lesson,  Man.  Mamm.  157.  Aonyx  dtialandi  Lesson  =  Lutra  capensis 
Schinz,  the  Large  Small-clawed  Otter  of  Tropical  and  South  Africa. 

1832.  Amblonyx  Rafinesque,  Atlantic  J.  /.•  62.  Amblonyx  concolor  Rafincsque.  Valid  as 
a  subgenus. 

1842.  Leptonvx  Lesson,  Nouv.  Tabl.  Regn.  Anim.  Mamm.  /.■  72.  Lutra  Iffitonxx  Hors- 
ficld  =  Lutra  cinerea  Illiger.  Not  of  Swainson,   1821. 

1920.   Micraoryx].  Allen,  J.  Mamm.  /.•  24.  Lutra  cinerea  Illiger. 

The  name  Amblonyx  is  used  as  a  genus  by  Pocock  (1941)  and  is  so  listed  by  Simpson 
( i945)>  ^nd  G.  Allen  (1938)  treated  the  species  as  a  genus  under  the  name  Micraonyx. 
However,  notwithstanding  the  differences  pointed  out  by  J.  Allen  in  1920  between 
the  small  Oriental  and  the  large  Ethiopian  short-clawed  otters,  we  prefer  to  follow 
Osgood  (1932,  Field  Mus.  N.H.  J^ool.  18:  193,  et  seq.)  who  in  a  paper  on  Indo-Chinese 
Mammals  lists  the  Oriental  small-clawed  Otter  as  Aonyx  cinerea.  Chasen  (1940)  in- 
cludes cinerea  in  the  genus  Lutra,  but  the  short  claws  of  this  and  allied  species  are,  in 
our  opinion,  of  generic  value. 
I  species  in  Asia: 

Aonyx  cinerea,  page  278 

Subgenus  AMBLONYX  Rafinesque,  1832 

Aonyx  cinerea  Illiger,  181 5  Oriental  Small-clawed  Otter 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  China  (Yunnan,  Hainan,  Fukien) ; 
Northern  Burma,  Assam,  Sikkim,  Nepal,  Eastern  Punjab;  Nilgiri  Hills  and  Coorg,  in 
Peninsular  India;  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Palawan. 

Aonyx  cinerea  cinerea  Illiger,  181 5 

1815.  Lutra  cinerea  Illiger,  Abh.  .Akad.  Phys.  Klasse  W'iss.  Berlin,  1804-11:  90,  99. 

Batavia,  Java. 
1823.  Lutra  leptonyx  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Java,  pt.  7,  pi.  Java. 

This  race  is  probably  extralimital,  although  used  by  both  G.  Allen  for  China  and 
Osgood  for  Indri-China.  Perhaps  their  specimens  represented  the  ne.xt  race. 



AoNYx  ciNEREA  coNCOLOR  Rafinesque,  1832 

1832.  Amblonyx  concolor  Rafinesque,  Atlantic  J.  /;  62.  Garo  Hills,  Assam. 

1839.  Lutra  indigitatus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  8:  320.  Nepal. 

1855.  Aonyx  sikimensis  Horsfield  (Hodgson  MS.),  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  109.  Sikkim. 

(?)  1867.  Lutra  (Hydrogale)  swinhoei  Gray,  P.Z.S.  182.  Gawkang  Island,  near  Amoy, 

Southern  China.  See  Pocock  (1941,  307,  footnote)  on  status  and  locality. 
(?)  1920.  Amblonyx  cinerea  fulvus  Pohle,  Arch.  Nat.  85,  9:   133.  Lao  Key,  Tonkin, 

Range:  Himalayas  to  Annam  ?  and  Southern  China,  west  to  Kulu  f Eastern  Punjab). 

AoNYX    CINERE.'^    NIRNAI    PoCOCk,    I94O 

1940.  Amblonyx  cinerea  nirnai  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  6i:  515.  Virajpet, 
Southern  Coorg,  3,000  ft.,  India.  Range:  Southern  India. 

Genus  ENHYDRA  Fleming,  1822 

1822.  Enhydra  Fleming,  Philos.  of  Zool.  s:  iSj.  Muslela  lutris  Linnaeus. 
1816.  Pusa  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  j,  2:  985.  Not  of  Scopoli,  1777. 
1827.  Latax  Gloger,  Nova  Acta  Phys.  Med.  Acad.  Caes.  Leop.  Carol,  /j,  2:  51 1.  To 
replace  Enhydra  on  the  grounds  that  it  was  preoccupied  by  Enhydris  Merrem, 
1829.  Enydris  Fischer,  Syn.  Mamm.  228.  Emendation  oi Enhydra  Fleming. 
I  species:  Enhydra  lutris,  page  279 

Enhydra  lutris  Linnaeus,  1758  Sea  Otter 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  coasts  of  North-western  North  America  and 
North-Eastern  Asia.  Southern  Kamtchatka  (where  rare)  and  Commander  Islands 
are  the  sole  U.S.S.R.  localities  quoted  by  Bobrinskii.  Kurile  Islands. 

Enhydra  lutris  lutris  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Mustela  lutris  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  45,  Kamtchatka. 

1777.  Lutra  marina  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  445,  Kamtchatka. 

(?)  1800.  Lutra  gracilis  Bechstein,  Uebers.  vierf.  Thiere,  2:  408.  "Statenland"  (accord- 
ing to  Hollister,  1921,  J.  Mammal.  2:  177,  the  southernmost  island  of  the 
Kurile  group  is  meant). 

1816.  Pusa  orientalis  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  j,  2:  986. 

1827.  Lutra  stelleri  Lesson,  Man.  Mamm.  156,  Kamtchatka. 

1922.  Enhydra  lutris  kamtschatica  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.■  350,  nom.  mid. 


Genera:  Arctictis,  page  290  Lchneumia,  page  298 

Arctogalidia,  page  290  Paguma,  page  288 

Chrotogale,  page  292  Paradoxurus,  page  285 

Cynogale,  page  292  Prionodon,  page  284 

Genetta,  page  283  Viverra,  page  280 

Hemigalus,  page  291  Viverricula,  page  282 
Herpestes,  page  292 



This  family  was  divided  into  two  by  Pocock,  Viverridae  and  Herpestidae,  and  the 
former  subdivided  into  numerous  subfamilies.  So  far  as  the  present  region  is  con- 
cerned, Simpson  (1945)  lists  four  subfamilies,  here  retained,  with  genera  as  follows: 

Subfamily  \"iverrinae 

Tribe  \'iverrini  Genetta,  Viverricula,  Viverra. 

Tribe   Prionudontini     Prionodo7i. 

Subfamily  Paradoxurin'ae 

Tribe  Arctogalidiini     Arciogahdia. 

Tribe  Paradoxurini      Paradoxurus,  Paguma,  Arctic/is. 

Subfamily  Hemigalinae 

Tribe  Hemigalini  Himigaliis,  Chrotogale. 

Tribe  Cynogalini  Cynognle. 

Subfamily  Herpestinae 

Herpatei,  Ichneumia. 

For  the  characters  of  the  above  genera  see  Pocock  (1941).  For  the  Indian  Civets, 
see  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  of  British  India,  i:  331,  and  for  the  Indian  Mongooses,  1941, 
2:  2.  For  non-Indian  genera  see  Pocock,  1933,  Rarer  genera  of  Oriental  Viverridae, 
P.^.S.  969,  in  which  the  characters  of' Chrotogale  and  Cvnogale  are  given;  also  Pocock, 
1919,  Classification  of  the  Mongooses,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j;  516  (Herpestes,  Ichneumia), 
and  Pocock,  1915,  P-Z-'^-  ^S')  where  the  external  characters  of  Genetta  are  compared 
with  those  of  its  immediate  allies.  In  the  igig  paper,  Mungos  is  used  for  forms  now 
called  Herpestes.  A  noticeable  feature  of  the  skulls  of  Genetfa  in  the  Palaearctic  region 
compared  with  Viverra  (Indian  species)  and  Viverricula  is  that  the  last  two  have  the 
sagittal  crest  strongly  developed,  whereas  in  Genetta  it  is  normally  weak.  Chrotogale, 
with  its  peculiar  incisors  and  widely  open  palatal  foramina,  seems  very  distinct  from 
its  nearest  ally  Hernigalus.  Three  of  the  thirteen  genera  listed  above  only  just  come 
into  the  region  now  under  discussion:  Cvnogale  and  Chrotogale  in  Indo-China,  and 
Ichneumia  in  Southern  Arabia. 

Subfamily     V  i  \-  e  r  r  i  n  a  e 

Genus  VrVERRA  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Viverra  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  43.  ]'iverra  zihetha  Linnaeus. 
1933.  Moschothera  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  j6'.-  441.  Viverra  civettina  Blyth.  Valid 
as  a  subgenus. 

2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Viverra  megaspila,  page  281 
Viverra  zihetha,  page  281 

Pocock  proposed  Moichothera  as  a  full  genus,  but  we  regard  it  as  being  of  only  sub- 
generic  status.  Simpson  (1945)  does  not  mention  it.  According  to  Pocock,  Robinson 



and  Kloss  regarded  civettina  as  a  geographical  race  of  megaspila,  and  we  concur  with 
that  view.  For  a  comparison  of  the  two  species  here  admitted,  see  Pocock  (1939,  344)- 
A  third  species,  V.  tangalunga  Gray,  1832,  which  is  nea.r  zibetha  but  smaller  in  size, 
occurs  in  the  Malay  States  and  Islands. 

Subgenus  VIVERRA  Linnaeus,  1758 

Viverra  zibetha  Linnaeus,  1758  Large  Indian  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  China,  from  Fukien  westwards  to 
Yunnan,  thence  northwards  to  Szechuan  and  Southern  Shensi;  Hainan;  Burma, 
westwards  through  Assam  to  Nepal;  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States. 

Viverra  zibetha  zibetha  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Viverra  zibetha  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  44.  Bengal. 

1830.   Viverra  undulata  Gray,  Spic.  Zool.,  pt.  2,  9,  pi.  8.  Nepal. 

1842.   Viverra  orientalis  or  melanurus  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J.N. H.  2:  47.  Nepal. 

1842.   {Viverra)  civettoides  Hodgson,  loc.  cit.  62. 

Range:  Nepal,  eastwards  to  South  Kamrup  in  Assam. 

Viverra  zibetha  ashtoni  Swinhoe,  1864 

1864.    Viverra  ashtoni  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  379.  Suykaou,  Min  Ri\cr,  Fukien,  Southern 

1907.   Viverra  Jikhneri  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Filchner  Exped.  to  China,  /o,  i :  192. 

Hinganfu,  South-Eastern  Shensi,  China. 
Range:  Chinese  range  of  the  species,  as  given  above. 

Viverra  zibetha  picta  Wroughton,  19 15 

1915.  Viverra  zibetha  picta  \Vroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  64.  H'Kamti,  500  ft.. 
Upper  Chindwin,  Northern  Burma. 

(?)  1927.  Viverra  zibetha  surdaster  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  46.  Xieng  Khouang,  Laos,  Indo- 

Range:  Assam,  Northern  Burma,  Indo-China. 

Viverra  zibetha  pruinosa  Wroughton,  191 7 

1917.   Viverra  zibetha  pruinosa  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H  Soc.  24:  64.  Thaget,  Little 

Tenasserim  River,  Tenasserim. 
1920.    Viverra  zibetha  sigillata  Robinson  &  Kloss,  Rec.  Ind.  Mus.  ig,  4:  176.  Bang  Nara, 

Patani,  Siamese  Malaya. 
Range:  Tenasserim  to  Malay  Peninsula. 

Subgenus  MOSCHOTHERA  Pocock,  1933 

Viverra  megaspila  Blyth,  1862  Large-spotted  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Burma,  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States, 
Western  Ghats  and  Travancore  in  Peninsular  India. 

\'lVERRA    MEGASPILA    MEGASPILA    BIyth,    1 862 

1862.   Viverra  megaspila  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ji:  331.  Prome,  Lower  Burma. 
Range:  Burma,  Siam,  Indo-China,  Malav  States. 

\'lVERliA    MEGASPILA    CIVETTI.N.Il    BK'th,    1 862 

1862.   Viierra  civettina  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  j/.-  332.  Travancore,  Southern 
India.  Considered  a  distinct  species  by  Pocock  (1941)  and  others. 

Genus  VIVERRICULA  Hodgson,  1838 

1838.   ]'ivcrricitla  Hodgson,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /;   152.  Cive.tta  xndica  GeofFroy  'Viverra 
indica  Desmarest). 

I  species  Viverricula  indica,  page  282 

Viverricula  indica  Desmarest,  1817  Rasse,  or  Small  Indian  Civet 

Appro,\imate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  China,  from  Szechuan  eastwards  to 
Fukien,  also  Hainan  and  Formosa.  Ceylon,  Peninsular  India  generally,  north  to 
Punjab,  thence  eastwards  to  Bhutan,  Assam,  Burma.  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay 
•States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Bali.  ^Introduced  in  Madagascar  and  Sokotra.) 

Pocock,  1933,  J.  Bombav  N.H.  Soc.  j6:  629-631,  regarded  the  name  malaccensis 
Gmelin,  1788,  Svst.  Nat.  i:  92,  as  not  valid  for  the  species.  As  a  substitute  he 
proposed  to  use  the  name  indica  GeofFroy,  1803,  Cat.  Mamm.  113.  This  name  is  not 
valid  from  Geoffroy,  since,  according  to  Sherborn,  Geoffroy's  work  was  never  pub- 
lished, and  this  was  admitted  by  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  of  British  India,  Mamm.  i:  364 
(footnote),  in  which  it  was  stated  that  Desmarest  may  be  regarded  as  the  author  of 
the  name.  But  Chasen,  1935,  J.  Siam  Soc.  N.H.  Suppl.  10:  41,  thought  the  name 
malaccensis  should  be  retained. 

Viverricula  i.ndica  i.\'dic.\  Desmarest,  181 7 

181 7.   Viverra  indica  Desmarest,  Nouv.  Diet.  X.H.  j:   170.  India.  Range:  Southern 
Peninsular  India. 

Viverricula  indica  be.xgale.msis  Gray  &  Hardwickc,  1831 

1831.    ]'iverra  bengalensis  Gray  &  Hardwicke,  111.  Ind.  Zool.  / :  pi.  4.  Calcutta,  Bengal. 
Range:  Calcutta  to  Gujerat,  possibly  Sind. 

Viverricula  indic.a.  pallida  Gray,  1831 

1 83 1.    I'lverra  pallida  Gray,  Zool.  Misc.   /.•    17.  Probably  near  Canton,  Kwantung, 

Southern  China. 
1907.   Viverricula  hanensis  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Filchncr  Exped.  to  China,  /o,  i  : 

196.  Hankow.  Southern  China. 
191 1.   Viverricula  pallida  taivana  Schwarz,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  637.  Formosa. 
Range:  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Fukien,  etc.,  in  Southern  China;  and  Formosa. 


ViVERRICULA   INDICA    DESERTI    Bonhote,    1 898 

1898.  Viverricula  malaccensis  deserti  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  120.  Sambhar,  Raj- 
putana,  India. 

Viverricula  indica  thai  Kloss,  19 19 

1919.  Viverricula  malaccensis  thai  Kloss,  J. N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  j.-  352.  Prapatom,  west  of 
Bangkok,  Siam.  Range:  Burma,  Siam,  Indo-China;  possibly  the  form  listed 
as  V.  malaccensis  malaccensis  from  Hainan  in  G.  Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  & 

Viverricula  indica  mayori  Pocock,  1933 

1933.  Viverricula  indica  mayori  Pocock,  J.  Bombay,  N.H.  Soc.  56'.'  632.  Maha  Oya, 
Eastern  Province,  Ceylon. 

Viverricula  indica  wellsi  Pocock,  1933 

1933.  Viverricula  indica  wellsi  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ;^6:  640.  Kangra,  2,000  ft., 
Punjab,  Northern  India.   Range:  Kangra  to  Kumaon. 

Viverricula  indica  baptistae  Pocock,  1933 

1933.  Viverricula  indica  baptistae  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  56'.-  643.  Hasimara, 
Bhutan  Duars,  India.  Range:  to  Assam. 

Genus  GENETTA  Oken,  18 16 

1816.  Genetta  Oken,  Lehrb.  Nat.  j,  2:  loio.  Viverra  genetta  Linnaeus  (see  page  3). 
1816.  Genetta  Cuvier,  Regn.  Anim.  /:  156.  Viverra  genetta  Linnaeus. 
1841.  Odmaelurus  Gloger,  Gemeinn.  Hand.  u.  Hilfsbuch  der  Nat.  /.•  72.  Viverra  genetta 

I  species  in  the  area 'covered  by  this  list: 
Genetta  genetta,  page  283 

This  genus,  several  species  of  which  occur  in  Ethiopian  Africa,  was  revised  by 
Schwarz,  1930,  Rev.  ^ool.  Bot.  Afr.  ig,  2  :  276-286.  Only  one  species  enters  the  present 

Genetta  genetta  Linnaeus,  1758  European  Genet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  France,  Spain,  Balearic  Islands;  also  has 
been  recorded  from  Germany,  Switzerland  and  Belgium.  Palestine,  Arabia.  Morocco, 
Algeria,  Libya,  Africa  south  of  the  Sahara,  southwards  to  the  Transvaal  and  at  least 
to  Clanwilliam  in  West  Cape  Province;  east  to  Somaliland,  and  west  to  Senegal  and 

Genetta  genetta  genetta  Linnaeus,  1758 
1758.   Viverra  genetta  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  45.  Spain. 
1816.  Viverra  Genetta  hispanica  Oken,  Lehrb.  der  Nat.  j,  2:  10 10.  Ronda,  Malaga, 

T  283 

rALAEARCniC:  and  IXDIAX   mammals   1758-1946 

Genetta  cenetta  genetta  [conld.] 

1816.   Viverm  Genetta  gallica  Okcn,  loc.  cit.  loin,  alternative  name  for  hispanica,  n(it  of 

Kerr,  1792. 
1827.   Gnietta  vulgaris  Lesson,  Man.  Mamni.  17:5.  Renaminc;  of  ^fncZ/a. 
(?)  1830.   Genetta  enmmnni.s  Burnett,  Quart.  J.  Sci.  Lit.  Art.  iSsg,  2:  349,  nom.  mid. 
1897.  Genet/a  melas  Graelis,  Mem.  ReaL  Acad.  Sci.  NLadrid,  ly:  175.  Sierra  Morena, 

(?)  1905.   Genetta  /leinnstilae  Cabrera,  BoL  ReaL  See.  Esp.  H.N.  266.  El  Pardo,  near 

Madrid,  Spain. 
Range:   Spain. 

Ge,nett.\  genetta  .xfra  F.  Cuvier,  1825 

1825.   Genetta  afia  F.  C^uvier,  in  Cuvier  &  Gcoflroy,  H.N.  ^L^mm.  pt.  52,  pL  195;  and 

pt.  51,  text.  Barbary. 
1842.   Genetta  genetta  barbara  H.  Smith,  Jardinc's  Nat.   Library,   ALamm.  25-    ^7^- 

1857.   Genetta  bonaparli  Loche,  Rev.  Mag.  Zooi.  9,  2:  385,  pi.  13.  Algeria. 
Range :  \\  cstcrn  \Iorocco,  Algeria,  Tunis,  Libva. 

Genetta  genetta  bale.^rica  Thomas,  1902 

1902.   Genetta  genetta  halearica  Thomas,  Ann.   ALag.  N.H.   10:    162.   Inca,   Majorca, 
Balearic  Islands. 

Genett..\  genetta  rhodaxica  Matschie,  1902 

1902.   Genetta   rhodamca   .\Latschie,   Verhandl.   5th   Int.   Zool.    Congr.   Berlin,    11 39. 
Montpellicr,  Herault,  France.  Range:  South-Western  France. 

Genetta  genetta  granti  Thomas,  1902 

1902.  Genetta  grantii  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  487.  Azraki  Ravine,  Haushabi, 
5,200  ft.,  Arabia. 

Genetta  genetta  terraesanctae  Neumann,  1902 

ig02.   Genetta  terraesanelae  Neumann,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,   183.   Mt.  Carmel, 


Genus  PRIONODON  Horsfield,  1822 

1822.  Prionodnn  Horsfield,  Zool.  Res.  Java,  pt.  3.  Felts  graeilis  Horsfield  (=  P.  linsang 

graeilis,  from  Java). 
1839.   Linsang  Muller,  Verb.  Nat.  Ges.  Nederl.  /,  Taf  (3) :  28.  Felis  gracilis  Horsfield. 
1842.  Pnodovtes  Lesson,  Nou\-.  Tabl.  R.  Anim.  bo.  Felts  gracilis  Horsfield.   Not  of 

Cuvier,  1827. 
1896.  Linsanga  Lydekkcr,  Geogr.  Hist.  Mamm.  20.  Emendation  of  Linsang. 
1925.  Pardictis  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  498.  Prionodon pardicolor  Hodgson.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

2  species:   Prionodon  linsang,  page  283 

Prinitodon  pardicolor,  page  28", 
Pocock  I  1930.  33*1)  gi\cs  a  key  to  the  species.  He  ignores  Pardictis  whkh  Simpson 
(19451   lists  as  a  lull   genus,  Osgood   (1932)   as  a  subgenus.   \Ve  propose  to  follow 
Osgood . 



Subgenus  PRIONODON  Horsfield,  1822 

Prionodon  linsang  Hardwicke,  182 1  Banded  Linsang 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tenasserim,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java, 

Prionodon  linsang  linsang  Hardwicke,  182 1 

1 82 1.  Vivenal   linsang   Hardwicke,   Trans.   Linn.   Soc.   London,    75;    236,   pi.    24. 

1878.  Prionodon  maculosus  Blanford,  Proc.  As.  Soc.  Bengal,  71.  Bankachon,  Southern 


Range:  Tenasserim  to  Sumatra. 

Subgenus  PARDICTIS  Thomas,  1925 

Prionodon  pardicolor  Hodgson,  1841  Spotted  Linsang 

Approximate   distribution  of  species:   Nepal,   Assam,   Northern   Burma,    Indo- 

Prionodon  pardicolor  pardicolor   Hodgson,  1841 

1841.  Prionodon  pardicolor  (sic)  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J.N. H.  2:  57.  Nepal. 
1844.   Viverra  perdicator  Schinz,  Syn.  Mamm.  /.•  366.  Error  ior  pardicolor. 
1863.  Prionodon  pardochrous  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgsons  Coll.  B.M.  4,  nom.  nud. 

Ranges  to  Assam  and  Northern  Burma. 

Prionodon  pardicolor  presin.a  Thomas,  1925 

1925.  Pardictis  pardicolor presina  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  499.  Ngai-tio,  4,800  ft. .Tonkin, Indo- 
China.  Osgood  thought  this  was  a  synonym  of  the  typical  race. 

Subfamily     Paradoxurinae 
(as  understood  by  Simpson,  1945) 

Genus  PARADOXURUS  Cuvier,  1821 

1 82 1.  Paradoxurus  Cuvier,  in  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy,  H.N.  Mamm.  2,  24:  Martre  des 

Palmiers,  5.  Paradoxurus  typus  Cuvier  =  Viverra  hermaphrodila  Pallas. 
1835.  Platyschista  Otto,  Nov.  Act.  Acad.  Caes.  Leop.  Carol,  ij:   1089.  Platyschista 

pallasii  Otto  =  Viverra  hermaphrodila  Pallas. 
1864.  Bondar  Gray,  P.Z.S.  531.  Viverra  hondar  Desmarest. 

1864.   Macrodus  Gray ,  P.Z.S.  536.  Paradoxurus  macrodus  Gray  =  Viverra  musangajavanica 
Horsfield  (the  Javan  race  o^  hermaphroditus) . 



3  species:  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus,  page  i86 
Paradoxurus  jerdoni,  page  288 
Paradoxurus  zeylo7iensis,  page  288 

Pocock  retains  three  species  as  above,  and  compares  them  (1939,  380).  P.  jerdoni 
seems  very  close  to  zn'lonensis,  and  might  well  be  considered  as  a  subspecies  of  it. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  Pallas,  1  777  Common  Palm  Civet,  or  Toddy  Cat 
Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Hainan  and  Kwantung,  in  Southern  China; 
Burma  and  Assam  westwards  to  Kashmir,  thence  southwards  through  Peninsular 
India  to  Ceylon;  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  many  small  adjacent 
islands,  Java,  Borneo,  to  Celebes,  the  Philippines,  Timor,  Ceram  and  the  Kei 
Islands  (perhaps  introduced  in  some  of  the  easternmost  islands  just  quoted). 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  hermaphroditus  Pallas,  in  Schreber,  1777 
1777.   Mvcrra  hermaphrodita  Pallas,  in  Schreber,  Saugeth.  3:  426.  ?  India. 

1820.  Viverra  nigra  Desmarest,  Mamm.  208.  (Not  of  Peale  &  Beauvois,  1796.)  Pondi- 

cherry,  India. 

1821.  Paradoxurus  lypus  F.  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy,  H.N.  Mamm.  pt.  24,  5.  Pondichcrry. 
1832.  Paradoxurus  tvpus  var.  fuliginosus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  65.  Southern  India. 

1841.   Paradoxurusjelinus  Wagner,  Schrcb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  349.  India.  (Composite: 

composed  partly  oi  hermaphroditus  and  partly  of  pallasi.) 
1885.  Paradoxurus  niger  Blanford,  P.Z.S.  792.  Pondichcrry,  India. 
Range:  Ceylon  and  Southern  India,  as  far  north  as  the  Narbada  River. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  bondar  Desmarest,  1820 

1820.    Viverra  hondar  Desmarest,  Mamm.  210.  Bengal. 

1832.  Paradoxurus  pennantii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  66.  Higher  Province  of  Bengal. 

1832.  Paradoxurus  crossi  Gray,  P.Z.S.  67.  India. 

1836.  Paradoxurus  hirsutus  Hodgson,  Asiat.  Res.  ig:  72.  Nepal  Terai. 

1855.  Paradoxurus  stric/us  Horsfield  (Hodgson  MS.),  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j6:  105.  Nepal 

Range:  Kumaon,  Nepal  Terai  and  district. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  pallasi  Gray,  1832 

1832.  Paradoxurus pallasii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  67.  India. 

1820.   Viverra  prehensilis  Desmarest,  Mamm.  208,  not  of  Kerr,  1792.  Bengal. 

1855.  Paradoxurus  quadriscriptus  Horsfield  (Hodgson  MS.),  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  16:  106. 

Nepal  (Hills). 
1864.   Paradoxurus  nigrijrons  Gray,  P.Z.S.  535.  India. 

1910.  Paradoxurus  vicinus  Schwarz,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  6:  230.  Probably  Assam. 
Range:  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Assam,  Upper  Burma. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  nictitatans  Taylor,  1891 

1891.  Paradoxurus  nictitatans  Taylor,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.   6:  429,  pi.   Kondmals, 

Orissa  Division  of  Southern  Bengal. 
(?)  1829.   Paradoxurus  leucopus  Ogilby,  Zool.  J.  4:  301.  "Probably  some  part  of  the 

East  Indies." 



Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  minor  Bonhote,  1903 

1903.  Paradoxurus  minor  Bonhote,  Fasc.  Malay  Zool.  /;  9.  Kampong  Jalor,  Lower 
Siam.  According  to  Pocock,  occurs  in  Tenasserim.  For  status  of  this  form 
see  Chasen,  1940,  Handlist  Malaysian  Mamm.  95,  96. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  cochinensis  Schwarz,  1911 

191 1.  Paradoxurus  cochinensis  Schwarz,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  j:  635.  Saigon,  Cochin- 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  exitus  Schwarz,  igii 

191 1  Paradoxurus  exitus  Schwarz,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  y:  636.  Fumai,  east  of  Canton, 
Kwantung,  Southern  China. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  senex  Miller,  191 3 

1913.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  senex  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  61,  21:  3.  Domel 
Island,  Mergui  Archipelago. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  fallens  Miller,  1913 

1913.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  palleru  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  61,  21:  4.  Kisser- 
aing  Island,  Mergui  Archipelago. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  pugnax  Miller,  19 13 

1 91 3.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  pugnax  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  61,21:  4.  Sullivan 
Island,  Mergui  Archipelago. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  sacer  Miller,  1913 

191 3.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  sacer  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  61,  21:  4.  St. 
Matthew  Island,  Mergui  Archipelago. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  pulcher  Miller,  19 13 

1913.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  pulcher  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  61,  21:  5.  Clara 
Island,  Mergui  Archipelago. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  laotum  Gyldenstolpe,  191 7 

19 1 7.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  laotum  Gyldenstolpe,  K.  Svenska.  Vet.  Akad.  Handl. 

57,  2 :  26.  Chieng  Hai,  North-Western  Siam. 
191 7.  Paradoxurus  birmanicus  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  25.-  51.  Mingun,  near 

Sagaing,  Upper  Burma. 

Range:  Burma  (Mandalay  and  Chindwin  to  Tenasserim),  Siam,  Indo-China  and 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  scindiae  Pocock,  1934 

1934.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  scindiae  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ^7:  176.  Guna, 
in  Gwalior  (about  40  miles  north  oflatitude  24^),  India. 



Paraddxi'ris  hermaphrodites  laneus  Pocock,  1934 

11)14.  PaiadoMiius  htnnaphwditus  laneus  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ^y:  178,  fig.  4b. 
Gopalpur,  5,200  ft.,  Kangra,  Punjab. 

Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  vellerosus  Pocock,  1934 

1034.  Panidnxu)u.\   lurmaphnHlitin  relkroitis  Pocock,  J.   Bombay   N.H.   Soc.  37;    181. 

Paradoxirv-S  hermaphroditus  milleri   rinm.  nov. 

1013.  Paradoxurus  hermaphroditus  fuscus  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  6'/,  21:  3.  James 
Island,  Mergui  Archipelago.  Not/ia««  Kclaart,  1852. 

Paradoxurus  zeylonensis    Pallas,  in  Schreber,  1778  Golden  Palm  Civet 

.Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon. 

Paradoxurus  zeylonensis  Pallas,  in  Schrcljcr,  1778 

1778.    Vmria  rexhnensis  Pallas,  in  Sclin-bcr,  Saugcth.  ;,':  451.  C:cvlon. 

1788.    Viriira  .yvlanica  Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  13th  cd.  /.■  89.  Ceylon. 

,?)  1822.  Paradoxurus  aureus  F.  Cuvier,  Mem.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  c/:  48,  pi.  4.  Locality 

1852.   Paradoxurus  rjylariirus  with  Juseus  or  monlamis  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeylan. 

39-40.  Newera  Eliya,  Cleylon. 

Paradoxurus  jerdoni   Blanford,  1885  Jerdon's  Palm  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Palni  Hills,  .\ilgiri  Hills,  Coorg  and  Tra\an- 
core  in  Southern  India. 

Paradoxurus  jerdoni  jerdom  Blanford,  1885 

1885.  Paradoxurus  jerdom  Blanford,  P.Z.S.  (J13,  802.  Kod.iikanal,  I'alni  Hills,  Southern 

Paradoxurus  jerdoni  caniscus  Pocock,  1933 

1933.  Paradoxurus  jerdoni  eaniseus  Pocock,  J.  Bomba\   N.H.  Soc.  j-O;  865.  \  irajpet, 
3,000  ft..  Southern  Coorg,  India. 

Genus  PAGUMA  Gray,  1831 

1831.   Paguma  Grav,  P.Z.S.  i8jo-ji:  or,,  (uilo  larralus  Hamilton-Smith. 
1837.  Amliliodon  jourddn.  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  j:  445.  Paradoxurus  jourdami  Gray 
'  --  the  Malac  I  .ui  race  oi  Pnt^uma  larvata). 

I  species:  Pat^uina  lairala,  page  289 
Pocock  I  I03r),  41b)  also  lists  a  species  /'.  lariigera  Hodgson,  based  on  an  "imperfect, 
no  doubt  miniature"  skin  without  skull  iroiii  the  "northern  region  ol",  sub- 
seciucntU  said  to  be  from  Tingrce,  Tibet.  If  its  skull  is  not  known,  presumably  its 
gcncrir  positii.n  is  not  certainly  known,  as  Paouma  differs  from  Paradoxurus  chiefly  in  a 
cranial  (  haracter  (the  Iciiglli  of  the  palate).  \Ve  propose  to  regard  it  as  ineertae  sedis. 



Paguma  larvata  Hamilton-Smith,  1827  Masked  Palm  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  China,  from  Fukien  and  south-east  coast 
westwards  to  Yunnan,  thence  northwards  to  Szechuan,  Southern  Shensi  and  Chihli 
(Pekin);  Hainan,  Formosa.  Burma  and  Assam  westwards  to  Kashmir;  Andaman 
Islands.  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 

Paguma  larvata  larvata  Hamilton-Smith,  1827 

1827.  Gulo  larvatus  Hamilton-Smith,  Griffith's  Cuvier  Anim.  Kingd.   2:   281,  pi. 

Locality  unknown. 
1907.  Paguma  reevesi  Matschie,  \Viss.  Ergebn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  China,  10,  i:  183. 

Hing-an-fu,  China. 
1 92 1.  Paguma  larvata  nra/w  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  8:  618.  Ichang,  Hupeh,  China., 
Range:  eastern  parts  of  Southern  China,  west  to  Szechuan. 

Paguma  larvata  gray:  Bennett,  1835 

1835.  Paradoxurus  graji  Bennett,  P.Z.S.  118.  India. 

1836.  Paradoxurus  nipalensis  Hodgson,  Asiat.  Res.  ig:  76.  Nepal. 
Range:  Nepal,  west  to  Kumaon  and  Garwhal. 

Paguma  larvata  taivana  Swinhoe,  1862 

1862.  Paguma  larvata  var.  taivana  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  354.  Formosa.  Range  includes 
Botel  Tobago. 

Paguma  larvata  tytleri  Tytler,  1864 

1864.  Paradoxurus  tytlerii  Tytler,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  5^.-  188.  Viper  Island,  Port 
Blair,  South  Andaman  Island. 

Paguma  larvata  robusta  Miller,  1906 

1906.  Paradoxurus  robustus  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  ig:  26.  Trang,  Lower 
Siam.  Ranges  to  Tenasserim. 

Paguma  larvata  hainana  Thomas,  1909 

1909.  Paguma  larvata  hainana  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag   N.H.  5.-  377.  Five  Finger  Moun- 

tains (~\Vuchih),  Island  of  Hainan,  Southern  China. 

Paguma  larvata  intrudens  Wroughton,  19 10 

1910.  Paguma  larvata  intrudens  \Vroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.   ig:   793.  Sima, 

Myitkyina,  Upper  Burma. 

1919.  Paguma  larvata  vagans  Kloss,  J.N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  jj.-  73.  Sikawtur,  40  miles  north- 
west of  Raheng,  1,500  ft.,  Siam. 

1 92 1 .  Paguma  larvata  yunalis  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  617.  Yenyuensien,  Southern 
Szechuan,  China. 

Range:  Szechuan,  Yunnan,  Northern  Burma  to  Shan  States,  Siam;  Laos,  Annam 
and  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China. 

Paguma  larvata  wroughtoni  Schwarz,  19 13 

1913.  Paguma  grayi  wroughtoni  Schwarz,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  12:  289.  Gharial,  near 
Murree,  Northern  Punjab,  India.  Range:  Kumaon  to  Kashmir. 



Paguma  larvata  janetta  Thomas,  1928 

1928.  Paguma  leucomystax  janetta  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  loi.  Bankachon, 
Southern  Tenasserim. 

Paguma  larvata  neglecta  Pocock,  1934 

1934.  Paguma  larvata  neglecta  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  27-  334-  Mokokchung, 

4,500  ft.,  Naga  Hills,  Assam.  Range:  low-lying  districts  of  Nepal,  Sikkim, 

Assam,  Chin  Hills  and  Arakan,  Western  Burma. 

P.-^GUMA    LARVATA    NIGRICEPS    PoCOCk,    1 939 

1939.  Paguma  larvata  nigriceps  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.•  424.  Nam 
Tamai,  Upper  Burma. 

{Incertae  sedis:  see  remarks  above) 

Paguma  (?)  lanigera  Hodgson,  1836 
1836.  Paradoxurus  lanigerus  Hodgson,  Asiat.  Res.  ig:  yg. 

1841.  Paradoxurus  laniger  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  10:  909.  "Northern  region 
of  Nepal,"  subsequently  said  to  be  from  Tingree,  Tibet. 

Genus  ARCTICTIS  Temminck,  1824 

1824.  Arctictii  Temminck,   Mon.   Mamm.   /,  Tabl.  Method,  xxi.   Viverra  binturong 

1824.  Ictides  F.  Cuvier,  Dents  Mamm.  252.  Viverra  binturong  Raffles. 

I  species:  Arctictis  binturong,  page  290 

Arctictis  binturong  Raffles,  1821  Binturong 

Approximate   distribution   of  species:    Burma   (possibly  Assam,   Bhutan,   Nepal, 
Sikkim);  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Borneo,  Palawan. 

Arctictis  binturong  binturong  Raffles,   1821 

182 1.  Viverra'^  binturong  Raffles,  Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  London,  /j.'  253.  Malacca. 
1916.  Arctictis  gairdnen  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  ij:  270.  Sai  Yoke,  South-Western 

Ranges  to  Tenasserim. 

Arctictis  binturong  albifrons  F.  Cuvier,  1822 

1822.  Paradoxurus  albifrons  F.  Cuvier,  Mem.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  g:  44,  48.  Bhutan, 

Eastern  Himalayas.  Range:  Upper  Burma,  Indo-China. 

Genus  ARCTOGALIDIA  Merriam,  1897 

1864.  Arctogale  Gray,  P.Z.S.  542.  Not  Arctogale  Kaup,  1829.  Paradoxurus  trtvirgatus 

1897.  Arctogalidia  Merriam,  Science,  j.'  302.  New  name  for  Arctogale  Gray,  pre- 
occupied. Paradoxurus  trivirgatus  Gray. 

I  species:  Arctogalidia  trivirgata,  page  291 


Arctogalidia  trivirgata  Gray,  1832  Small-toothed  Palm  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Assam,  Burma,  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malaya, 
Sumatra,  and  numerous  small  adjacent  islands,  Java,  Borneo. 

(Arctogalidia  trivirgata  trivirgata  Gray,  1832.  Extralimital) 
1832.  ParadoxuTus  trivirgatus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  68.  Buitenzorg,  Western  Java. 

Arctogalidia  trivirgata  leucotis  Horsfield,  1851 

1 85 1.  Paradoxurus  leucotis  Horsfield,  Cat.  Mamm.  E.  India  Co.  66.  Tenasserim. 
1877.  Paradoxurus  preheruilis  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  681,  pi.  71.  Not  of  Desmarest,  1820. 
Range:  Burma,  Siam,  Tenasserim,  Kings  Island,  Mergui  Archipelago. 

Arctogalidia  trivirgata  major  Miller,  1906 

1906.  Arctogalidia  major  Miller,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc   Washington,  ig:  25.  Trang,  Lower 
Siam.  Occurs  Laos  and  Tonkin,  in  Indo-China,  according  to  Tate. 

Arctogalidia  trivirgata  macra  Miller,  19 13 

1913.  Arctogalidia  macra  Miller,  Smiths.  Misc.  Coll.  61:  6.  Domel  Island,  Mergui 

Arctogalidia  trivirgata  millsi  Wroughton,  1921 

192 1.  Arctogalidia  millsi  Wroughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  2y:  600.  Mokokchung, 
Naga  Hills,  5,000  ft.,  Assam. 

Subfamily     Hemigalinae 
(As  understood  by  Simpson,  1945) 

Genus  HEMIGALUS  Jourdan,  1837 

1837.  Hemigalus  Jourdan,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  5.-  442.  Hemigalus  zebra  Gray  = 
Viverra  hardwickii  Gray. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Hemigalus  derbyanus,  page  291 

Hemigalus  derbyanus  Gray,  1837  Banded  Palm  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  Tenasserim,  Malay  Peninsula,  Sumatra  and 
some  of  the  islands  to  the  west  of  it,  Borneo. 

(Hemigalus  derbyanus  derbyanus  Gray,  1837.  Extralimital) 

1837.  farflf/oAruraj^rfer^varzMjGray,  Charlesworth'sMag.  N.H.  /.•  579.  Malay  Peninsula. 
(?)  1837.  Paradoxurus?  zebra  Gray,  loc.  cit.  No  locality. 


rALAKARCTIC:   AND   INDIAN    MAMMALS    1758-1946 

Hemigalus  derbyanus  i.ncursor  Thomas,  1915 

1 9 15.  Hfmigciliis   (hrhianus   (sic)    incursor  Thomas,    ].    Bombay   N.H.    Soc.   I'jj;    613. 
Bankarhoii,  \'icti>ria  Piovincc,  Tcnasscrim. 

Genus  CHROTOGALE  Thomas,  1912 
1912.   Chrotoiidlf  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  17;  P.Z.S.  499.  Chrotogale  owstoni  Thomas. 
I  species:  Chroloaalc  owsloni,  page  292 

Chrotogale  owstoni  Thomas,  191 2  Owston's  Banded  Civet 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tonkin  and  Laos,  in  Indo-phina. 

Chrotogale  owstom  Thomas,  19 12 

1912.   Chrotogale  owsloni  Thomas,  Abstr.   P.Z.S.    17;   P.Z.S.  500.  Yen  Bai,  Songkoi 
River,  Tonkin,  IndoChina. 

Genus  CYNOGALE  Gray,  1837 

1837.  Cvnogale  Crux,  P.Z.S.  i8;]6:  88.  Mag.  X.H.  /,  i8;^y:  ^jct.Cynogale  bennettiiGrdiy. 

1838.  Potamophilus  Miiller,  Tijdschr   Nat.  Gesch.  Phys.  5.-  140.  Potamophilus  barbatus 

Miiller  =  C'vnogale  bennettii  Gray. 

I  species:   Cytwgale  bennetti,  page  292 

Cynogale  bennetti  Gray,  1837  Otter-Civet 

.\ppro.\imatc  distribution  of  species:  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 

Pocock  separated  the  Indo-Chinese  representative  as  a  distinct  species,  but  until 
more  specimens  come  to  hand  vvc  prefer  to  regard  this  very  imperfectly-known  form 
as  a  subspecies. 

Cyxog.^le   be.nnetti   bex.xetti  Gray,  1837.   Extralimital) 
1837.   Cvnogali-  hauuilii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  i8j6:  88.  Sumatra. 

Cynogale  BE.\.\ETn  lowei  Pocock,  1933 

1933.   Cynogale  lowei  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  1034,  fig.  Backan,  500  ft..  Tonkin,  Indo-China. 

Subfamily     H  c  r  p  c  s  t  i  n  a  e 

Genus  HERPESTES   Illigcr,  181 1 

lyqq.  Ichneiinion  Laccpede,  Tabl.  Div.  Ord.  Gen.  Mamm.  7,  not  of  Linnaeus,  1758. 
i(')ii.   Heifieiles  llliger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  et  Avium,   133,  misprint,  corrected  to 

llerjnsles,  302.  I'nerra  ichneumon  Gmclin. 
1822.   Mangiisia    Horsfield,    Zool.    Res.  Java,    unpaged,    pt.    5.    Ichneumon  javamcus 




1837.  Urva  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  6:  561.  Gulo  una  Hodgson. 

1841.  Mesobema  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  10:  910.  Gulo  urva  Hodgson. 

1865.  Calogale  Gray,   P.Z.S.    1864:  560.  Herpesles  nepalensis  Gray  =  Mangusta  auro- 

punctatus  Hodgson. 
1865.  Caliclis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1864:  564.  Herpesles  smithii  Gray. 
1865.    Taeniogale  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1864:  569.  Herpesles  vilticollis  Bennett. 
1865.   Onjchogale  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1864:  570.  Cyniclis  maccarthiae  Gray. 

"Mungos  Cuvier  &  Geoffroy"  of  some  earlier  authors,  but  Mungos  Cuvier  & 
Geoffrey,  1795,  Mag.  Encycl.  2:  184,  is  now  restricted  to  the  Banded  Mongoose  of 
Africa  and  its  immediate  allies. 

8  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Herpesles  auropiinctalus,  page  295 
Herpesles  edwardsi,  page  295 
Herpesles  fuscus,  page  297 
Herpesles  ichneumon,  page  294 
Herpesles  javanicus,  page  294 
Herpesles  smilhi,  page  296 
Herpesles  urva,  page  298 
Herpesles  vilticollis,  page  298 

Pocock  (1941)  recognized  only  six  species  in  India,  regarding  auropunclatus  as  a  race 
oi javanicus,  which  he  said  ranged  from  Persia  through  Northern  India  to  Java.  But 
Chasen,  1940,  Handlisl  Malaysian  Mammals,  103,  states:  "Two  species  of  this  group 
distinguished  chiefly  by  size  occur  in  the  Malay  Peninsula;  only  one  can  be  the  local 
representative  oi  javanicus,  and  it  appears  to  be  the  larger  form.  H.  auropunctalus  is  the 
earliest  name  for  the  other  association."  Therefore,  auropunclalus  is  given  specific 
status  here.  Pocock  gave  measurements  (1941,  34)  for  various  extralimital  races  of 
his  javanicus;  most  of  these,  and  the  Indian  forms,  seem  to  be  auropunclalus;  but 
possibly  exilis,  which  was  named  from  Annam,  may  be  taken  as  rc-preicntmg  javanicus 
in  the  region  now  under  discussion.  The  remaining  species,  H.  ichneumon,  occurs  in 
North  Africa,  Spain  and  Palestine,  and  was  not  dealt  with  by  Pocock  in  his  work  on 
mammals  of  British  India.  So  far  as  we  can  see,  there  are  three  groups  of  Herpesles 
Mongooses  in  the  Palaearctic  and  Indian  regions:  ichneumon  group  (large,  as  judged 
by  size  of  skull,  neck  not  striped,  colour  grey  with  black  tailtip;  chiefly  African); 
vitlicollis  group,  about  as  large,  but  neck  conspicuously  striped,  containing  the  two 
distinct  species  vilticollis  and  urva  which  are  compared  by  Pocock  (1941,  7),  and  the 
edwardsi  group,  containing  five  medium  or  small  species  (as  judged  by  size  of  skull), 
three  of  which  occur  together  in  Ceylon,  and  the  characters  of  which  are  dealt  with 
by  Pocock  (1941,  7),  but  it  must  be  added  that  auropunclalus  as  here  understood  and 
following  Chasen  averages  smaller  than  javanicus  as  here  understood.  Three  other 
species,  o-  ly  two  of  which  are  available  for  examination,  are  listed  by  Chasen  (1940) 
from  the  Malay  region.  Of  these,  H.  semilorqualus  is  very  close  to  H.  urva,  possibly  even 
only  a  race  of  it,  but  H.  brachyurus  is  quite  distinct,  with  the  tail  proportionately 
shorter  than  is  usual  in  the  other  species,  and  with  no  neckstripes. 


Herpestes  ichneumon  group 

Herpestes  ichneumon  Linnaeus,    1758  Egyptian   Mongoose,   or  Ichneumon 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Spain  and  Portugal;  Palestine;  Morocco, 
Algeria,  Egypt;  Ethiopian  Africa,  from  Kenya  and  Nigeria  south  to  South- West 
Africa,  Trans\aal,  Natal  and  Knysna  in  Cape  Province. 

Herpestes  ichneumon  ichneumon  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Viverra  ichneumon  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  43.  Egypt  "ad  ripas  Nili". 

1799.  Ichneumon  pharaon  Lacepede,  Tabl.  Div.  Ord.  Gen.  Mamm.  7. 

1808.  Ichneumon  aegypliae  Tiedemann,  Zool.  /.'  364. 

1818.   Ichneumon   major   E.   Geoffroy,    Descript.    Egypte,   2:    139    (footnote).   Egypt. 

Range:  Egypt  and  Palestine. 

Herpestes  ichneumon  numidicus  F.  Cuvier,  1834 

1834.   Ichneumon  numidicui  Cuvier,  H.N.  Mamm.  pt.  68,  pi.   191,  and  text.  Algeria. 
Range :  Northern  Morocco,  Algeria. 

Herpestes  ich.neumon  widdringtoni  Gray,  1842 

1842.   Herpestes  widdringtonii  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  9,  i  :  50.  Sierra  Morena,  Spain. 
1909.  Herpestes  ichneumon  vav.ferruginea  Seabra,  Bull.  Soc   Portugaise.  Sci.  Nat.  .'.•  286. 

Alemtejo,  Portugal.  Not  of  Blanford,  1874. 
1909.  Herpestes  ichneumon  var.  dorsalis  Seabra,  loc.  cit.  Ribatejo,  Portugal. 
1909.   Herpestes   ichneumon  var.   grisea   Seabra,   loc.   cit.    Ribatejo,    Portugal.    Not   of 

Geoffroy,  1818. 
1912.  Mungos  widdringtonii  Miller,  Cat.  Mamm.  \V.  Europe,  441. 
Range:  Spain  and  Portugal. 

Herpestes  ichneumon  sangronizi  Cabrera,  1924 

1924.  Herpestes  ichneumon  sangronizi  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  24: 
217.  Mogador,  Morocco. 

Herpestes  edwardsi  group 

Herpestes  javanicus  Geoffroy,  1818  Javan  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  ?  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States,  Java. 

(Herpestes  javanicus  javanicus  Geoffroy,  181 8.  Extralimital) 

1818.  Ichneumon  javanicus  E.  Geoffroy,  Descr.  Egypte,  2:  139.  Western  Java. 

Herpestes  (?)  javanicus  exilis  Gervais,  1841 

1 84 1.   Herpestes  c.xilis  Gervais,  Voy.  Bonite,  /.•  32,  pi.  3,  figs.  7-9.  Tourane,  Annam, 

(?)  18G1.   Herpestes  rutilus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  136.  Cambodia,  Indo-China. 



Herpestes  javanicus  peninsulae  Schwarz,    1910 

1910.  Mungos  exilis  peninsulae  Schwarz,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  6:  231.  Bangkok,  Siam. 

igiy.  Mungos  incertus  Kloss,  J.  Fed.  Malay  States  Mus.  j:  125.  Ongut,  Trang,  Lower 

Range:  Siam,  Malay  Peninsula. 

Herpestes  auropunctatus  Hodgson,  1836  Small  Indian  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species :  ?  Northern  Arabia,  Persia,  Iraq,  Afghanistan ; 
Kashmir,  south  to  Gujerat,  Sind  and  Orissa,  east  to  Nepal,  Assam  and  Burma; 
Hainan;  Siam,  Malay  States. 

Herpestes  auropunctatus  auropunctatus  Hodgson,  1836 

1836.  Mangusta  auropunctata  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  5.-  235.  Nepal. 

1837.  Herpestes  nepalensis  Gray,  Charlesw.  Mag.  N.H.  /;  578.  Northern  India. 
Range:  Kashmir  to  Manipur  and  Orissa. 

Herpestes  auropunctatus  pallipes  Blyth,  1845 

1845.  Mangusta  pallipes  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  i ^:  346.  Kandahar,  Afghanistan. 
1864.  Herpestes  persicus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  554.  Mohammerah,  Western  Persia. 
1914.  Mungos  auropunctatus  helvus  Ryley,  J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.   22:   661.   Deesa, 
Palanpur,  Gujerat,  India. 

Range:  Iraq  and  perhaps  Northern  Arabia,  Afgham'stan,  Persia,  ?  Baluchistan,  Sind, 
Punjab,  Palanpur,  in  Western  India. 

Herpestes  auropunctatus  birmanicus  Thomas,  1886 

1886.  Herpestes  auropurwtatus  birmanicus  Thomas,  Ann.   Mag.  N.H.   ij:   84.   Pegu, 
Burma.  Range:  Burma,  from  Toungoo  to  Tenasserim. 

Herpestes  auropunctatus  rubrifrons  J.  Allen,  1909 

1909.  Mungos  rubrifrons  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  26:  240.  Mount  Wuchih, 

Island  of  Hainan,  Southern  China. 
1 94 1.   [H.  javanicus)  nigrifrons  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  2:  34.  (?  lapse  for 


Range:  Hainan  and  possibly  Kwantung,  Southern  China. 

Herpestes  auropunctatus  siamensis  Kloss,  19 17 

1 91 7.  Mungos  siamensis  Kloss,  J. N.H.  Soc.  Siam,  2:  215.  Muang  Prae,  Northern 

Herpestes  edwardsi  GeofTroy,  181 8  Indian  Grey  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Arabia,  Persia,  Iraq,  Afghanistan  (Pocock); 
Baluchistan,  North-\\'est  Frontier,  southwards  over  Peninsular  India  to  Ceylon; 
Nepal  and  Assam.  (Introduced  Malay  States.) 



Herpestes  edwardsi  edwardsi  Geoffroy,  1818 

1818.   Ichneumon  edicardni  E.  Geoffroy,  Descr.  Egyptc,  2:  139.  "East  Indies"  (Madras, 

Pdcock,  1933). 
1818.  Ichneumon  gnseus  Geoffroy,  loc.  ctt.  157. 

1823.   Herpestes  frederici  Desmarest,  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  2C):  60.  Malacca. 
1829.   Mangusta  malaccensis  Fischer,  Syn.  Mamm.  164.  Malacca. 
l?)  184  I.   Herpestes  pallidus\\'as,neT,  Schreb.  Saugcth.  Suppl.  i>.-  311. 
1841.   Herpestes  ponliccriana  Gervais,  \'oy.  de  la  Bonite,  /.•  32.  Pondicherry,  India. 
1915.   Munoos  mungo  ellioti  Wroughton,  J.   Bombay   X.H.   Soc.   24:   52.   Dharwar, 

India.  Not  of  Blyth,  1851. 
1 92 1.   Herpestes  edwardsi  carnaticus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  23.  Dharwar, 

For  use  of  the  name  edwardsi  instead  of  mungo  see  Wroughton,  1921,  J.  Bombay  N.H. 

.Soc.  27:  547. 
Range:  Peninsular  India,  south  of  the  Narbada  River,  from  Ratnagiri  to  Travancore 
and  Madura;  Eastern  Ghats  (Pocock). 

Herpestes  ed%v.\rdsi  nyula  Hodgson,  1836 

1836.  Mangusta   (Herpestes)   nyula  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.   Soc.   Bengal,  j.-   236.   Nepal 

iqi-,.   Miingos  mungo  moerens  Wroughton,  J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.   24:   52.   Ganoor, 

Nimar,  India. 
Range:  Northern  India,  from  Nepal  to  Assam,  north  of  the  Ganges;  and  from  Cutch 
toBengal,  south  cil  tliat  river. 

Herpestes  edwardsi  ferrugineus  Blanford,  1874 

1874.  Herpestes  ferrugineus  Blanford,  P.Z.S.  661,  pi.  81.  Larkhana,  Sind,  India. 

1884.   Herpestes' andersoni  Murray,  Vert.  Zool.  of  Sind,  34.  Kotree,  Sind. 

1 9 14.  Miingos  mungo palkns  Ryley,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  22:  660.  Palanpur,  Northern 

Gujerat,  India. 
1936.   Herpestes  griseus   montanus   Bechthold,    Z.    Saug.    //.■    149.    Hazara,   Northern 

Range:  Desert  districts  of  North-Western  India  in  valley  of  the  Indus  and  Sutlcj, 
and  in  Rajput.uia,  westwards  to  Baluchistan,  Persia,  Iraq  and  .\rabia. 

Herpestes  edwardsi  lanka  Wroughton,  191 5 

1852.   Herpestes  griseus  Kclaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeyl.  41.  Not  of  Gcoflroy,  1818. 
1888.  Herpestes  munon  Blanford,  Mamm.  Brit.  India,   123,  in  part,  not  of  Gmelin, 

1915.  Mi/ngos  lauka  Wmughton,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  24:  f,;^.  Cheddikulani,  177  ft., 

North  Pro\incc,  Geylon. 

Herpestes  sxnithi  Gray,  1837  Ruddy  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  from  Rajputana  and  Bengal  southwards  to 



Herpestes  smithi  smithi  Gray,  1837 

1837.  Herpestes  smithii  Gray,  Charlesw.  Mag.  N.H.  /;  578.  Said  to  be  from  near 

Bombay,  India. 
(?)  1839.  Herpestes  thysanurus  Wagner,  Mtinch.  Gel.  Anz.  g,  184:  439.  Kashmir. 

1851.  Herpestes  ellioti  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  162.  The  Carnatic,  India. 

1852.  Herpestes  torquatus  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeyl.  44,  nom.  nud.  ?  Southern  India. 
1864.  Herpestes  jerdonii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  550.  Madras. 

1867.   Herpestes  jnonlicoliis  jerdon,  Mamm.  Ind.  135.  Inland  from  Nellore,  India. 

1921.  Herpestes  smithii  rusanus  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  25.  Sambhar, 
Rajputana,  India. 

192 1.  Herpestes  smithii  canens  Thomas,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  25.  Mt.  Abu,  Raj- 
putana, India. 

Range:  Rajputana,  east  to  Bengal,  southwards  through  Eastern  and  Western  Ghats. 

Herpestes  smithi  zeylanius  Thomas,  192 1 

1 92 1.  Herpestes  smithii  zeylanius  Thomas.  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  28:  24.  Mankeni,  East 

Province,  Ceylon. 
1852.  Herpestes  rubiginosus  Kelaart,  Prodr.  Faun.  Zeyl.  43,  not  of  Wagner,  1841. 

Herpestes  fuscus  \\'aterhouse,  1838  Indian  Brown  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  India  and  Ceylon. 

Herpestes  fuscus  fuscus  Waterhouse,  1838 

1838.  Herpestes fusca  Waterhouse,  P.Z.S.  55.  India.  Range:  Southern  India,  typically 
in  the  hills,  from  3,000  ft.  to  nearly  6,000  ft.  (Pocock).  Specimens  quoted  from 
Nilgiri  Hills,  Palni  Hills,  Coorg,  Madura,  Travancore. 

Herpestes  fuscus  flavidens  Kelaart,  1850 

1850.  Herpestes  flavidens  Kelaart,  J.  Ceylon  Br.  Asiat.  Soc.  2:  20g  (323  of  1887  reprint). 

Kandy,  Ceylon. 

1851.  Herpestes  fulvescens  Kelaart,  J.  As.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  162.  Kandy,  Cevlon. 
(?)  1887.  Herpestes  ceylanicus  Nevill,  Taprobanian,  /.•  62.  Trincomalee,  Ceylon. 
1924.  Herpestes  flavidens  ceylonicus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i^:  240.  (for  ceylanicus 

1924.  Herpestes  flavidens  phillipsi  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   i^:  240.  Mousakande 

Estate,  Gammaduwa,  Central  Province,  Ceylon. 
Range:  throughout  the  mountainous  districts  of  the  Central  Province  of  Ceylon  to 
over  6,000  ft.,  westwards  to  the  coast  near  Colombo  in  the  wet  zone,  and  eastward 
to  Uva  in  the  dry  zone;  also  Trincomalee. 

Herpestes  fuscus  maccarthiae  Gray,  1851 

1851.  Cynictis  maccarthiae  Gray,  P.Z.S.  131,  pi.  31.  Jaffna,  northern  point  of  Ceylon. 

Herpestes  fuscus  sicc.\tus  Thomas,  1924 

1924.  Herpestes  flavidens  siccatus  Thomas,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  i^:  240.  Possibly  .Aripo, 
near  Mannar,  North  Province,  Ceylon. 



Herpestes  fuscus  rubidior  Pocock,  1937 

1937.   Herpestes  fuscus  ruhidior  Pocock,    J.   Bombay  N.H.   Soc.  jjc).-   233.  Anasigalla, 
Matugama,  \\'cst  Province,  Ceylon.  Range:  South-Western  Ceylon. 

Herpestes  ritticollis  group 

Herpestes  vitticollis  Bennett,  1835  Striped-necked  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Western  Ghats,  Coorg,  Travancore,  etc.,  in 
Southern  India  and  Ceylon. 

Herpestes  vitticollis  vitticollis  Bennett,  1835 

1835.  Herpestes  vittieollis  Bennett,  P.Z.S.  67.  Travancore,  India. 

1 84 1.  Crossarchus  rubiginosus  Wagner,  Schreb.  Saugeth.  Suppl.  2:  329.  "East  Indies." 
Range:  Western  Ghats,  Coorg,  Travancore;  and  Ceylon. 

Herpestes  vitticollis  i.nornatus  Pocock,  1941 

1941.  Herpestes  vitticollis  inornatus  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  2:  49.  Chipgeri, 
North  Kanara,  India. 

Herpestes  urva  Hodgson,  1836  Crab-eating  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species;  Fukien  and  Hainan,  Southern  China;  For- 
mosa; Nepal,  Assam,  Burma;  Indo-China,  south  to  Peninsular  Siam. 

Herpestes  urva  Hodgson,  1836 

1836.  Gulo  urva  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  5.-  238.  Nepal. 

(?)  1830.  Viverra  fusca  Gray,  111.  Ind.  Zool.  /,  pi.  5  (see  Pocock,  1937,  J.  Bombay 
N.H.  Soc.  39:  237). 

1837.  Urva  cancrivora  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  6:  561-4.  Nepal. 

1907.   Urva  hanensis  Matschie,  W'iss.  Ergebn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  China,  10,  i:  190. 

Hankow,  China. 
1936.   Herpestes  urva  annamensis  Bechthold,  Z.  Saugeth.  //.•   150.  Phu  Qui,  Annam, 

1936.   Herpestes  urva  forrtmsanus  Bechthold,  loc.  cit.  151.  Formosa. 

1936.  Herpestes  urva  sinensis  Bechthold,  loc.  cit.    152.   Kwantung,   Southern  China. 
Range:  as  under  the  species  above. 

Genus  ICHNEUMIA  I.  Geoffroy,  1837 

1835.  Lasiopus  I.  Geoffroy,  in  Gervais's  Resume  des  Le(jons  do  Mamm.  professees  au 
Mus.  Paris,  /.•  37.  Herpestes  albicaudus  G.  Cuvier.  Not  Lasiopus  Dejean,  1833. 

1837.  Ichneumia  I.  Geoffroy,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  8:  251.  New  name  to  replace 
Lasiopus,  preoccupied. 

I  species:   hhnewma  alhicauda.  page  298 


Ichneumia  albicauda  G.  Cuvier,  1829  White-tailed  Mongoose 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Arabia;  Ethiopian  Africa,  from 
Senegal  to  the  Sudan  and  Somaliland,  southwards  to  South-West  Africa,  the  Trans- 
vaal, Natal,  and  Albany  district.  Eastern  Cape  Province. 

Ichneumia  albicauda  albicauda  G.  Cuvier,  1829 

1829.  Herpestes  albicaudus  G.  Cuvier,  Regne  Anim.  ed.  2,  /;  158.  Senegal. 

1833.  Herpestes  leucurus  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm.  2:  h,  pi.  12. 

Dongola,  Sudan. 
Range:  to  Muscat  district  of  Arabia.  "I  have  no  good  reason  for  separating  the 

Arabian  specimens  from  the  Sudan  ones  in  spite  of  their  geographical  separation" 

(Morrison-Scott,  1939,  Nov.  Zool.  41:  198). 


Genus:  Hyaena,  page  299 

Genus  HYAENA  Brisson,  1762 

1762.  Hyaena  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  ed.  2,  13  and  168.  Canis  hyaena  Linnaeus.  Hop- 
wood,  1947,  P.Z.S.  ///.•  533-536,  would  disregard  Brisson  and  date  Hyaena 
from  Brunnich,  1771,  Zool.  Fundamcnta,  34,  42,  43,  with  type  Canis  hyaena 

1868.  Euhyaena  Falconer,  Palaeontol.  Memoirs,  2:  464.  Canis  hyaena  Linnaeus. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Hyaena  hyaena,  page  299 

Hyaena  hyaena  Linnaeus,  1758  Striped  Hyaena 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Transcaucasia  (on  west  coast  of  Caspian  Sea, 
as  far  north  as  Derbent  and  Dashlagar),  Southern  Russian  Turkestan,  Kopet-Dag, 
Tedshen  and  Atrek  valleys,  south  of  Usbekistan,  south-east  of  Tadjikistan;  Persia, 
Iraq,  Syria,  Palestine,  Arabia;  also,  according  to  Bobrinskii,  Afghanistan  and  Asia 
Minor;  Kashmir  to  Nepal  Terai,  Baluchistan,  Sind  and  Cutch,  southwards  about  to 
Nilgiri  Hills  (perhaps  further) ;  Morocco,  Algeria,  Egypt,  Libya;  south  of  the  Sahara, 
from  Asben,  Somaliland,  Sudan  and  Kenya. 

Hyaena  hyaena  hyaena  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Canis  hyaena  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  40.  Benna  Mountains,  Laristan, 

Southern  Persia. 
1777.  Hyaena  striata  Zimmermann,  Spec.   Zool.  Geogr.  366.  Renaming  oi  hyaena 

Linnaeus.  Unavailable — Bull.  Zool.  Nomencl.  1950,  4:  547. 
1780.  Hyena  striata  Zimmerman,  Geogr.  Gesch.  2:  256. 

1808.  Hyaena  orientalis  Tiedemann,  Zool.  350.  Renaming  of  hraena  Linnaeus. 
1820.  Hyaena  fasciala  Thunberg,  Sv.  Vet.  Akad.  Handl.  /:  59.  Renaming  oi  hyaena 

1820.  Hyena  antiquorum  Temminck,  .\nn.  Gen.  Sci.  Phys.  Jj:  51.  Renaming  o( hyaena 

^'  299 

PAI.Al'.ARtniC:  AND   IMJIAX   MAMMALS    i7-,8-i946 

Hyaena  hvaena  hyaena  [km/i/.] 

1840.  Hyaena  rirgata  Ogilbv,  in  Ro\  Ic,   Illustr.  Hot.  Himalaya,  Ixvi.  Rcnamine;  of 

hyaena  Linnaeus. 
1844.   Hvaena  rnlgari':  indiea  Blain\illc.  Ostcoi;r.  Manim.  -•,  Hyenes,  82  and  cxpi.  of 

pi.  6.  India. 
I?)  K)0^.   Hvaena  bokcharensii  Satunin,   Mitt.    Kaiik.    Mus.   2:   8.   Bokhara,   Russian 

?i  1905.  Hvaena   liilkieiaezi  Satunin,    .Mitt.    Kauk.    .\Iui.    r.-    q.   .\shabad,    Russian 

1905.   Hvaena  vuloaiii  zarudnvi  Satunin,  Mitt.  Kauk.  .\Ius.  2:   14,   19.  Karun  River, 

South-Western  Persia. 
1910.   Hvaena   [HvaenA]   vulgaris  saliinini  Matsrhie,   S.B.   Ges.   Xat.   Fr.   Berlin,   363. 

Range:  Russian,  Indian  range  of  species,  Persia,  Iraq. 

Hy.-'iEN..\  hyaena  vi;lgaris  Desmarest,  1820 

1820.   Hvaena  vnlsaii^  Desmarest,  Encyclop.  Metli.  Mainni.  215.  ? Egypt. 

Hv.^E\.'\   HV.\E.\'.\  B.\RB.\R.\  Blainviilc,  1844 

1844.   Hvaena  rnlgari ^  harhara  Blain\iile,  Osteogr.  Manim.  Hvaena,  pis.  2  and  6.  Oran, 

Western  Algeria. 
1853.   Hvaena  siiilla  Filippi,  Mem.  R.  .A.ccad.  Torino,  /j,  2:  131.  Locality  unknown. 

Hy.\e\a   n\,\v.y.\  syri-\c:a   Matschie,  1900 

1900.   Hvaena  svriaea  Matschie.  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  54-57.  Antiochia,  Syria. 

Hyae.\a  hyaen,\  sultana  Pocock,  1934 

1934.   Hvaena  hvaena  sultana  Pocock,  .Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  14:  636.  Mt.  Q_ara,   1,500  ft., 
Ain,  South-Eastern  Arabia. 

FAMILY     F  E  L  I  D  A  E 

Genera:  Acinonvx,  page  320 
Fclis,  page  301 
Neqfelis,  page  314 
Panthera,  page  315 

Pocock  split  the  Gats  into  many  genera.  However,  the  consensus  of  opinion  is 
overwhelmingly  in  favour  of  referring  most  or  all  Ciats  except  Acinonvx  to  the  Linnean 
genus  Felis,  or  at  least  of  recognizing  as  few  genera  as  possible  in  this  family.  Simpson 
1 1 14 5,  I  II),  231)  retains  Felis,  Panlhera  and  Acinonvx,  with  many  subgenera  of  the  first 
two.  As  this  author  points  out,  "the  work  of  Pocock,  Sonntag,  Haltenorth,  and  others, 
shows  bcvond  serious  doubt  that  the  most  distincti\'e  group  of  species  sometimes 
inc  luded  in  Felis.  \ensn  lato,  is  that  typified  by  the  so-called  big  Gats,  Lion,  Tiger, 
Panther,  etc.,  the  prior  name  for  which  is  Panthera.  This  seems  to  be  a  good  genus  by 
.ni\  moflern  stanfl.irds".  We  lulK  support  these  remarks.  Pocock  divided  the  Cats 
iiitii  three  sublamilies,  Felinae,  Pantlierinae  .uid  Acinonychinae,  which  correspond 


roughly  to  the  three  Hving  genera  Panthera,  Felis  and  Acinonyx  of  Simpson.  The  genus 
or  subgenus  Neofelis  was  placed  in  the  FeHnae  by  Pocock,  but  in  the  genus  Panthera  by 
Simpson.  Judging  by  Pocock's  figures  and  remarks,  it  is  a  thoroughly  distinct  type, 
and  we  are  venturing  to  hst  it  as  a  full  genus.  Otherwise,  we  follow  Simpson  in 
principle,  and  Pocock  in  details  of  synonymy  as  regards  various  groups  which  he  con- 
siders of  generic  rank  (=  subgeneric  rank  of  Simpson).  It  may  be  added  that  the 
subgenera  of  Felis  sensu  lata  are  most  useful  in  indicating  the  approximate  position  of 
a  species  within  this  large  genus. 

Genus  FELIS  Linnaeus,  1758 

758.  Felis  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  41 .  Felis  catus  Linnaeus,  the  domestic  cat. 

792.  Lynx  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  Cat.  Mamm.  Nos  288-299.  Felis  lynx  Linnaeus.  Valid 
as  a  subgenus. 

821.  Lynceus  Gray,  London  Med.  Repos.  /j.-  302.  Felis  lynx  Linnaeus. 

829.  Pardina  Kaup,  Entw.  Gesch.  u.  Nat.  Syst.  Europ.  Thierwelt,  /.•  53,  57.  Felis 
pardina  Temminck. 

834.  Lynchus ]a.Td\ne,  Nat.  Libr.  Mamm.  4:  274.  Felis  lynx  Linnaeus. 

841.  Otocolobus  Brandt,  Bull.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  g:  38.  Felis  manul  Pallas.  \'alid 
as  a  subgenus. 

843.  Chans  Gray,  List.  Mamm.  B.AL  44.  Felis  chaus  Guldenstaedt. 

843.  Caraeal  Gray,  List.  Mamm.  B.NL  46.  Caracal  melanotis  Gray  =  Felis  caracal 
Schreber.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

855.   Catus  Fitzinger,  Wiss.  pop.  Nat.  der  Saugeth.  /.•  265.  Felis  catus  Linnaeus. 

858.  Profelis  Severtzov,  Rev.  ALtg.  Zool.  10:  386.  Felis  celidogaster  Severtzov  =  Felis 
aurata  Temminck  (the  \Vest  African  Golden  Cat).  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

858.  Cn/o/)'«.v  SevertzoN-,  Rcw  Mag.  Zool.  /o:  387. /^c/«  f/w!«  Giildenstaedt  (restrict- 
ed by  Satunin,  1905). 

858.  Prwnailurus  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  387.  Felis  pardochrous  Hodgson  = 
Leopardus  horsfieldii  Gray  (a  race  of  Felis  hengalensis  Kerr).  \'alid  as  a  sub- 

858.  ^ibethailurus  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  387.  Felis  viverrinus  Bennett. 

858.  Catopiima  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  387.  Felis  moormensis  Hodgson  = 
Felis  temminckii  \'igors  &  Horsfield. 

858.  Pardofelis  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  387.  Felis  marmorata  XLartin.  \'alid 
as  a  subgenus. 

858.  Ictailurus  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  387.  Felis  planiceps  \'igors  cS:  Hors- 
field. Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

858.   Urolynchus  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  389.  Felis  caracal  Schreber. 

858.  Leptailurus  Se\'ertzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  389.  Felis  serval  Schreber.  \'alid  as 
a  subgenus. 

858.  Chrysailurus  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10:  389.  Fclis  nealecta  Gra\-  =  Felis 
aurata  Temminck. 

864.  Serval  Brchm,  Fiihrer  Z.  Garten  Hamburg,  6th  ed.  -^3.  Serval  mactilatus  Brchm. 

866.  Galeopardus  Heuglin  &  Fitzinger,  S.K.  Akad.  ^\'iss.  Wien.  Math.  Nat.  C;i.  5./, 

1 :  557.  Felis  serval  Schreber. 

867.  Viverriceps  Gray,  P.Z.S.  268.  Felis  viverrinus  Bennett. 



Felis  [contd.] 

1867.   Cervaria  Gray,  P.Z.S.  276.  Lvncus  pardinus  =  Felis  pardina  Temminck.  Not  of 

\Valker,  1866. 
i86g.  Aihirogale   Fitzinger,   S.B.   Ak.   Berlin,    60,    i  :    249.   Felis  planiceps  Vigors   & 

1870.  Ailiirimis  Gervais,  Nouv.  Arch.   Mus.   Paris,   6:    159.  Naming  of  "I'Ailurin" 

Gervais,  1855,  H.N.  Mamm.  2:  87  (^  Felis  planiceps  Vigors  &  Horsfield). 
1874.  Pvrofelis  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  14:  354.  Felis  temminckii  Vigors  &  Horsfield. 
1885.  Ailurina  Trouessart,  Bull.  Soc.  Angers,  14:  Suppl.  100.  Naming  of  "I'Ailurin" 

Gervais,  1855,  H.N.  Mamm.  2:  87  (=  Felis  planiceps  Vigors  &  Horsfield). 
1894.  Servalina  Greve,  Nova  Acta  Acad.  Caes.  Leop.  Carol.,  Halle,  6^:  76.  Felis  serval 

1898.   Oncoides  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  /.•  357.  Not  of  Severtzov,  1858. 
1903.  Eiicervaria  Palmer,  Science,  N.S.  ij:  873.  Substitute  for  Cervaria  Gray. 
1905.   Tnchaelurus  Satunin,   Ann.   Mus.   Zool.   St.   Petersb.  g:  495.   Proposed   as  a 

substitute  for  Otocolobus  which  was  thought  to  be  preoccupied.  See  Pocock, 

1939,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  /.■  315. 

1925.  Poliailiirus    Lonnberg,    Arkiv.    Zool.    Stockholm,     18A,    2;    2.    Felis    pallida 

Buechner  =  Felis  bieti  Milne-Edwards. 

1926.  Microfelis  Roberts,  Ann.  Transvaal  Mus.  //.•  250.  Felis  nigripes  Burchell,  from 

South  Africa. 
1926.  Eremaelurus  Ognev,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Leningrad,  2y:  356   Eremaelurus  thinobius 

Ognev  (a  race  of  Felis  margarita  Loche). 
1932.  Badiofelis  Pocock,   P.Z.S.   749.  Felis  badia  Gra),   from   Borneo.   Valid   as  a 


14  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Felis  bengalensis,  page  312  Felis  margarila,  page  307 

Felis  bieti,  page  306  Felis  marmorata,  page  3 1 1 

Felis  caracal,  page  310  Felis  rubiginosa,  page  314 

Felis  chaus,  page  306  Felis  serval,  page  3 1 1 

Felis  libyca,  page  304  Felis  silveslris,  page  303 

Felis  lynx,  page  308  Felis  temmincki,  page  3 1 1 

Felis  manul,  page  308  Felis  viverrina,  page  314 

Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  of  British  India,  Mamm.  /,  keys  ten  of  these  species  in  some 
detail.  In  that  work  he  adopted  the  name  Constantino  for  the  smaller  species  currently 
known  as  F.  libyca,  but  later  came  to  the  conclusion  that  constantina  is  based  on  a  race 
of  F.  serval,  which  he  shows  to  occur  in  Algeria,  and  therefore  he  reverted  to  the  name 
lihrca  for  the  small  African  Wild  Cat.  In  his  Catalogue  of  the  genus  Felis  ( 1 95 1 )  he  compares 
in  detail  three  of  the  Palaearctic  species,  silvestris,  bieti  and  margarita  (none  of  which 
occur  in  India),  with  their  nearest  alhes.  For  the  characters  of  F.  (Leptailurus)  serval, 
see  Pocock,  191 7,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  329-350,  Classification  of  the  existing  Felidae. 

The  arrangement  of  the  species  silvestris,  libyca,  bieti,  margarita  here  adopted  follows 
that  of  Pocock,  Catalogue  of  the  genus  Felis. 

The  nine  subgenera  here  listed  follow  Pocock  as  far  as  their  content  of  species  is 
concerned.  That  author  gave  them  all  generic  rank.  In  the  abnve  generic  synonymy 
extralimital  American  names  have  not  been  dealt  with. 



Subgenus  FELIS  Linnaeus,  1758 

Pocock  regards  the  following  names  as  synonyms  oi Felis  catus  Linnaeus,  1758,  the 
domestic  cat: 

1837.  Felis  pulchella  Gray,  Mag.  N.H.  /;  577,  Egypt,  and  inconspicua,  loc.  cit.   Nepal. 
1904.  Felis  daemon  Satunin,  P.Z.S.  2:  162.  Caucasus. 

1906.  Felis  ocreata  agrius  Bate,  P.Z.S.  igo§,  2:  317.  Crete. 

Felis  silvestris  Schreber,  1777  European  Wild  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Scotland,  Spain,  France,  Belgium,  Italy, 
Sicily,  Germany,  Poland,  Hungary,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania,  Bulgaria,  Greece; 
possibly  still  in  Switzerland,  Austria  and  Northern  Portugal;  Ukraine  and  Caucasus; 
Asia  Minor. 

On  this  species  see  Pocock,  1934,  J.  Linn.  Soc.  ^ool.  jg:  i. 

Felis  silvestris  silvestris  Schreber,  1777 

1777.  Felis  {Catus)  silvestris  Schreber,  Saugeth.  j:  397.  Germany. 

1777.  Felis  catus  ferus  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  /.■  518. 

1896.  Catus  ferox  Martorelli,  Atti  Soc.  Ital.  Sci.  Nat.  Milano,  jj.-  253.  Lapsus  for  ferus. 

Range:  Central  Europe,  from  France,  Northern  Spain  and  Italy  eastwards  into 

South- Western  Russia,   western  shores  of  the  Black  Sea,   and  probably 

Greece  (Pocock). 

Felis  silvestris  morea  Trouessart,  1904 

1904.  {Felis  catus)  morea  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  Suppl.  273.  Based  on  Felis  catus  ferus 

var.  e  Morea  of  Reichenbach,  1852,  Vollstandigste  Nat.,  Raubsaugeth.  362. 
Above  Dragomanou,  near  Mt.  Diaphorti,  West-Central  Morea  (Pelopon- 
nesus), Greece.  (Harper,  1940,  J.  Mamm.  21:  193.)  Range:  Southern 

Felis  silvestris  caucasica  Satunin,  1905 

1905.  Felis  catus  caucasicus  SdiXMmn,  Mitt.  Kauk.  Mus.  2:  154,  316.  Borzhom,  Caucasus. 
1916.  Felis  silvestris  trapeziaBlackler,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  73.  Khotz,  near  Trebizond, 

500  ft.,  Asia  Minor. 

Felis  silvestris  grampia  Miller,  1907 

1907.  Felis  grampia  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  396.  Invermoriston  district,  Inver- 

ness, Scotland.  Range:  now  restricted  to  the  wilder  parts  of  Scotland,  north 
of  a  line  between  Glasgow  and  Dundee  (Pocock). 

Feus  silvestris  tartessia  Miller,  1907 

1907.  Felis  tartessia  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  397.  Goto  Doiiana,  Huelva,  Spain. 
Range;  Southern  Spain. 

Felis  silvestris  molisana  Altobello,  1921 

1 92 1.  Felis  molisana  Altobello,  Fauna  dell  Abruzzo,  Mamm.  55.  Molise,  Italy. 


PAI.Ar.ARCTIf:  AND  IXDtAX   MAMMALS    i7-,8-i94G 

Felis  silvestris  euxina  Pocock,  1943 

i()4'V  Fdis iilvestris euxina  Pocock,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  10:  701 .  I5aspunar,  in  Dobrudscha, 

Felis  libyca   I'urster,  1780  African  Wild  Cat 

.\pproxiniatc  distribution  of  species:  Islands  of  Sardinia,  Corsica  and  Majorca  in 
Mediterranean;  .South-Eastern  Transcaucasia,  Russian  Turkestan,  Kazakstan  (except 
northern  parts'):  C^hincsc  Turkestan;  Arabia,  Iraq,  Persia,  Palestine,  Syria,  Afghani- 
stan; Punjab,  Sind,  Clutch,  Rajputana  and  Ontral  India;  Morocco,  .\lgeria,  Libya, 
Egypt;  Africa,,  south  of  the  Sahara  from  Northern  Nigeria,  .\sben,  the  Sudan  and 
Somaliland  southwards  to  Transvaal,  Natal,  and  regions  of  King  Williams  Tdwn 
and  Cape  .\gulhas  in  C'ape  Pro\ince. 

Felis  liby(:.\  lihvc^  Forster,  1780 

1780.  Fdis  lyhira    sic)  Forster  in  Buflbn's  Nat.  \'ierf.  Thiere,  6:  313.  Gafsa,  Tuuis. 

The  original  spelling  of  this  name  was  adopted  by  Pocock  and  G.  Allen,  but 

we  think  Forster  made  a  mistake  which  comes  under  the  heading  ol  a  lapsus. 

It  ((uild  not  ha\e  been  ignorance,  since  the  name  "I.ibya"  was  in  cimnnon 

use  by  the  Romans;  the  Latiir  for  Libyan  is  lihrcus. 
17Q2.  Felix  (sic)  Ivnx  lybiensis  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  if^G.  Gafsa,  Tunis. 
1885.  Felis  crislata  Lataste,  .Actes  Soc.  Linn.  Bordeaux,  ^9.-  229.  Not  of  Falconer  & 

Cautley,  1836.  Haidra,  Tunis. 
Range:  from  Morocco,  Algeria  and  Tunis  to  Egypt;  through  Nubia  to  the  ,'\ngl(]- 
Egypti.m  Sudan,   and  eastwards  to  Suakin  and  Massowah;   and,  according  to 
Flower,  the  western  coast  of  Sinai  (Pocock). 

Felis  libyc.x  orn.viw  Ciray,  1830  Indian  Desert  Cat 

1830.  Felis  ornata  Gray,  lUustr.  Ind.  Zool.  /,  pi.  2.  India. 

1834.  Fells  serial ina yArd'me,  Nat.  Libr.  Felinae,  4:  232.  India. 

18(13.  Felis  tivqimta  Blyth,  P.Z.S.  185  (in  part;  not  of  C:u\ier,  1826,  which  is  based  on 

a  feral  domestic  cat). 
Range:  Indian  range  of  the  species,  as  listed  abo\c. 

Felis  LiHYr;.\   HtBASTis  Hemprich   &    Ehrenberg,  1833 

1833.   Felis  hubastis  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm.  i'.-  ii  verso,  Etjypt. 
(The  Sacred  Cat  of  ancient  Egypt.) 

Felis  libvi;a  cai'data  Gray,  1874 

1874.   CluiKs   eiiiiilaliis    Gray,   P.Z.S.    31,   pi.   ().    Kokand,    Fergana,   Eastern    Russian 

'Furkcstan  Western  AvA  part  of  S)r-I)arya  district,  according  lo  ()giie\  ). 

?    i<)i-,.   FeliK  eauilala  ■.ehniliukovi  li'nuU.  .Aim.  .\Ius.  Zool.  .-^cad.  Sci.  i<):  11.  Kop.d 

distrii  t,  .Semirech\ia,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 
ii|i-|.   Fells  eaudata  unvojhva  Zukowski,  Arch.  .\at.  Berlin,  8rj,  (>:  i)-,.  Between  west  Lake  15,dkash  and  Ri\er  C:hu,  Russian  Turkestan. 
!     ]i)\'y   Fills  (iiiiilahi  Inrtiiitnlis  Zukowsky,  hie.  cit.  97.  Region  ol  Lake  B.ilk.ish, 
Riissi.m  Turk(-.taii.  Not  of  lit/inger,  18(18. 



1915.  Felis  caudata  macrothrix  Zukowsky,  Arch.  Nat.  Berlin,  80,  10:  125.  Substitute  for 

longipilis  Zukowsky,  preoccupied. 
Range:  Russian  Turkestan,  southwards  into  Persia  and  Afghanistan,  eastwards  into 

Chinese  Turkestan. 

Felis  libyca  s.^rd.'^  Lataste,  1885 

1885.  Felis  libyca  var.  sarda  Lataste,  Actes  .Soc.  Linn.  Bordeaux,  ^g:  231.  Sarrabus, 

1896.  Felis  mediterranea  Martorelh,  Atti  Soc.  Ital.  Sci.  Nat.  Milano,  jj.'  266.  Sardinia. 
1906.  Felis  ocreata  mauritana  Cabrera,  Bol.  Real.  Soc.  Esp.  H.N.  Madrid,  6:  632. 

Mogador,  Morocco. 

1920.  Felis  lybica  cyretmrum  Ghigi,  Mem.  R.  Accad.  Bologna,  /.•  79.  Cirene,  Cyrenaica, 

(?)  1929.  Felis  revi  Lavauden,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  i8g:  1023.  Annes  Forest,  on 

border  of  Lake  Biguglia,  south  of  Bastia,  Corsica. 
(?)  1930.  Felis  catus  jordansi  Schwarz,   Zool.  Anz.  gi:   223.   Margarita,   Majorca, 

Balearic  Islands. 
Range:  Mediterranean  islands  as  just  listed,  also  Morocco,  Algeria,  Tunis,  Libya. 

Felis  libyca  kozlovi  Satunin,  1905 

1905.  Felis  {Felis)  kozlovi  Satunin,  Ann.  Mus.  St.  Petersb.  g:  533.  Oasis  of  Ljuktschun, 
Eastern  Tianshan  Mountains. 

Felis  libyca  murgabensis  Zukowsky,  1915 

1915.  Felis  (Felis)  murgabensis  Zukowsky,  Arch.  Nat.  Berlin,  3o,  10:  127.  Tachta,  on 
River  Murgab,  36°  N.,  63°  E.,  Afghan-Turkestan  border. 

Felis  libyca  matschiei  Zukowsky,  1915 

1915.  Felis  (Felis)  matschiei  Zukowsky,  Arch.  Nat.  Berlin,  80,  10:  130.  One  hundred 

and  ten  versts  south  of  Geok  Tepe  (38°  N.,  57^°  E.),  Transcaspia. 

Felis  libyca  nesterovi  Birula,  191 6 

1916.  Felis  ornata  nesterovi  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  St.  Petersb.  21,  suppl.  i-ii.  Nachr- 

Chasasch,  Lower  Iraq.  Ranges  into  Southern  Persia. 

Felis  libyca  iraki  Cheesman,  1921 

1 92 1.  Felis  ocreata  iraki  Cheesman,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  sy:  33.  Kuweit,  Arabia. 

Ranges  into  Iraq  (Sheik  Saad,  Tigris). 

Felis  libyca  issikulexsis  Ognev,  1930 

1930.  Felis  ornata  issikulensis  Ognev,  Z.  Saug.  j.-  67-69.  North-western  shore  of  Lake 
Issyk  Kul,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 

Felis  libyca  tristrami  Pocock,  1944 

1944.  Felis  lybica  tristrami  Pocock,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.■  125.  Ghor  Seisaban,  Moab, 

1867.  Felis  syriaca  Tristram,  N.H.  of  the  Bible,  67.  .Syria.  Not  of  Fischer,  1829. 
1895.  Felis  maniculata  Yerbury  &  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  547.  Aden,  Southern  Arabia.  Not 

of  Cretzschmar,  1826. 


PALAEARC:T1C  and  INDIAN  MAMMALS   1758-1946 

Felis  bieti   Milne-Edwards,  1892  Chinese  Desert  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Mongolia,  Kansu,  Szechuan. 

Felis  bieti  bieti   Milne-Edwards,  1892 

1892.  Felis  bifti  Milne-Edwards,  Rev.  Gen.  des  Sci.  Pures  &  Appliquces,  j.-  671. 

Vicinity  of  Tongolo  and  Tatsienlu,  .Szechuan,  China. 

1893.  Felis  pallida  Buchner,  Bull.  Acad.  Imp.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  55.-  433.  Southern 

Tatung  Range,  Kansu,  China. 
1922.  Felis  pallida  subpallida  Jacohi.  Abh.  u.  Ber.  Mus.  f.  Tier.  u.  Volkerk,  Dresden, 
16,  I  :  9.  Near  Sungpan,  Szechuan,  China. 

Felis  bieti  chutucht,^  Birula,  191 7 

191 7.  Felis  ehiitucfila  Birula,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  Petrograd,  21,  Nouv.  et 
Faits  Divers,  i.  Nor  in  Province  Goizso,  Southern  Mongolia. 

Felis  bieti  vellerosa  Pocock,  1943 

1943.  Felis  bieli  vellerosa  Pocock,  P.Z.S.  113B:   172,  fig.  Near  Yulinfu,  4,000  ft.,  on 
borders  of  Ordos  and  North-Eastern  Shensi,  China. 

Felis  chaus  Giildenstaedt,  1776  Jungle  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Eastern  Transcaucasia,  west  coast  Caspian 
Sea  as  far  north  as  delta  of  Volga,  Russian  Turkestan  (Southern  Turkmenia,  whole 
of  Amu-Darya,  east  coast  Sea  of  Aral,  Middle  and  Lower  Syr-Darya,  Lower  Chu) ; 
Chinese  Turkestan,  Yunnan  in  Western  China;  Asia  Minor,  Persia,  Iraq,  Syria, 
Palestine,  Afghanistan;  Baluchistan  and  Kashmir,  thence  southwards  over  Penin- 
sular India  to  Ceylon,  eastwards  to  Nepal  and  Burma;  Indo-China,  Siam;  Egypt. 
(?  Southern  Algeria,  Heim  de  Balsac.) 

Felis  chaus  chaus  Giildenstaedt,  1776 

I  776.   Felis  chaus  Giildenstaedt,  Nov.  Com.  Acad.  Petrop.  20:  483.  Terek  River,  north 

of  the  Caucasus. 
181 1.  Felis  catolvnx  PaUas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  /.•  23.  Terek  River,  north  of  the  Caucasus 

(Pocock,  1939). 
1876.  Felis  skawiana  Blanford,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  ./j,  2:  49.  Varkand,  Chinese 

Turkestan.  (For  status,  see  Pocock,  1939,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.• 

290  (footnote).) 
1898.  Felis  chaus  typica  de  Winton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  291. 
Range:  Turkestan,  Caucasus,  Persia,  Baluchistan,  Yarkand. 

Felis  chaus  affinis  Gray,  1830 

1830.  Felis  affinis  Gray,  Illustr.  Ind.  Zool.   /,  pi.  3.  Gangootri,  in  Tehri  Garhwal, 

Northern  India. 
1836.  Lynchus  erythrotus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  j.-  233.  Nepal. 
1844.  Felis  jacguemonlii  Geoffrey,  Jacquemont's  Voy.  4:  58,  Atlas,  2,  pis.  2,  3.  Kursali, 

8,500  ft.,  near  Dehra  Dun,  Northern  India. 
Range:  Kashmir  to  Sikkim;  Yunnan. 



Felis  chaus  kutas  Pearson,  1832 

1832.  Felis  kutas  Pearson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  /;  75.  Midnapore,  in  Bengal,  about 
70  miles  west  of  Calcutta.  Range:  Bengal,  westwards  to  Cutch. 

Felis  chaus  nilotica  de  VVinton,  1898 

1898.  Felis  chaus  nilotica  de  VVinton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  292.  Near  Cairo,  Egypt. 
1832.  Felis  riippelii  Brandt,  Bull.  Soc.  Imp.  Nat.  Moscou,  4:  209.  Egypt.  Not  of 
Schinz,  1825. 

Felis  chaus  furax  de  Winton,  1898 

1898.  Felis  chaus  furax  de  Winton,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  2:  293.  Near  Jericho,  Palestine. 

1902.  Lyncus  chrysomelanotis  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,   124,   147.  Jordan, 

Range  includes  Southern  Syria,  Iraq. 

Felis  (?)  chaus  maimanah  Zukowsky,  191 5 

1 91 5.  Felis  [Felis]  maimanah  Zukowsky,  Arch.  Nat.  Berlin,  80,   10:   139.  Maimana 
(36°  N.,  65°  E.).  Afghanistan. 

Felis  chaus  fulvidina  Thomas,  1928 

1928.  Felis  ajjinis  fulvidina  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  834.  Kampong  Tomb,  Annam,  Indo- 
China.  Range:  to  Siam  and  Burma. 

Felis  chaus  prateri  Pocock,  1939 

1939.  Felis  chaus  prateri  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.■  298.  Jacobabad,  Sind, 
Western  India. 

Felis  chaus  kelaarti  Pocock,  1939 

1939.  Felis  chaus  kelaarti  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.•  300.  Cheddikulam, 

North  Province,  Ceylon.  Range:  Ceylon  and  Southern  India  (south  of  the 

Kistna  River). 

Felis  margarita  Loche,  1858  Sand  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Russian  Turkestan  (Kara-Kum 
Desert,  region  south-east  of  Krasnovodsk,  Southern  Kizil-Kum,  round  Termez, 
west  of  Bokhara);  Arabia  (skin  in  B.M.  from  Rub  al  Khali,  21°  N.,  55°  E.), 
Sinai,  Algeria,  southwards  to  Asben. 

Felis  Margarita  Margarita  Loche,  1858 

1858.  Felis  margarita  Loche,  Rev.  Mag.  Zool.  10,  2  :  49,  pi.  i .  Near  Negonga,  Algeria. 
1867.  Felis  marginata  Gray,  P.Z.S.  275. 

1905.  Felis  ocreata  marguerittei  Trouessart,  Caus.  Sci.  Soc.  Zool.  de  France,  /.•  386. 
Emendation  of  margarita. 

Felis  margarita  thinobius  Ognev,  1926 

1926.  Eremaelurus  thinobius  Ognev,  Ann.   Mus.  Zool.  Leningrad,  2y:  356,  pi.  26. 
Repetek,  Transcaspia,  Russian  Turkestan. 


l'.\LALARt;rU:  AND   IXUIAX   MAMMALS   1758-1946 

1938.  Felis  margarita  meinrrtzhageni  Pocock,  Ann.  Mac;.  \.H.  /.■  472.  Also  1938, 
P.Z.S.  108V1:  43.  EI  Goica,  30'  .\.,  Alc;crian  Sahara. 

Subgenus   OTOCOLOBUS  Brandt,  1841.      "Trichaclunn"  Satunin,  1905 

Felis   manul    Pallas,   1776  Pallas's  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Transcaucasia,  Russian  Turkestan,  in  part 
(.Southern  Turkmenia,  Lower  Amu-Darya),  Eastern  Kazakstan,  Transbaikalia. 
(E\erywhcrc  rare  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  according  to  Bobrinskii.)  Zungaria  (according  to 
G.  Allen),' Tibet,  Mongolia,  Western  China  (states  of  Kansu,  Szechuan).  Afghani- 
stan, Persia.  Baluchistan,  Kashmir. 

Felis  manul  manul  Pallas,  1776 

1 77!).   Felis  manul  Pallas,  Reise.   Russ.   Reichs,  j:  692.  Jida  Ri\-er,  south  of  Lake 

Baikal,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1 903.   Tnchaclurus  manul  mongolicus  Satunin,  Ann.   Mus.  Zool.  Acad.   Lnp.  Sci.  St. 

Pctersb.  igo4,  g.-  501.  Not  of  Lesson,  1842. 
1907.  Fdi\  manul  satuni  Lydekker,  Game  Animals  hidia,  334. 
Range:  northern  part  of  range  of  species  as  gi\-en  above. 

Felis  m.-\nul  nigripecta  Hodgson,  1842 

1842.  Felis  tdgripectus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //.-  276.  Tibet.  Range:  to 

Felis  manul  ferruginea  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  (Mocolohus  manul  ferrugineus  Ognev,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  308.  Mountain 
ridge  of  Missanev,  Kopet-Dag  Mountains,  Transcaspia.  Range:  South- 
Western  Turkestan,  Northern  Persia,  Afghanistan,  Baluchistan. 

Subgenus  D'jVX  Kerr,  1792 

Felis  lynx  l.inn.ieus,  17-18  European  Lyn.x 

.\pproximate  distribution  of  species:  formerly  in  the  forested  parts  of  Europe.  Still 
found  in  Norway,  Sweden,  the  Baltic  States,  Poland  and  the  Balkans,  including 
Greece,  '  .Sardinia,  .Spain  and  Portugal.  Forest  zone  of  Russia,  C'aucasus:  the  whole 
(il  Silicria  as  far  as  and  including  Sakhalin,  but  does  not  occur  Kamtchatka;  moun- 
t.iuis  of  Russian  Central  Asia  (Tarbagatai,  Djungar  Ala-Tau,  Tianshan  and 
Hissar-Alai  system,  Western  Pamirs,  Kopet-Dag).  Chinese  Turkestan,  Tibet,  Mon- 
golia, Manchuria,  perhaps  Chihli  in  China.  Kashmir.  Asia  Minor,  Persia  and 
^  Palestine.  Also  in  North  America. 

Ill, IS  LYNX   LY.xx   Linnaeus,  1758 

i7"ili.  i-'iin  lynx  Linnaeus,  .Syst.  Nat.  loth  cd.  /.•  43.  Near  L'psala,  Sweden. 

I  7112.  Lynx  ruli;iiN\  Kerr,  .'Vnim.  Kingd.  Syst.  Clat.  Nos.  294,  295  and  p.  157  ol  text. 

!7<)2.  I.ynx  ;'nlgari\  alha  Kerr,  loc .  eil.  Forests  ofSwcflen. 



1792.   Felix  Lmx  vulgaris  melinus  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  Syst.  Cat.  No.  2q6  and  p.  157 

of  text.  Banks  of  Volga,  near  Kazan,  Russia. 
1798.  Felis  borealis  Thunberg,  Beskrifning  pa  .Svenska  Djur.  Mamm.  14.  Forests  of 

Northern  Sweden. 
1798.  Felis  kattlo  Schrank,  Fauna  Boica,  /.■  52.  Bohemia. 
1820.  Felis  Ivncula  Nilsson,  Skand.  Fauna,  /.•  14.  Wooded  and  mountainous  regions 

of  Scandinavia. 

1824.  Felis  cervaria  Temminck,  Mon.  Mamm.:  106.  Asia. 

1825.  Felis  lupulinus  Thunberg,  Denkschr.  k.  Ak.  W'iss.  Munchen,  9.-  189.  Northern 

1825.  Felis  vulpinus  Thunberg,  loc.  cit.  192.  Near  Upsala,  Sweden. 
1829.  Felis  virgala  Nilsson,  Ilium.  Fig.  Skand.  Fauna,  pis.  3,  4.  Sweden. 
Range:  European  range  of  species  excluding  Iberian  Peninsula,  Sardinia,  and  the 
Caucasus;  eastwards  to  the  Yenesei,  Siberia. 

Felis  lynx  pardina  Temminck,  1824.  Spanish  Lynx 

1824.  Felis  pardina  Temminck,  Monogr.  Mamm.  /.•  116.  Near  Lisbon,  Portugal. 

1907.  Lynx  pardella  Miller,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  398.  Goto  Donana,  Huelva,  Spain. 
New  name  for  pardina  Temminck,  thought  to  have  been  preoccupied  bv 
pardina  Oken,  1816  (unavailable).  Not  Felis  pardella  Pallas,  1784. 

Felis  lynx  isabellina  Blyth,  1847 

1847.  Felis  isabellina  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  1178.  Tibet. 

(?)  1863.  Lyncus  tibetanus  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgsons  Coll.  B.M.  4. 

1904.  Felis  lynx  wardi  Lydekker,  The  Field,  104:  576.  Altai  Mountains. 

1904.  Lynchus  isabellinus  kamensis  Satunin,  Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  Acad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  g: 

13.  Kam,  South-Eastern  Tibet. 
Range:  Kashmir,  Tibet,  north  to  Tianshari  and  Altai  Mountains,  and  mountains  of 
Russian  Central  Asia,  Mongolia. 

Felis  lynx  sardiniae  Mola,  1908 

igoB.  Lynx  sardiniae  Mola,  Boll.  Soc.  Zool.  Ital.  Roma,  9.-  48.  Nuoro,  Sardinia. 

Felis  lynx  dinniki  Satunin,  1915 

1915.  Lynx  dinniki  Satunin,  Mem.  Cauc.  Mus.  Ser.  A.  /.•  391.  Name  proposed  for  the 
North  Caucasian  Lynx  (see  Ognev,  1935,  Mamm.  U.S.S.R.  j.-  224). 

1905.  Lynx  pardina  orientalis  Satunin,  Isvest.  Kauk.  Mus.  2:  166.  Lenkoran,  Trans- 

caucasia. Not  Felis  orientalis  Schlegel,  1857  (a  Panthera). 
1922.  Lynx  lynx  orientalis  aber.  guttata  Smirnov,  Ann.  Univ.  Azerbaidjan,  No.  2,  37. 

No  locality. 
1922.  Lynx  lynx  orientalis  aber.  virgata  Smirnov,  loc.  cit.  Not  of  Illiger,  181 1. 

Felis  lynx  wrangeli  Ognev,  1928 

1928.  Lynx  lynx  wrangeli  Ognev,  Rysi.  Ohotnik,  Nos.  5-6.  (N.V.)  Valley  of  River 

Dayeh,  Hotan-Haia,  Verhoiansk  Mountains,  Eastern  Siberia. 
(?)  1922.  Felix  lynx  var.  baicalensis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  351,  nom. 

Range:  Siberia,  east  of  the  Yenesei. 


Subgenus  CARACAL  Gray,  1843 

Felis  caracal  Schreber,  1776  Caracal  Lynx 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Russian  Turkestan  (only  deserts  of  Turk- 
menia,  as  far  north  as  Sea  of  Aral);  Arabia,  south  to  Aden,  Palestine,  Syria,  Iraq, 
Persia,  Afghanistan  (according  to  Bobrinskii) ;  Baluchistan,  Punjab,  Sind,  Cutch, 
east  to  United  Provinces,  India;  Egypt,  Algeria,  Morocco,  and  Africa  south  of  the 
Sahara,  from  the  Sudan,  Somaliland  and  Asben  to  the  Transvaal  and  Cape  Prov  ince 
(Little  Namaqualand,  Clanwilliam,  Deelfoiitein,  etc.). 

(Felis  c.^RACAL  caracal  Schreber,  1776.  Extralimital) 

1776.  Felis  caracal  Schreber,  Saugeth.  pi.  1 10,  text  j:  413,  587,  1777.  Table  Moun- 
tain, Cape  Town,  South  Africa.  For  discussion  of  type  locality  and  author, 
see  J.  A.  Allen,  1924,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  4j:  279,  and  Pocock,  1939, 
Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.-  306. 

1843.  Caracal  melanoth  Gray,  List  Spec.  Mamm.  B..\I.  46.  Renaming  oi caracal. 

Felis  caracal  algira  Wagner,  1841 

1841.  Felis  caracal  var.  algira  Wagner,  Reisen  in  der  Regenschaft  Algier,  j.-  76,  pi.  4. 

1892.  Caracal  berherorum  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  114.  Constantine, 

1912.  Felis  (Caracal)  herberonim  spat^i  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  61.  Between 
Feriana  and  Tebessa,  Tunis. 

1912.   Caracal  berherorum  niedjerdae  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  62.  Tunis. 

1912.  Felis  {Caracal)  nubicus  corylinus  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  63.  Sup- 
posed to  be  from  Tangier,  Morocco. 

Felis  caracal  schmitzi  Matschie,  1912 

1912.  Felis  [Caracal)  caracal  schmitzi  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  64.  The  Dead 

Sea  region,  Palestine. 
(?)  1829.  Felis  caracal  bengalensis  Fischer,  Syn.   Mamm.   210.  Bengal.  Not  of  Kerr, 


1912.  Felis  (Caracal)  caracal  aharonii  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  66.  Mouth 
of  Chabur  River,  on  Upper  Euphrates,  Syria. 

(?)  1939.  Caracal  caracal  caracal  IVluUer,  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.'  307. 
If  the  view  is  accepted  that  F.  caracal  dates  from  Schreber,  1776,  with  type 
locality  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  then  it  appears  that  the  Indian  and  South- 
western Asiatic  race,  if  distinguishable,  should  be  called  schmitzi  Matschie, 
which  seems  the  first  available  Asiatic  name. 

Range:  Central  India,  Punjab,  Sind,  Baluchistan,  westwards  at  least  to  Arabia  and 
Palestine  (Pocock). 

Felis  caracal  michaiclis  Heptner,  1945 

194-,.  Fehs  (Caracal)  caracal  mickaelis  Heptner,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Moscow,  ^g,  3:  230. 
Bokourdak,  west  of  Kara  Kum  Desert,  60  miles  north  of  Ashabad,  Turk- 


Subgenus  LEPTAILURUS  Severtzov,  1858 

Felis  serval  Schreber,  1776  Serval 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Algeria,  and  south  of  the  Sahara  from 
Senegal,  the  Sudan  and  Somaliland,  southwards  to  South-West  Africa,  Transvaal 
and  Eastern  Cape  Province  (districts  near  Aliwal  North,  East  London,  Grahams- 
town,  etc.). 

(Felis  serval  serval  Schreber,  1776.  Extralimital) 

1776.  Felis  serval  Schreber,  Saugeth.  pi.  108,  text,  5.'  407,  587,  1777.  Cape  of  Good 
Hope,  South  Africa. 

Felis  serval  constantina  Forster,  1 780 

1780.  Felis  constantina  Forster,  in  Buffon's  Nat.  d.  Vierf.  Thiere,  6:  313.  Vicinity  of 
Constantine,  Algeria.  For  use  of  this  name  see  Pocock,  1944,  P.Z.S.  11^:  65. 
1829.  Felis  caracal  algiricus  Fischer,  Synops.  Mamm.  210.  Algeria. 

Subgenus  PARDOFELIS  Severtzov,  1858 

Felis  marmorata  Martin,  1837  Marbled  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Assam,  Northern  Burma, 
Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 

Felis  marmorata  marmorata  Martin,  1837 

1837.  Felis  marmorata  Martin,  P.Z.S.  1836:   108.  Sumatra  (see  Robinson  &  Kloss, 

1919,  J.  Fed.  Malay  States  Mus.  y:  261). 
f?)  1843.  Felis  longicaudata  Blainville,  Osteogr.  Mamm.  Felis,  4j. 
Range:   Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo;  recorded  by  Osgood  (1932)  from  Tonkin, 

Felis  marmorata  charltoni  Gray,  1846 

1846.  Felis  charltonii  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  18:  211.  Darjeeling,  Northern  India. 

1847.  Felis  ogilbii  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J. N.H.  8:  44.  Sikkim. 

1863.  Leopardus  dosul  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson  Coll.  B.M.,  2nd  ed.,  3,  nom.  nud. 
1863.  Felis  duvaucellii  Hodgson,  loc.  cit.,  nom.  nud. 

Range:  Indian  range  of  species  as  quoted  above. 

Subgenus  PRO  FELIS  Severtzov,  1858 

Felis  temmincki  Vigors  &  Horsfield,  1827  Golden  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Tibet,   Szechuan,  Yunnan  to  Fukien,  in 

Southern  China;  Nepal  to  Assam  and  Burma;  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay  States, 

PALAEARtrnt:  and   INDIAN   MAMMALS   i--,8-ir)46 

Felis  temmixcki  temminxki  \'igors  &  Horsficld,  1827 

1827     Ftiis  kmminckii  \'igors  &  Horsfield,  Zool.  J.  j;  451.  Sumatra. 

i8'5i.   Felis  moormensis  Hodgson,  Gleanings  in  Science,  j;  177.  Nepal. 

1863.   Felis  aurata  Blyth,  P.Z.S.  185.  Not  of  Temminck,  1827. 

1863.  Felis  niorescens  Gray,  Hodgson's  Gat.  Mamm.  Nepal  in  B.M.,  cd.  2,  4.  Dar- 

jccling,  Northern  India. 
1924.   Felis  tcmminckii  hainsei  Sowerby,  Ghina  J.  Sci.  &  Arts,  2:  352.  Tenguch,  Snuth- 

AVestern  ^"unnan,  China. 

Range:   Nepal   to   Burma,    Indo-China,   Yunnan,   south   to   Malay   Peninsula   and 

Felis  temmincki  tristis   Milne-Edwards,  1872 

1872.   Felis  Irislis  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  Manim.  223,  pi.  31.  Locality  unknown. 
19114.   ■^'''"  semenori  Satunin,  .\nn.  Mus.  Zool.  .Vcad.  Sci.  St.  Petersb.  g:  524.  North- 
Eastern  Szechuan,  China. 

Range;  Tibet,  Szechuan,  ?  Upper  Burma. 

Felis  temmincki  dominicanorum  Sclater,  1898 

1898.  Felis  dominicanorum  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  2,  pi.  i.  Foochow,  Fukicn,  China.  Pocock 
and  Osgood  list  this  form  as  a  valid  race;  G.  Allen  (1938)  thought  it  was  a 
synonym  u[ tristis;  the  following  names  were  also  placed  in  the  synonymy  of 
/r  litis: 

1908.  Felis  temmincki  mitchelli  Lydekker,  P.Z.S.  433.  Szechuan,  China. 

1922.  Felis  iCatopuma)  nielli  Matschie,  Arch.  Nat.  38,  A,  10:  36.  Weishi,  Yunnan. 
Not  of  Matschie,  1922  {Felis  (Meofelis)  mclli). 

1926.  Felis  temmincki  badwdorsalis  Howell,  Prne.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  j^.'  143.  New 
name  for  melli  Matschie.  preoccupied. 

Range:   Southern  China. 

Subgenus  PRK ).\'AfLURUS  Sc\crtzo\\  1858  ; including ..^'Z'''''''""^""""  Scvcrtzo\-,  1858) 

Felis  bengalensis  Kerr,  1 792  IjCopard  Cat 

.\ppro.ximate  distribution  of  species:  ,'\mur-Ussuri  region  ol'  the  Far  East  of 
.Siberia,  Manchuria,  Korea,  Tsushima  Island  (between  Korea  and  Japan),  Formosa, 
Quelpart  I.,  Hainan,  and  all  the  larger  states  of  C^hina,  Tibet:  Baluchistan  and 
Kashmir,  southwards  to  at  least  Coorg  and  Palni  Hills  in  Peninsular  India,  east- 
wards to  Nepal,  Assam  and  Burma;  Indo-China,  .Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Ja\a, 
Bali.  Borneo,  to  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Felis  BE\r;,\LE.\sis  be.ntj.xlexsis  Kerr,  1 792 

1792.  Felii  henaalensis  Kerr,  Anim.  Kingd.  151.  Southern  Bengal. 
('')  1829.  Felis  nipalenws  Horsfield  &  Vigors,  Zool.  J.  ./.•  382.  ?  Nepal. 
1842.   Leopardiis  ellioti  Gray,  Ann.  .Mag.  N.H.  10:  260.  Bombay  Presidency. 
18(17.   Feli\  wai^ati  Gray,  P.Z.S.  400.  Tenasserim. 


1867.  Felis  tenasserimensis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  400.  Tenasserim. 

(?)  1869.  Felis  herschelii  Gray,  Cat.  Cam.  28.  India. 

Range:  Peninsular  India,  Burma,  Siam,  Indo-China,  to  Yunnan,  China. 

Felis  bengale.nsis  chinensis  Gray,  1837 

1837.  Felis  chinensis  Gray,  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  577.  Probably  Canton,  Kwantung,  Southern 

1843.  Leopardus  reevesii  Gray,  List.  Mamm.  B.M.  44.  China. 

1872.  Felis  scripta  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  7,  Bull.:  92,  pis.  57,  58, 

fig.  I.  Szechuan,  China. 
1872.  Felis  microtis  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  221,  pis.  31A,  31B,  figs. 

i-ib.  Near  Pekin,  Chihli,  China.  Bobrinskii  lists  this  form  as  a  valid  race  of 

euplilura,  from  the  Siberian  Far  East. 
1872.  Felis  decolorata  Milne-Edwards,  Rech.  H.N.  Mamm.  223.  Near  Pekin. 
1903.  Felis  ricketti  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  374.  Foochow,  Fukien,  Southern 


1903.  Felis  ingrami  Bonhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  474.  Van  Gin  Shan  Mountains, 

Northern  Kweichow,  China. 
1905.  Felis  anaslasiae  Satunin,  .Ann.  Mus.  Zool.  .Acad.  Imp.  Sci.  St.  Pctersb.  i[)04,  g: 

528.  Kam  (Tibet),  Kansu  and  North-^Vestern  Szechuan,  China. 
1930.  Felis  sinensis  Shih,  Bull.  Dept.  Biol.  Sun.  Yatsen.  Univ.  Canton,  No.  4,  4. 

Chinsiu,  Kwangsi,  Southern  China. 

Range:  Chinese  range  of  the  species,  apparently  excepting  Yunnan;  Formosa. 
Recorded  from  Annam,  Indo-China,  by  Osgood,  who  gave  it  specific  rank. 
Poc'ock  (1939,  273)  appears  to  think  that  scripta  (with  synonyms  ingrami  and 
anaslasiae)  is  a  valid  race. 

Felis  bengalensis  horsfieldi  Gray,  1842 

1842.  Leopardus  horsfieldii  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  260.  Bhutan,  Northern  India. 
1832.  Felis  nipalensis  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  /.■  341.  Not  of  Vigors  &  Hors- 
field,  1829. 

1844.  Felis  pardochrous  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J. N.H.  4:  286.  Nepal. 
Range:  Kashmir,  Punjab,  Kumaon,  Nepal,  Bhutan,  Sikkim. 

Felis  bengalensis  euptilura  Elliot,  1871 

1871.  Felis  euptilura  Elliot,  P.Z.S.  761.  Renaming  of  undata  Radde,  preoccupied. 
1862.  Felis  undata  Radde,  Reise  Ost.  Sibir.    106.  Not  of  Desmarest,   1816.  Amur 
Djesa,  Eastern  Siberia. 

1904.  Felis  raddei  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  Suppl.  /.■  271. 

Felis  (?)  bengalensis  manchurica  Mori,  1922 

1922.  Felis  manchurica  Mori,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  10:  609.  Near  Mukden,  Manchuria. 

Felis  beng.\lensis  trevelyani  Pocock,  1939 

1939.  Prionailurus  bengalensis  trevelyani  Pocock,  Fauna  Brit.  India,  Mamm.  /.■  273. 
Near  Gilgit,  5,000  ft.  Range:  Northern  Kashmir,  Upper  Punjab,  Southern 


palaearc;tic  and  Indian  mammals  1758-1046 

Felis  rubiginosa  Geoffroy,  1831  Rusty-spotted  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  India  (Madras,  Nellore  and 
Khandala  arc  quoted  by  Pocock)  and  Ceylon. 

Felis  rubiginosa  rubiginosa  Geoffroy,  1831 

1831.  Felis  rubiginosa  I.  Geoffroy,  Belanger,  Voy.  Ind.  Orient.  Zool.   140.  Pondi- 
cherry.  Southern  India. 

Felis  rubiginos.a.  phillipsi  Pocock,  1939 

1939.   Prionailurus  rubiginosus  phillipsi  Pococic,   Fauna  Brit.   India,   Manim.    /.•   278. 
Mousakanda,  3,000  ft.,  Gammaduwa,  Central  Province,  Ceylon. 

Felis  viverrina  Bennett,  1833  Fishing  Cat 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon,  Western  Ghats,  Western  Sind, 
Kumaon  and  Nepal,  in  India;  Indo-China,  Siam;  Sumatra,  Java.  (Sclater's  record 
from  Formosa,  quoted  by  Kuroda,  is  probably  erroneous.) 

Felis  viverrina  Bennett,  1833 

1833.  Felis  viverrinus  Bennett,  P.Z.S.  68.  India,  probably  the  Malabar  coast. 

1834.  Felis  himalayanus  jardine,  Nat.  Libr.  Felinae,  4:  230,  pi.  24.  Himalayas. 
1836.  Felis  viverriceps  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  j.-  232.  Nepal. 

1867.    Viverriceps  bennettii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  268.  India. 
Range :  as  above. 

Felis  (Ictailurus)  planiceps  Vigors  &  Horsfield,  1827,  Zool.  J.  j.-  450.  Sumatra 
(distribution:  Lower  Siam,  Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo),  has  been 
recorded  from  Patani  in  Peninsular  Siam,  but  so  far  as  we  know  is  extra- 
limital  to  the  present  list. 

Not  certainly  identifiable:  Felis pardcUa  Pallas,  1784,  Acta  Acad.  Sci.  Imp.  Petrop. 
ij8i,  1:  281.  ?  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

Genus  NEOFELIS  Gray,  1B67 

1867.  Neofelis  Gray,   P.Z.S.   265.   Felis  macrocelis  Temminck  =  Felis  lUardi   Cuvier 
(N.  nebulosa  diardi,  from  Sumatra). 

I  species:  Neofelis  nebulosa,  page  314 

Neofelis  nebulosa  Griffith,  182 1  Clouded  Leopard 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Hainan,  Fukien  and  adjacent  states  in 
Southern  China,  Formosa;  Nepal,  Sikkim,  parts  of  Burma;  Indo-China,  Lower  Siam, 
Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Borneo. 



Neofelis  nebulosa  nebulosa  Griffith,  1821 

1821.  Felis  nebulosa   Griffith,   Descr.   Anim.    (Carn.),    37,   pi.    Canton,    Kwantung, 

Southern  China. 
1922.  Felis  {Neofelis)  melli  Matschie,  Arch.  Nat.  88,  sect.  A,  10:  35.  Probably  near 

Range:  Southern  China,  Indo-China. 

Neofelis  nebulosa  macrosceloides  Hodgson,  1853 

1853.  Felis  macrosceloides  Hodgson,  P.Z.S.  192,  pi.  38.  Nepal. 

1843.  Felis  macrocelisT'ickeW, }.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  12:  814.  Not  of  Temminck,  1824. 
Range:  Nepal  to  Burma. 

Neofelis  nebulosa  brachyurus  Swinhoe,  1862 

1862.  Leopardus  brachyurus  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  352,  pi.  43.  Formosa.  Available  if  the 
Formosan  race  proves  racially  distinct.  Kuroda,  1938,  Handlist  Jap. 
Mamm.,  calls  the  Formosan  race  diardi  Desmoulins,  1823,  Diet.  Class,  j.- 
495;  probably  not  diardi  G.  Cuvier,  1823,  from  Sumatra. 

Genus  PANTHERA  Oken,  1816 

1816.  Panthera  Oken,  Lehrb.  Naturgesch.  5,  2:  1052.  Felis  pardus  Linnaeus. 

18 16.  Tigris  Oken,  Lehrb.  Naturgesch.  j,  2:  1066.  Felis  tigris  Linnaeus.  \'alid  as  a 

1816.  Leo  Oken,  Lehrb.  Naturgesch.  3,  2:  1070.  Felis  leo  Linnaeus.  \'alid  as  a  sub- 

1829.  -^^  Brehm,  Isis  (Oken),  637.  Felis  leo  Linnaeus. 

1843.   Tigris  Gray,  List  Mamm.  B.M.  40.  Felis  tigris  Linnaeus. 

1854.  Uncia  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  14:  394.  Felis  uncia  Schreber.  Valid  as  a  sub- 

1868.  Pardus  Fitzinger,  S.B.K.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  ^8,  1 :  459.  Felis  pardus  Linnaeus. 

4  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 

Panthera  leo,  page 'i  I  g  Panthera  tigris,  page  "^18 

Panthera  pardus,  page  316  Panthera  uncia,  page  320 

Hershkowitz  (1948,  J.  Mamm.  2g:  273,  and  1949,  30.-  297)  holds  that  all  Oken's 
1 81 6  names  are  invalid  and  that  his  Panthera  in  any  case  would  not  be  valid  for  the 
lions,  tigers  and  leopards.  J.  A.  Allen  (1902,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  16:  378)  took  a 
different  view,  and  many  of  Oken's  names,  including  Panthera,  are  in  current  use  by 
mammalogists  today.  For  this  reason,  and  for  general  reasons  explained  in  the  Intro- 
duction, we  have  not  discarded  Panthera  Oken,  18 16.  But  for  those  who  do  not  agree 
with  us,  Leo  Brehm,  1829,  is  available  for  the  great  cats. 

Pocock  included  lions,  tigers  and  leopards  in  Panthera,  but  placed  the  ounce  in  a 
separate  genus,  Uncia.  Simpson  (1945)  included  all  the  above  and  the  clouded 
leopard  in  Panthera.  W'e  take  a  middle  view,  and  while  following  Simpson  in  tenta- 
tively including  the  ounce  in  the  genus  Panthera,  we  diverge  from  him  in  according 
generic  rank  to  the  clouded  leopard,  Neofelis. 


I'.\1.AEARC;TIC  and  INDIAN  mammals   1758-1946 
Subgenus  PANTHERA  Okcn,  18 16 

Panthera  pardus   Linnaeus,  1758  Leopard 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Caucasus,  Kopet-Dag  Mountains  (South- 
Western  Turkestan)  and  Amur  region  of  Eastern  Siberia;  Manchuria,  most  of  the 
Larger  states  of  China  (perhaps  excepting  Kansu),  Tibet;  Asia  Minor,  Persia,  Sinai, 
Arabia;  India,  from  Kashmir  and  North-West  Frontier  south  to  Ceylon,  eastwards 
to  Xepal  and  Burma,  west  to  Baluchistan;  Indo-China,  Malay  States,  Java,  Kangean 
Islands;  Morocco,  Algeria,  Egypt  (where  rare);  Tropical  Africa,  from  ?  Northern 
Nigeria,  Sudan  and  Somaliland  southwards  to  the  Cape  Province,  where  it  still 
occurs  in  Little  Namaqualand,  wilder  country  in  the  mountains  near  Cape  Town 
(for  instance,  rarely  to  Stcllcnbosch  region),  Grahamstown  district,  etc. 

Panthera  parous  pardus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Fdis  pardus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  41.  Egypt. 

1 8 16.   Panthera  vulgaris  Okcn,  Lehrb.  Nat.  5,  2:  io-)8.  (Unavailable.) 

Panther.-^  p.\rdus  panthera  Schreber,  1777 

1777.  Ft'lis  panthfra  Schreber,  Saugeth.  j:  384.  Algeria. 

1832.  Ft-lis  palearia  Cuvier,  H.N.  Mamm.  pi.  121,  text.  Algeria. 

1843.  Felis  pardus  harbarus  Blainville,   Osteogr.   Mamm.  Felis,    186,   pi.  8.  Algeria. 
Kfc  Fisher,  1829. 

Panthera  pardus  fusca  Meyer,  1794 

1794.  Fdis  fusca  Meyer,  Zool.  Ann.  /.•  394.  Bengal. 

1856.   Felis  longicaudata  Valenciennes,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  Paris,  ^2:  1036.  Not  of  Blain- 

\'illc,  1843.  C'.eylon  and  Malabar  coast. 
1868.   Panthera  aniiquorum  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien,  r^S:  466.  Not  of  Gray, 

1896.   Felis  pardus  var.  melas  Pousargues,  Bull.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  2,  5:   181.  Not  of 

C'uvier,  i8og. 
1904.  Felis  pardus  chinensis  Brass,  Nutzbare  Tierc  Ostasicns,  6. 
1012.   Felii  pardus  variegata  G.  Allen,  Mem.  Mus.  Comp.  Z.  Harvard,  40:  235.  Not  of 

\\agner,  1841.  Changyanghsien,  Hupch  (Yangtze  Valley),  China.  Range: 

Kashmir,  south  to  Cevlon;  Burma;  Szechuan  to  Fukicn,  in  Southern  China. 

P.^NTHER/V  pardus  nimr  HciTiprich   &   Ehrenberg,  1833 

1 833.  Felis  nimr  Hcinprich  &  Ehrenberg,  S>-mb.  Phys.  Mamm.  2:  gg,  pi.  1 7.  (Founded 

partly  on  an  Abyssinian  skin  and  partK'  cm  .ui  .Arabian  one.)  Arabia.  Status 
not  sure. 

Panthera  pardus  tulliana  Valenciennes,  1856 

1856.   Felis  tulliana  Valenciennes,  C;.R.  Acad.  Sci.  42:   1039.  Ninfi,  40  km.  east  of 
Smyrna,  \Vestern  Asia  .Minor.  Range:  to  Transcaucasia. 

Pa.n'thkra  pardi's  oriextalis  Schlcgel,  i8-,7 

i8-)7.   Felii  orientalis  Schlegel,  Handl.  dcr  Dicrkunde,  /;  23.  Korea. 
11)03.   •''"'"  '■■'/'""'  Biinhote,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //;  475.  Amur  Bay. 
Range:  Knrca  tn  .\mur  district.  Eastern  Siberia. 



Panthera  parous  pernigra  Gray,  1863 

1863.  Lfopardus  perniger  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson's  Coll.  B.M.,  and  ed.  3,  and  Preface  v. 
Sikkim,  6,000-8,000  ft.  Ranges  to  Nepal. 

Panthera  p.'^rdus  japonensis  Gray,  1862 

1862.  Leopardus  japonensis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  262.  Said  to  be  from  Japan,  where  the  animal 
does  not  occur.  More  likely  Northern  China  (see  G.  Allen,  1938,  477). 

1867.  Felis  fontanierii  Milne-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  8:  375.  Near  Pckin, 
Chihli,  China. 

1867.  Leopardus  chinensis  Gray,  P.Z..S.  264.  (Not  Felis  chinensis  Gray,  1837.;  Moun- 
tains west  of  Pekin,  China.  Listed  as  a  valid  form  (under  Felis,  therefore  pre- 
occupied) by  Bobrinskii,  1944. 

1904.  Felis  pardus  grayi  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  Viv.  Foss.  268.  New  name  for 
chinensis  Gray. 

1907.  Panthera  hanensis  Matschie,  Wiss.  Ergebn.  Exped.  Filchner  to  China,  /o,  i: 
198.  Hinganfu,  China. 

1930.  Panthera  pardus  bedfordi  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  5^.-  323.  Shangchow, 
Shensi,  3,000  ft.,  China.  Pocock  adopted  the  name  japonensis  for  this  race; 
see  discussion  in  G.  Allen,  1938,  Mamm.  China  &  Mongolia,  /.■  478. 

Range:  Northern  China,  and  possibly  to  south  Ussuri  region. 

Panthera  pardus  ciscaucasica  Satunin,  19 14 

1914.  Leopardus  pardus  ciscaucasicus  Satunin,  Conspectus  Mamm.  /.•  159.  Kuban 
Province,  Caucasus. 

Panthera  pardus  saxicolor  Pocock,  1927 

1927.  Panthera  pardus  saxicolor  Pocock,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  20:  213.  Astcrabad,  Persia. 

Range:  to  Baluchistan. 
1878.  Felis  leopardus  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  289.  Probably  Persia.  Not  of  Schrcber,  1775. 

Panthera  pardus  sindica  Pocock,  1930 

1930.  Panthera  pardus  sindica  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  j^:  80.  Kirthar  range, 
Sind-Baluchistan  border. 

Paxther.\  p.\rdus  millardi  Pocock,  1930 

1930.  Panthera  pardus  millardi  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  5./.-  316,  pi.  8.  Kashmir. 

Panthera  parous  delacouri  Pocock,  1930 

1930.  Panthera  pardus  delacouri  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  j^.-  32-,.  pi.  11.  Hue. 

Annam,  Indo-China. 
(?)  1 9 14.  Felis  pardus  variegata   Lydekker,    Rowland   Wards   Records,   498.   Not   of 

\Vagner,  1841. 

Panthera  parous  jarvisi  Pocock,  1932 

1932.  Panthera  pardus  jarvisi  Pocock,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  33;  P.Z.S.  546.  Sinai. 
For  a  review  of  these  races,  see  Pocock,  1930,  J.  Bombay  X.H.  Soc.  34:  64  and  307. 


palaearc:tic:  and  ixdian  mammals  1758-1946 

Subgenus   TIGRIS  Oken,  1816  (Gray,  1843) 

Panthera  tigris  Linnaeus,  1758  Tiger 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  South-eastern  Transcaucasia  (Talysh),  "it 
apparenth-  does  not  breed  there,  only  visiting  the  area  from  Iran"  iBobrinskii), 
Southern  Russian  Turkestan,  where  rare  ("in  very  small  nuinbers  on  the  lower  Hi, 
all  along  the  Amu-Darya  ...  it  occasionally  passes  from  the  lower  Amu-Darya  to  the 
lower  Syr-Darya"  (Bobrinskii),  possibly  still  in  small  numbers  on  the  upper  Murgab 
and  Atrek,  in  Southern  Turkmenia  i ;  Ussuri  region  and  middle  Amur  region  of 
Eastern  Siberia.  Manchuria,  Lob  Xor  district  (Chinese  Turkestan),  Fukien  and 
perhaps  adjacent  parts  of  Southern  China,  but  e\'idejitly  rare  in  other  parts  of 
China;  Persia;  most  of  hidia  (except  desert  regions),  and  east  to  Assam  and  Burma 
(we  cannot  trace  any  reliable  reference  to  its  occurrence  in  Kashmir),  Indo-China, 
Malay  States,  Sumatra,  Java,  Bali. 

P.\NTHER.\    TIGRIS    TIGRIS    LinuaCUS,    I  758 

1758.  Fdis  tigris  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  41.  Bengal. 

1858.   Tigris  sirialus  Severtzov,  Rev.  Mag    Zool.  10:  386.  Renaming  oC  tigris. 

1867.  Tigris  regalis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  263.  Renaming  oC  tigris. 

Range:  Kumaon  and  Nepal  Terai,  southwards  to  Tenasserim  and  Peninsulai-  India, 
east  to  Indo-China. 

P.\NTHERA    TIGRIS    VIRGAT.\    IlligCr,    1815 

1815.  Felis  virgata  Illiger,  Abh.  K.  Akad.  Wiss.  Berlin,  98  (see  also  Matschie,  1897, 

S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  17).  Mazanderan,  Northern  Persia  (Harper,  1940, 

J.  ALamm.  21:  194). 
iq04.  Felis  (Tigris)  tigris  septeritrionalis  Satunin,  Priroda  i  Ochota,  /.•  57.  Twelve  \'ersts 

west  of  Lenkoran,  Talysh,  Transcaucasia. 
1916.   Felis  tigris  trabata  Schwarz,  Zool.  Anz.  ^y:  353.  \'alley  of  Ri\-er  Hi,  south  of 

Lake  Balkash,  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan. 
Range:  Transcaucasia,  through  Northern  Persia  to  Northern  Afghanistan  to  the 
Aral  Sea  and  Lake  Balkash  in  Russian  Turkestan  (formerly  to  the  Ob  basin  and 
the  Altai). 

Panther.\  TIGRIS  LON'GiPiLis  Fitzingcr,  1868 

1868.  Felii  longipilis  Fitzinger,  S.B.  Akad.  \Viss.  Wien.  §8:  455.  Amurland   (type 

locality  restricted  by  Lydekker,  1901,  The  great  and  small  game  of  Europe, 

Western  and  Northern  Asia,  and  America,   288.  See  also  Harper,    1940, 

}.  Mamm.  21:  195). 
(?)  1842.   Felis  mongolica  Lesson,  Tab).  Rcgn.  An.  r-|0.  Mongolia,  iwm.  mid. 
187 1.  Feli\  tigris  \'ar.  amurensis  Dode,  P.Z.S.  480. 
Range:  Amur  and  Ussuri  regions  of  Siberia  and  Manchuria,  possibl)'  into  Chihli  and 


Panthera  tigris  coreensis  Brass,  1904 

1904.  Feli\  tigris  cnreensis  Brass,  Nutzbare  Tiere  Ostasicns,  4.  Korea. 

1915.   Tigrii  niikadoi  Satunin,  Nasa  ochota,  .Xn.  7,   18.  'N.V.  Ognc\'s  reference.) 



1925.  Felis  tigris  mandshurica  Baykov,  Manchzhur.  Tigr,  3.  Harbin,  Manchuria;  and 
Felis  tigris  mandshurica  var.  mikado  Baykov,  loc.  cit.  8.  [N.V.) 

Range:  Korea  and  Southern  Manchuria,  through  Eastern  Mongolia  and  Northern 
China  as  far  as  the  divide  between  the  Hwang  Ho  and  Yangtze  basins  (Harper, 
1945).  Possibly  also  the  Ussuri  region,  as  it  is  quoted  in  Bobrinskii,  who  does  not 
give  exact  details. 

Panthera  TIGRIS  AMOYENSis  Hilzheimcr,  1905 

1905.  Felis  tigris  var.  amoyensis  Hilzheimer,   Zool.  Anz.   28:   598.  Near  Hankow, 

Hupeh,  China. 
1929.  Panthera  tigris  styani  Pocock,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  ^5.-  531.  Northern  China. 

(Probably  from  somewhere  in  the  latitude  of  the  Yangtze  Valley,  according 

to  G.  Allen,  1938,  472.) 
Range:  Southern  China. 

Panthera  Tigris  LECoqi  Schwarz,  19 16 

1916.  Felis  tigris  lecoqi  Schwarz,  Zool.  Anz.  4j:  351.  Kurla  district  (?  near  Bagrash 
Kul),  Lob  Nor  region,  Chinese  Turkestan. 

Subgenus  LEO  Oken,  181 6  (Brehm,  1829) 

Panthera  leo  Linnaeus,  1758  Lion 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Gir  forest  in  Kathiawar,  India.  Formerly 
occurred  in  Persia  and  Iraq,  but  doubtful  if  any  survive.  Tropical  Africa,  from 
Somaliland,  the  Sudan  and  perhaps  Senegal,  south  to  South-West  Africa  and  the 
Kruger  National  Park,  Transvaal,  and  perhaps  Zululand  and  Swaziland. 

Panthera  leo  leo  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Felis  leo  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.■  41.  Constantine,  Algeria. 

1826.  Felis  leo  barbaricus  Meyer,  Dissert.  Inaug.  de  Genera  Felium,  6.  {N.V.)  1826, 

Beytr.  Anat.  des  Tiegers,  6.  Barbary. 
1829.  Felis  leo  barbarus  Fischer,  Synops.  Mamm.  197.  Algeria. 
1829.  Leo  africanus  Brehm,  Isis  (Oken),  638.  Africa. 

1867.  Felis  leo  nigra  Loche,  Explor.  Sci.  de  I'Algerie,  Zool.  Mamm.  35.  Algeria. 
1867.  Leo  nobilis  Gray,  P.Z.S.  263.  Renaming  oi  leo.  Extinct  in  Algeria  and  Tunis 

since  about  1891,  and  in  Morocco  since  the  ig2o's. 

Panthera  leo  persica  Meyer,  1826 

1826.  Felis  leo  persicus  Meyer,  Dissert.  Inaug.  de  Genera  Felium,  6.  [N.V.)   1826, 

Beytr.  Anat.  des  Tiegers,  6.  Persia. 
1829.  Felis  leo  bengalensis  Bennett,  The  Tower  Menagerie,    i.  Not  of  Kerr,    1792. 

Hariana,  Northern  India. 
1829.  Leo  asiaticus  Brehm,  Isis  (Oken),  638.  Asia. 

1833.  Felis  leo  goojratensis  Smec,  P.Z.S.  140.  Ahmadabad,  Gujerat,  India. 
1843.  Felis  leo  indicus  Blainville,  Osteographie  Mamm.  Felis,  atlas,  pi.  6.  India. 
Range:  Kathiawar,  India,  as  above. 


l'.\I.ALAKC:I  IC;  AM)   INDIAN    MAMMALS    17-,);    nj-jO 

Subgenus  L'A'C/A   Gray,  1854 

Panthera  uncia  Schrcber,  1776  Ounce  or  Snow  Lcripard 

Appruxiniati-  distribution  of  species:  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan,  north  to  Altai 
Mountains  ^quoted  by  Bobrinskii  from  Altai  (rare),  Tarbagatai  (?).  Dzhungar  Aka- 
Tau,  Tianshan  system  iin  parts  common),  Alai,  Zeravshan  and  Hissar  ranges,  Pamir 
(more  common  in  Western  Pamir)  ).  Tiijct  (eastwards  to  Kam,  according  to  Bobrin- 
skii; certainly  as  lar  as  Gyantse,  near  Lhasal  and,  according  to  Ognex',  Aitvn  Tag  in 
Cihinese  Turkestan.  Kashmir. 

P.\NTHERA  UN"ci.\  Schrcbcr,  1776 

177b.  Fiiis  uncia  Schrcber,  Saugeth.  j.-  pk    100     17761   and  text,  386,  586  (1777). 

Locality  unknown. 
1830.   Fiiis  irhi\  Ehrcnberg,  .'\nn.  Sci.  Nat.  1^1:  3(14,  40G.  Renaming  iA' uncia.  Altai 

i8t').   Fflis  unimidis  Horslield  :  Hodgson  MS.',  Aim.  Mag.  X.H.  iG:  105.  Nepal. 

Genus  ACINONYX  I'-mnkcs,  i8j8 

1828.   Acinunrx  Bmokcs,  Gat.  Anat.  Zool.   Mus.   J.  Brookes,    16,  33.  Aiinonvx  vcnalor 

Brookes       Ftln  venatica  H.  Smith. 
1830.   C'rnailuiiii  W'agler,  Nat.  Svst.  Amph.  30.  Fclii  jul<ala  Si  hreber. 
1841.   (A-nacluius  (jloger,  Gemeinn.  Naturgesch.  /;  63.  Piii  (ivnailiirwi  W'agler. 

I  species:   Acinonrx  jiiba/iis,  page  320 

Acinonyx  jubatus   Sdnebcr,  1776  Gheetah 

Ai)pn>ximatf  distribution  of  species:  Southern  Turkmcnia  lAtrek,  Kopet-Dag, 
Tedshen  and  Murgab  regions,  rare),  Persia,  Arabia,  Iraq  and,  according  to  Bobrin- 
skii, Afghanistan  and  Baluchistan.  According  to  Bodenheimer,  Transjoixlania. 
Formerly  Northern  India,  south  ol  the  Ganges,  from  Bengal  to,  the 
Punjal)  and  Sind;  also  C:entral  India  and  the  northern  part  of  the  Deccan;  but  now 
alnlo^t,  il  not  quite,  extim  1  in  I'Minck!.  ?I,ib\a,  Egypt,  where  rare 
Iliiwrr,  lo-o)-  Morocco,  Rio  de  ()iii.  In  IKipiial  Africi  it  is  less  rare,  and  occirrs 
from  '  Northern  Nigeiia,  the  Sudan,  Scmialiland,  south  to  .South-West  Alrica,  the 
Kru^er  National  Park,  1  lansxaak  and  probabK'  Swaziland  and  Zululand. 

(A(  i.Ni),\v>.   ]ii'..'\Tiis  jLK.\ii  s  Schrcber,  1776.   Extralimital) 

177I1.   Filf,  julnita  Schrebii',  Saugeth.  ;;.■  pi.  10-,  (1776),  text,  392,  580  iiyjj).  C..\pc 

ol  Guild  Hnpr.  .Siiuth  .\lrica. 
.■';   1801.   /'V//S  i;ullald  Hi  inKiint,  Obs.  Zool.  38.  .■"  Egypt.  Status  not  sure. 



ACINONYX   JUBATUS    VENATICUS    Griffith,    1 82 1 

1 82 1.  Felis  venalica  Griffith,  Vert.  Anim.  Carnivora,  93.  India. 

1828.  Acinonyx  venator  Brookes,  Cat.  Anat.  &  Zool.  Mus.  Joshua  Brookes,  16,  33. 

(?)  1913.  Acinonyx  raddei  Hilzheimer,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  291.  Merv,  Trans- 


Range:  Asiatic  range  of  the  species,  ?  North  Africa  and,  according  to  Pocock, 
probably  to  Somaliland.  Pocock  thought  raddei  might  be  valid,  but  it  is  not  listed 
in  Bobrinskii. 


The  pinnipedes  were  treated  as  a  suborder  of  Carnivora  by  Simpson  (1945); 
Gregory,  19 10,  The  Orders  of  Mammals;  Weber,  1928,  Die  Saugetiere;  and  Anderson, 
1947,  Catalogue  of  Canadian  Recent  Mammals.  Pocock  regarded  them  as  being  of  less 
than  subordinal  rank.  They  were  regarded  as  a  distinct  order  by  Miller,  1923,  List 
of  North  American  Recent  Mammals;  Ognev,  1935,  The  Mammals  ofU.S.S.R.  and  adjacent 
countries,  j;  G.  M.  Allen,  1938,  Mammals  of  China  and  Mongolia,  i;  and  Bobrinskii, 
1944,  Mammals  of  U.S.S.R. 

The  standard  work  on  the  pinnipedes  as  a  whole  is  still  J.  A.  Allen,  1880,  History 
of  the  North  American  Pinnipeds,  which  is  virtually  a  monograph  of  all  species  occurring 
north  of  the  equator,  and  includes  as  well  a  revision  of  those  of  other  seas.  Keys  to 
the  families  and  genera  will  be  found  in  this  work,  together  with  a  detailed  account 
of  the  nomenclatorial  history  of  each  form.  A  useful  general  work  on  the  Otariidae 
and  Phocidae  is  Howell,  1929,  Contribution  to  the  comparative  anatomy  of  the 
eared  and  earless  seals,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  75,  15:  1-142. 

FAMILIES:  Odobenidae,  page  324 
Otariidae,  page  32 1 
Phocidae,  page  325 


Genera:  Callorhinus,  page  322 
Eumetopias,  page  323 
Neophoca,  page  323 
Zalophus,  page  323 

J.  Allen  (1880)  gave  the  following  characters  for  the  northern  genera: 

Callorhinus:  pelage  soft,  with  abundant  underfur;  ears  longer;  molars  12/10;  smaller 
in  size;  grey  in  colour  (black  when  young);  facial  part  of  skull  short,  convex; 
molars  smaller  than  those  of  Arctocephalus. 


PALAEARtrilC:  AND  INDIAN  MAMMALS   i7-,8-i946 

Eumctopias:  pelage  harsh,  laeking  undcrfur;  ears  short;  molars  lo/io,  the  fifth  pair 
separated  by  a  long  space  from  the  fourth  pair.  Usually  larger  species;  colour 
yellowish-brown  (reddish-brown  when  young). 

^alop/ws:  pelage,  ears,  colour,  size  essentially  as  in  Eiimiiopias;  molars  lo/io  in  con- 
tinuous series.  Sagittal  crest  very  high. 

To  ^alophus  lie  referred  the  Australian  species  Z-  lobatus,  which  occurs  in  Japan 
according  to  Kuroda.  The  name  cinerea  Peron,  1816,  antedates  lobatus  and  is  used  for 
that  species  by  Iredalc  and  Troughton,  although  J.  Allen  thought  it  was  unidentifi- 
able. In  recent  years  ^alophus  has  become  restricted  to  the  Californian  species,  and 
the  name  Neophoca  is  available  for  cinerea.  Neophoca  has  a  much  less  developed  sagittal 
crest  than  ^alophus  in  British  Museum  material,  and  we  consider  the  species  cinerea 
should  not  be  referred  to  ^alophus. 

Genus  CALLORHINUS  Gray,  1859 

1859.   Callorhintis  Gray,  P.Z..S.  359.  Fhoca  ursina  Linnaeus. 

1866.  Arctocephalus  Gill,  Proc.  Essex  Inst.  5.-  11.  Not  of  Cuvier,  1826. 

1892.  Callotaria  Palmer,  Proc.  Biol.  Soc.  Washington,  y:  156.  Substitute  for  Callor- 
hinus,  assumed  to  be  a  homonym  of  Callirhiniis  Blanchard,  1850.  Kuroda 
{1938)  calls  this  genus  Otoes  Fischer,  181  7,  which  is  invalid  according  to 
Palmer  (1904)  as  its  type,  jubata  Gmelin,  is  composite.  {Otoes  Fischer,  1817, 
Mem.  Soc.  Imp.  Nat.  Moscou,  5.-  373,  445.) 

I  species:   Callorhimn  insiniis,  page  322 

Callorhinus  ursinus  Linnaeus,  1758  Northern  Fur  Seal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  North  Pacific  Ocean.  Besides  Western  North 
America,  it  occurs  in  Eastern  Siberia,  Kurile  Islands,  Japan  and  Korea  in  winter. 
For  details,  sec  under  subspecies. 

Gallorhinus  ursinus  ursinus  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.  Phoca  ursina  Linnaeus,  Syst    Nat.   loth  ed.   /.■  37.  Bering  Island,  off  North- 
Eastern  Siberia. 
1828.   Otaria  krachenninikoivii  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  /j;  420.  Substitute  for  Ursus 

marinus  Stcller  (1751   =  Phoca  ursina  Linn.).  Bering  Sea. 
Range:  "rookeries  on  the  Gommander  Islands,  and  a  few  at  the  southern  end  of 
Kamtchatka  and  on  neighbouring  islands  of  the  Kurile  group;  winters  on  the  east 
coasts  of  Japan"  (Bobrinskii).  Hokkaido,  Hondo  ( Kuroda). 

Callorhinus  ursinus  curillnsis  Jordan  &   Clark,  1899 

1899.   Callorhinus  curilensis  ](iTdzin  &  Clark,  Fur  Seals  &  Fur  Seal  Islands  of  North 

Pacific,  J.-  3.  Robben  Island,  west  of  Kurile  Islands. 
(?)  181  I.  Phoca  ni^ra  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /.■  107.  Based  apparently  on  a  young 

Range:  "rookeries  (jn  Seal  Island  (east  of  Sakhalin)  and  a  few  on  the  Kurile  Islands, 
winters  on  the  coast  of  Korea,  reached  via  Peter  the  Great  Bay"  (Bobrinskii). 



Genus  EUMETOPIAS  Gill,  1866 

1866.  Eumetopias  Gill,  Proc.  Essex  Inst.  5;  7.  Arctocephalus  monteriensis  Gray  =  Phoca 
jubata  Schreber. 

I  species:  Eumetopias  jubata,  page  323 

For  a  discussion  of  the  nomenclature  of  this  species,  see  J.  A.  Allen,  1902,  The 
names  of  some  of  the  Otariidae,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  16:  1 1 1. 

Eumetopias  jubata  Schreber,  1776  Steller's,  or  Northern  Sea-lion 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  North  Pacific  Ocean.  Besides  Western  North 
America,  occurs  off  Eastern  Siberia  ("the  best-known  rookeries  are  in  the  Sea  of 
Japan,  near  Vladivostock,  in  the  Sea  of  Okhotsk  on  loniu  Island  and  the  Yamskie 
Islands,  and  in  Bering  Sea  on  Cape  Shipunskii  (South- Western  Kamtchatka)" 
(Bobrinskii) ;  and  Japan  (recorded  from  Sakhalin,  Kuriles,  Hokkaido,  N.  Hondo  and 

Eumetopias  jubata  Schreber,  1776 

1776.  Phoca  jubata  Schreber,  Saugeth.  3:  300,  pi.  83B.  North  Pacific  Ocean  (eastern 

coast  Kamtchatka,  according  to  Ognev). 
1811.  Phoca  leonina  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Rosso-Asiat.  /.•  104.  Not  of  Linnaeus,  1758. 
1828.  Otaria  stellerii  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  i^:  420. 

Genus  ZALOPHUS  Gill,  1866 

1866.  Zalophus  Gill,  Proc.   Essex  Inst.  5.-   7,    11.   Otana  gillespii  MacBain  =  Otaria 
calif orniana  Lesson. 

I  species:  ^alophus  californianus,  page  323 

Zalophus  californianus  Lesson,  1828  Californian  Sea-lion 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Western  North  America.  Recorded  from  the 
Kurile  Islands  by  Kuroda  ( 1 938)  under  the  name  Eumetopias  gillespii.  As  gillespii  is  the 
type  species  of  Zalophus,  this  author,  who  retains  the  genus  ^alophus  in  his  list  for 
another  species,  could  not  have  been  correct  in  listing  this  form  under  Eumetopias.  A 
specimen  in  the  British  Museum  is  labelled  Japan. 

Zalophus  californianus  Lesson,  1828 

1828.  Otaria  californiana  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  13:  420.  California. 

1858.  Otaria  gillespii  MacBain,  Proc.  Edinb.  Roy.  Phys.  Soc.  /.-  42 2.  California. 

(?)  1866.   Otaria  japonica  Peters,  Mber.  Preuss.  Akad.  Wiss.  668.  Japan. 

1874.  Eumetopias  elongatus  Gray,  Proc.  Zool.  Soc.  Lond.  1873:  766.  Japan. 

Range:   Southern  Mexico  to  Northern  California,   casually  to  British  Columbia 
(Anderson).  ?  Japanese  seas. 


l'.\l,Al.ARt:rK:  AM)    IMJlAN    MAMMALS    1 7 j(i    i.j4t, 

FAMILY     O  D  O  B  E  N  I  D  A  E 

Genus :   Odohcniis,  page  324 

Genus  ODOBENUS  Brisson,  1762 

1762.   Udobenus  Brisson,  Rc£;n.  Anim.  ed.  2,  30.  Odobenus  Brisson  =  Phoca  rosmarus 

1768.    Trichechus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  r2th  cd.  /.•  .jq.  Not  of  Linnaeus,  1758,  which  is 

the  Manatee. 
1772.  Rosmarus  Brunnich,  Zool.  Fundamenta,  34,  38-39.  Phoca  rosmarus  Linnaeus. 

Hopwood,  K)47,  P-Z-'S-  533-536,  would  disregard  Brisson  and  call  this  genus 
Rosmarus  Brininich.  However,  Odobenus  was  adopted  by  Miller,  Ognev,  Simpson  and 
virtually  all  recent  authors,  who  use  Brisson's  names.  It  is  hoped  that  the  Inter- 
national Clommission  on  Zoological  Nomenclature  will  endorse  generic  names 
dating  from  Brisson,  1762,  since  considerable  confusion  will  be  caused  if  they  are  all 

I  species;   Odobenus  rosmarus,  page  324 

Odobenus  rosmarus  Linnaeus,  1758  Walrus 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  .\rctic  regions  of  Eurasia  and  North  ,\merica. 
Has  been  recorded  from  the  Orkneys,  Hebrides  and  Scotland  (where  rare) ;  Holland, 
Denmark,  Norway,  Sweden.  According  to  Bobrinskii  it  survives  in  small  numbers  in 
the  Spitzbergen  .\rchipelago  and  the  Franz  Joseph  Islands,  rarely  off  Iceland,  coasts 
of  Barents  Sea,  off  Novaya  Zemlya,  in  Kara  Sea,  Laptev  Sea,  Severnaya  Zemlya, 
Ghukotskoe  Sea  and  extreme  north  of  Bering  Sea,  as  far  cast  as  Kamtchatka  Penin- 
sula. It  is  cjuotcd  from  Japan  by  Kumda  (Hokkaido  and  recorded  Hondo). 

Odobe.nls  rosmarus  rosmarus  Linnaeus,  1758 

17-yS.   Phoca  rosmarus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /:  38.  North  Atlantic  (Thomas, 
ii|iii.   Range:   from   C'anada   and   Greenland   eastwards   to   Novosibirskie 
^     loi  I.   Rinmani\  urctnin  I'allas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  ,\siat.  /.•  269.  Novaya  Zemha.  Status 
full'  ()gnc\-. 



Odobenus  rosmarus  divergens  Illiger,  1815 

1815.   Trichechus  divergens  Illiger,  Abh.  Akad.  \Viss.  Berlin,  180^-11:  68.  About  35 

miles  south  of  Icy  Cape,  Alaska. 
(?)  1815.   Trichechus  obesus  Illiger,  loc.  cit.  64,  nom.  nud. 
1 83 1.    Trichechus  cookii  Frcmery,  Bijdrag.  Nat.  Vetensk.  6:  385.  Off  Icy  Cape,  Alaska 

{70°o6'N.,  i63°i8'W.). 
(?)  1922.   Trichechus  orientalis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  351,  nom.  nud. 
Range:  Alaska  to  Eastern  Siberia  (Bering  Sea).  Bobrinskii  calls  the  eastern  race  0.  r. 

arcticus  Pallas,  1 8 1 1 ,  which  antedates  divergens,  but  is  a  synonym  of  the  typical  race 

according  to  Ognev. 

For  North  American  range  of  this  and  the  typical  race,  see  .\nderson,  1947,  Cat. 
Canadian  Rec.  Mamm.  81. 


Genera:  Cystophora,  page  333 
Erignathus,  page  331 
Halichoenis,  page  332 
Monachus,  page  332 
Phoca,  page  327 

The  subfamilies  here  admitted  follow  Simpson. 

All  species  of  this  family  here  dealt  with  occur  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  and  we  include  a 
translation  (slightly  modified)  of  a  key  to  these  species  which  Bobrinskii  gives. 

Key  to  the  species  of  Phocidae,  from  Bobrinskii,  1944,  Mammals  ofU.S.S.R.  (Even 
if  Russian  is  not  understood,  it  is  helpful  to  use  this  translation  in  conjunction  with 
the  original,  since  Bobrinskii  gives  text  figures  illustrating  the  characters  referred  to.) 

1.  There  is  a  skin  pouch  on  the  upper  side  of  the  snout  which  can  be  inflated,  attain- 

ing a  large  size  in  males.  Only  one  incisor  each  side  in  bottom  jaw.  Th'^ 
premaxillae  clearly  not  reaching  the  nasals.        CYSTOPHORA  CRISTATA 
No  such  pouch  on  upper  side  of  snout.  Two  incisors  each  side  of  bottom  jaw. 
Premaxillae  reach  the  nasals.  2 

2.  End  of  nose  covered  with  hair  right  up  to  the  nostrils.  Claws  comparatively  small, 

and  on  hind  limbs  frequently  missing.  Two  incisors  each  side  in  top  jaw. 

End  of  nose  hairless  or  almost  so.  Claws  well  developed,  and  in  the  forelimbs  large 
and  powerful.  Three  incisors  each  side  in  top  jaw.  3 

3.  Snout  very  long,  so  that  the  distance  between  tip  of  nose  and  eye  is  almost  twice 

that  between  the  eye  and  the  auditory  meatus.  Profile  of  parietals,  frontals  and 
nasals  form  a  straight  line.                                         HALICHOERUS  GRIPUS 
Snout  much  shorter,  so  that  distance  between  end  of  nose  and  the  eye  is  a  good 
deal  less  than  twice  that  between  the  eye  and  auditory  meatus.  Profile  of 
parietals,  frontals  and  nasals  convex.  a 


PALAEARtlTIt;  AND   INDIAN  MAMMALS    1758-1946 

4.  In  the  forclimbs  the  longest  finger  is  the  third.  Vibrissae  dense  and  straight. 

Length  of  aduhs,  over  2  m.  Four  mammae  in  the  female.  Jugal  short  and  deep, 
the  depth  of  the  bone  not  less  than  half  its  length. 

The  third  finger  of  fore  flippers  is  shorter  than  the  first  or  second.  Vibrissae  sparse, 
and  wavy.  Body  not  more  than  2.2  m.  long.  Two  mammae  in  the  female.  Jugal 
long  and  narrow,  so  that  depth  of  the  bmie  is  less  than  half  its  length.    (Genus 
PHOCA)  5 

5.  The  bony  nasal  septum  reaches,  or  almost  reaches,  the  rear  edge  of  the  bony 

palate.  Rear  edge  of  bony  palate  forms  a  more  or  less  straight  line  or  shallow 
double  arch.  Adults,  with  the  exception  of  some  females  that  have  just  reached 

sexual  maturity,  not  spotted,  but  with  large  dark  and  light  areas.  6 

The  bony  nasal  septum  falls  far  short  of  rear  edge  of  bony  palate.  Rear  edge  of 
bony  palate  forms  a  high  arch,  usually  pointed  at  the  top.  Clolouring:  generally 
there  are  small  spots,  less  frequently  the  uniformly  dark  back  gradually  lightens 
towards  the  abdomen.  7 

6.  The  forclimbs  and  neighbouring  parts  of  body  dark,  never  any  small  dark  spots  on 

body.  Condylobasal  length  of  skull  under  200  mm.  Bony  nasal  septum  just  fails 
to  reach  rear  edge  of  bony  palate.  The  upper  toothrow  is  curved,  seen  from 
below  and  from  the  side  (in  other  words,  curved  in  the  horizontal  and  vertical 
planes).  PHOCA  F ASCI  AT  A 

The  forclimbs  and  neighbouring  parts  of  body  are  light-coloured,  and  the  body 
sometimes  covered  with  small  dark  spots;  condylobasal  length  of  skull  in  adults, 
over  200  mm.  The  bony  nasal  septum  reaches  the  rear  edge  of  the  bony  palate. 
Upper  toothrow  not  curved.  PHOCA  GROENLANDICA 

7.  The  nasal  bones  are  short  and  broad,  the  teeth  large  and  the  infraorbital  foramen 

small,  its  diameter  two-thirds  to  one-third  that  of  the  alveolus  of  the  canine 
tooth  (N.  .Siiiirnos).  Dominant  type  of  colouring:  small  dark  spots  on  a  light 
background.  PHOCA  VITULINA 
The  nasal  bones  are  narrov/  and  longer,  the  teeth  small  and  the  infraorbital 
foramen  well  developed,  of  approximately  the  same  diameter  as  the  alveolus  of 
the  canine  tooth  or  even  larger  (N.  Smirnov).  C;olouring  different  (ring-spots, 
large  spots  or  uniform  colour).  8 

8.  Zygomatic  arches  set  in  such  a  way  that  they  cannot  be  seen  when  the  skull  is 

looked  at  from  behind,  being  hidden  by  the  brainpan.  Adults  usually  spotted. 


Zygomatic  arches  wide  .set,  so  that  thev  are  easily  visible  when  the  skull  is  looked 
at  from  the  back.  C^ohiur  usualK-  unilunu,  lightening  towards  the  abdomen, 
without  spots.  '  '      PHOCA  SIBIRICA 

t).   Infraorbital  foramen  the  same  size  as  aKcnlus  of  canine  tooth.  Anterior  nasal 
opening  (  (iniparati\ely  wide.  Adults  ring-spotted.  PHOCA   HISPIDA 

Infraorbital  foramen  wider  than  alveolus  of  canine  tooth.  Anterior  nasal  opening 
relatively  narrow.  Colouring:  usually  dark,  comparatively  large  spots  on  a  light 
ba.k,L;r..und.  PHOCA   CASPICA 



In  addition,  it  may  be  added  that,  according  to  Ognev  and  as  figured  by  Bobrinskii, 
the  interorbital  width  is  very  narrow  indeed  in  the  subgenus  Pusa  {P.  hispida  and 
allies)  and  much  less  so  in  the  subgenus  Phoca  [vitulina). 

Subfamily     P  h  o  c  i 

Genus  PHOCA  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Phoca  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /;  37.  Phoca  vituUna  Linnaeus. 

1777.  Pusa  Scopoli,  Introd.  Hist.  Nat.  490.  Phoca  foetida  Fabricius  =  Phoca  hispida 

Schreber.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1826.  Callocephaliis  F.  Cuvier,  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  ^g:  544.  Phoca  vitulina  Linnaeus. 
1844.  Pagophilus  Gray,  Zoology  o^  Erebus  and  Terror,  3.  Phoca  groenlandica  Erxleben. 

Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1864.   Halicyon  Gray,  P.Z.S.  28.  Halicyon  richardii  Gray  =  Phoca  vitulina  richardi,  from 

1864.  Pagomys  Gray,  P.Z.S.  31.  Phoca  foetida  =  Phoca  hispida  Schreber. 
1866.  Haliphilus   Gray,    Ann.    Mag.    N.H.    ly:    446.    Halichoerus   antarcticus    Peale 

=  Phoca  pealei  Gill  ?  =  Phoca  vitulina  richardii  Gray. 
1873.   Histriophoca  Gill,  Amer.  Nat.  y:  179.  Phoca  fasciata  Zimmermann.  Valid  as  a 

1904.  Pagophoca  Trouessart,  Cat.  Mamm.  Suppl.  287.  Substitute  for  Pagophilus  Gray. 

Our  listing  of  this  genus  follows  Miller,  Simpson  and  others.  It  may  be  noted, 
however,  that  Ognev  listed  Histriophoca  and  Pagophoca  as  full  genera.  These  two  seals 
are  strongly  differentiated  from  the  more  typical  subgenus  and  Pusa.  Bobrinskii 
(1944)  introduces  a  new  arrangement,  in  which  Pusa  is  synonymous  with  Phoca  sensu 
stricto,  and  Pagophoca  is  synonymous  with  Histriophoca,  the  latter  being  considered  as  a 
subgenus  of  Phoca,  so  that  according  to  that  author's  views  there  are  two  subgenera 
only  in  Phoca,  each  with  two  species  (  or  specific  groups,  as  he  keeps  the  Baikal  and 
Caspian  Seals  specifically  distinct  from  P.  hispida). 

Our  own  view  is  that  on  account  of  the  difference  in  palatal  structure  between  the 
two  main  divisions  in  the  genus,  it  might  be  possible  to  follow  Bobrinskii's  arrange- 
ment provided  Histriophoca  (Pagophoca  included  in  it)  were  given  generic  rank.  How- 
ever, we  here  adopt  the  customary  arrangement.  Bobrinskii  states  that  P.  caspica  and 
P.  sibirica  are  very  close  to  P.  hispida,  possibly  merely  subspecies  of  it. 

6  species  in  the  Palaearctic: 

Phoca  caspica,  page  330 
Phoca  fasciata,  page  330 
Phoca  groenlandica,  page  330 
Phoca  hispida,  page  328 
Phoca  sibirica,  page  330 
Phoca  vitulina,  page  328 


PAI.AKARCTK:  and   IXUIAX   mammals    1738-1946 
.Subj;cnus   I'/KX.'A    Linn, tens,   1758 

Phoca  vituHna   Linnaeus,  1758  Common  Seal 

Appioximali-  dislribution  of  species:  Sandy  roasts  from  Spain  and  British  Isles 
includins  Ireland  alont;-  North-Western  European  coasts  (France,  Germany,  Hollancf) 
III  Denmark,  Xorvvay,  the  Baltic,  Russia  (including;  Novaya  Zemlya,  Murman  coast 
where  rare),  Barents  Sea).  Eastern  Siberia  1  Chukotskoe  Sea,  Berinc;  Sea,  Okhotsk 
Sea).  Japan,  Korea.  \'arious  parts  of  North  America,  Greenland  included  1  for 
details  see  .Anderson,  1947.  Canadian  Recent  Mammals',  78). 

Phoc.\  vitulina  vitl;li.\a  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Phoca  vitulina  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  ;^8.  Gulf  of  Bothnia,  Xurthnn 

Baltic  (Thomas,  191 1).  ^  Where  the  animal  does  not  now  occur  !  Bobrinskii).) 
181  I.   Phoca  canina  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /.•  i  i.],. 
1820.   Phoca  variei^ula  Nilsson,   Skand.   Faun.   /.■   3-,9.   New  name  for  Phoca  viliilitia 

1824.   Phoca    H'o/nilicola   I'hienemann,    Nat.    Bcmcrk.    Rcisc    Europa,    /.•    39,    pi.    5. 

1824.  Phoca  littorca  Thienemann,  loc.  cit.  ?  Northern  Russia. 
1828.  Phoca  linnaci  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.X.  /j.-  415. 
1828.  Phoca  thienemannii  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  i^:  414.  New  name  for  P.  scopuli- 

cola  Thienemann. 
Range:  European  range  of  species. 

Phoca  vrruLL\.\  largh.^l  Pallas,  181 1 

181  I.  Phoca  largha  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /;  i  13.  Eastern  part  of  Kamtchatka. 

1828.  Phoca  chorisii  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  ij:  417.  Kamtchatka. 

1844.  Phoca  nummularis  Temminck,  Fauna  Japon.  3.  Japan. 

(?)  1864.   Ilalicvon  richardii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  28.  Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia.  A 

svnonym,  according  to  Ognev.  Queried  by  G.  Allen  as  occurring  on  eastern 

Cihinese  coasts. 
1902.   Phoca  ocholensis  ].  Allen,  Bull.  Anirr.  Mus.  .\.H.  i/i:  480.    Not  rif  Palias.  181 1. 

Mouth  iif  Gichiga  Ri\er,  Okhcitsk  Sea,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1902.  Phoca  ochotenui  macroden^  ].  Allen,  15ull.  .\mer.  Mus.  N.H.  16:  483.    ,\\atcha 

Bay,  Kamtchatka. 
1902.   Phoca  Ucjiicaeii  ].  Allen.  Bull.  .Xmcr.  Mus.  X.H.  rlj:  48-,.  Bering  Island,  Eastern 

1935.   Phoca   vilnUna  largha   natio  /lalluMi   .Xauninv    lK:    Smirno\',    Inst.   Fish. 

Oce.uiogr.  .Moscow,  jj.'   177.  Sea  (if  (Okhotsk. 
1041.   Phoca  /leleni  Mohr,  Zool.  Anz.  Leipzig,  /7';.'  41).  C'nast  ot  Korea. 
Range:  Eastern  Siberia,  Japan,  Korea,  apparent)  \  Western  Xnrth  .\merica. 

Subgenus  PUSA   Sciipoli,  1777 

Phoca  hispida  Si  hreber,  1775  Ringed  Seal 

,\ppr(ixim.ite  distribution   of  species:    .Xnrlhirn   Europe,   U.S.S.R.   eastwards   to 

Sakhalin  anrl  J.ipan,  and  .Arctic  North  .America  (for  some  details  see  Anderson,  1947, 



Canadian  Recent  Mammals,  79) .  Russian  localities  include  the  White  Sea,  Bering  Sea, 
Sea  of  Okhotsk  and  Tatarsk  Strait  (also,  according  to  Ognev,  Taimyr  Peninsula  and 
New  Siberian  Islands);  also  the  Baltic  Sea,  including  Gulfs  of  Bothnia  and  Finland 
(it  swims  up  the  Neva  to  Leningrad),  Lake  Ladoga  and  some  Finnish  lakes  (Lake 
Saima  and  others  near  it).  Has  been  recorded  from  Novaya  Zemlya,  Iceland,  Spitz- 
bergen;  rare  visitor  to  France,  Germany,  Denmark,  Holland,  British  Isles  (recorded 
from  Norfolk  and  several  places  in  Scotland) ;  Norway. 

Phoca  hispida  hispida  Schreber,  1775 

1775.  Phoca  hispida  Schreber,  Saugeth.  jj.-  pi.  86  (te.xt,  1776,  j.-  312).  Coasts  of  Green- 

land and  Labrador. 

1776.  Phoca  foetida   Fabricius,    MuUer,    Zool.    Danicae   Prodr.,    viii;    1780,    Fauna 

Groenlandica,  13.  Greenland. 

1820.  Phoca  annellata  Nilsson,  Skand.  Faun.  /.■  365.  New  name  {or  foetida  Fabricius, 

(?)  1921.  Piisa  hispida  pygmaea  Zukowsky,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  8yA,  10:  183.  ?  Green- 
land and  Novaya  Zemlya. 

Phoca  hispida  botnica  Gmelin,  1788 

1788.  Phoca  vitulina  botnica  Gmelin,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.•  63.  Gulf  of  Bothnia, 

Baltic  Sea. 
1839.  Phoca  communis  var.  octonata  Kutorga,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscow,  185,  189.  No 

1839.  Phoca  communis  var.  undulata  Kutorga,  Bull.  Soc.  Nat.  Moscow,  185,  191.  No 


Phoca  hispida  ochotensis  Pallas,  181 1 

181 1.  Phoca  ochotensis  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  Asiat.  /.•  117.  Northern  part  of  Okhotsk 
Sea,  between  Tamis  Bay  and  Gichiga,  Eastern  Siberia. 

1902.  Phoca  (Pusa)  hispida  gichigensis  J.  Allen,  Bull.  Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  16:  478. 
Gichiga,  Okhotsk  Sea,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Phoca  hispida  saimensis  Nordquist,  1899 

1899.  Phoca  foetida  var  saimensis  Nordquist,  Acta  Soc.  Fauna  Flor.  Fenn.  75,  7:  28. 
Lake  Saima,  Finland. 

Phoca  hispida  ladogensis  Nordquist,  1899 

1899.  Phoca  foetida  var.  ladogensis  Nordquist,  Acta  Soc.  Fauna  Flor.  Fenn.  /j,  7: 
Lake  Ladoga  (Finnish-Russian  border). 


Phoca  hispida  pomororum  Smirnov,  1929 

1929.  Phoca  hispida  pomororum  Smirnov,  C.R.  Acad.  Leningrad,  95.  Barents  Sea;  west 

coast  Novaya  Zemlya. 
1929.  Phoca  hispida  pomororum  natio  rochmistrovi  Smirnov,  loc.  cit.  95.  Sumski  Posad, 

western  coast  of  White  Sea,  Northern  Russia. 



Phoca  hispida  birulai  Smirnov,  1929 

1929.   Phoca  hisfiida  hirulai  Smirnov,  C.R.  Acad.  Leningrad,  96.  New  Siberian  Islands; 
Liakhov  Island. 

Phoca  hispida  krasche.ninikovi  Naumov  &   Smirnov,  1935 

1935.   Plwca  hispida  kraicheninikori  Naumov  &  Smirnov,  Trans.  Inst.  Fish.  Oceanogr. 
Moscow,  5.-  182.  Bering  Sea,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Phoca  caspica  Gmclin,  1788  Caspian  Seal 

.\pproximate  distriburion  of  species:  Caspian  Sea,  "distributed  all  over  the  Caspian 
Sea  but  collects  in  dilFerent  parts  of  it  according;  to  the  time  of  year"  ( Bobrinskii). 

Phoca  caspic,\  Gmelin,  1788 

1788.   Phoca  vitulina  var.  caspica  Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.■  64.  Caspian  Sea. 

Phoca  sibirica  Gmelin,  1788  Baikal  Seal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Lake  Baikal,  Eastern  Siberia. 

Phoca  sibirica  Gmelin,  1 788 

1788.  Phoca  vitulina  var.  sibirica  Gmelin,  Syst.  Nat.  13th  ed.  /.■  64.  Lakes  Baikal  and 

1873.   Phoca  baicaleiisis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Anat.  Physiol.  Lpz.  109.  Lake  Baikal. 
1922.  Phoca  oronensis  Dybowski,  Arch.  Tow.  Nauk.  Lwow,  /.•  352,  nom.  nud.  Lake 

Oron  (right  bank  of  Witim,  Govt,  of  Yakutsk,  about  57|°  N.,   ii7°E.). 

(According  to  Ognev  (1935)  there  is  no  seal  in  this  lake.) 

Subgenus  HISTRIOPPIOCA  Gill,  1873 

Phoca  fasciata  Zimmermann,  1783  Ribbon  Seal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Kurile  Islands,  Tatarsk  Strait,  Sea  of 
Okhotsk,  Bering  Sea  and  Chukotskoe  Sea,  penetrates  into  eastern  part  of  East 
Siberian  Sea;  everywhere  rare  (Bobrinskii).  To  Alaska.  Has  been  recorded  from 
Hokkaido  (Kuroda). 

Phoca  fasciata   Zimmermann,  1783. 

1783.  Phoca  fasciata  Zimmermann,  Geogr.  Gcsch.   5.-  277.  Kurile  Islands,  north  of 

1 83 1.   Phoca  equcstris  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  /.•   iii. 

Subgenus   PAGOPHILUS   Gray,  1844 

Phoca  groenlandica  Erxleben,  1777  Harp  Seal  (Greenland  Seal) 

.\pproximatr  distribution  of  species:  Northern  Europe,  Russia,  Western  Siberia 

and  northern  .Xnrth  America  fsee  Anderson,  1947,  Canadian  Recent  Mammals,  79,  for 



Nearctic  range).  Iceland,  Spitzbergen,  Jan  Meyen  Island  districts,  White  Sea,  Kara 
Sea,  Cheshskaya  Bay  (Northern  Russia) ;  rare  wanderer  to  British  Isles,  France  and 
Holland.  The  Eastern  Siberian  limit  is  Severnaya  Zemlya  (Bobrinskii) .  Range 
includes  Norway. 

Phoca  groenlandica  groenlandica  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.  Phoca  groenlandica  Erxleben,  Regn   Anim.  /.•  588.  Greenland  and  Newfound- 


1785.  Phoca  semilunaris  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  170.  Greenland,  Iceland. 

(?)  1822.  Phoca  albicauda  Desmarest,  Mamm.  541.  No  locality. 

(?)  1824.  Phoca  leucopla  Thienemann,  Nat.  Bemerk.  Reise  Europe,  /;  102,  pi.  13.  A 
few  miles  north  of  Grimsey  Island,  north  of  Iceland.  Thienemann  says  that 
the  type  specimen  of  kucopla  was  found  in  a  herd  of  several  hundred  Phoca 
groenlandica  and  thinks  it  was  just  an  individual  variation. 

1 85 1.  Phoca  albini  Alessandrini,  Mem.  R.  R.  Accad.  Bologna,  2:  158. 

Phoca  groenlandica  oceanica  Lepechin,  1778 

1778.  Phoca  oceanica  Lepechin,  Acta  Ac.  Petrop.  1777,  i:  259,  pis.  6  and  7.  White 

Sea,  Northern  Russia. 
181 1.  Phoca  dorsata  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  /.■  112. 

Genus  ERIGNATHUS  Gill,  1866 
1866.  Erignathus  Gill,  Proc.  Essex  Inst.  5.-  5,  9.  Phoca  barbata  Erxleben. 
I  species:  Erignathus  barbatus,  page  331 

Erignathus  barbatus  Erxleben,  1777  Bearded  Seal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Northern  Eurasia,  east  to  Sakhalin  and 
rarely  Hokkaido,  Japan.  North  America,  from  Bering  Sea  to  Greenland.  Said  to  have 
been  recorded  from  Norfolk,  England,  and  from  Scotland  (River  Beauly) ;  Norway. 
In  U.S.S.R.,  White  Sea,  all  along  the  European  and  Asiatic  coast  of  the  Arctic 
Ocean,  off  all  the  islands  of  the  Arctic  Ocean,  and  in  the  Bering  Sea  and  Sea  of 
Okhotsk  as  far  south  as  Tatarsk  Strait;  it  sometimes  swims  a  few  kilometres  up  rivers 
(Bobrinskii).  Iceland,  Spitzbergen,  Franz  Josef  Land,  Jan  Mayen  Island. 

Erignathus  barbatus  barbatus  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.  Phoca  barbata  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  /;  590.  Type  locality  restricted  to 

Southern  Greenland  by  Ognev,  1935. 

1778.  Phoca  leporina  Lepechin,  Acta  Ac.  Petrop.  lyyj,  i:  264,  pi.  8.  \\'hite  Sea. 
1828.  Phoca  parsonsii  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  13:  414.  Northern  Seas. 

1828.  Phoca  lepechenii  Lesson,  loc.  cit.  415.  Renaming  of  leporina. 

Erignathus  barb.\tus  nauticus  Pallas,  1 8 1 1 

181 1.  Phoca  nautica  Pallas,  Zoogr.  Ross.  As.  /.■  108.  Okhotsk  Sea,  Eastern  Siberia. 
181 1.  Phoca  albigena  Pallas,  loc.  cit.  109.  Kamtchatka. 


PALAEARC:TIC:  and   INDIAN   MAMMALS   1 758-1946 

Genus  HALICHOERUS  Xilsson,  1820 

1820.   Halichocrus  Xilsson,   Skand.   Fauna,   Dagg.    Djur.    /;    376.   Halkhoerus  griseus 
Xilsson  =  Phoca  grvpiis  Fabricius. 

I  species:  Halichocrui  grxpiis,  page  332 

Halichoerus  grypus  Fabricius,  1791  Grey  Seal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Europe,  from  British  Lsles  northward,  Russia 
and  in  Xorth  America  (for  American  range  see  Anderson,  1947,  Canadian  Recent 
Mammals,  80).  Novnya  Zemlya,  Barents  Sea,  Murman  coast,  neck  of  White  Sea, 
Baltic  Sea  (including  Finland,  Gulf  of  Bothnia),  Norway,  England  (rocky  parts  of 
west  coast),  Scotland,  Ireland,  Orkneys,  Shetlands,  Hebrides,  Faroe  Islands,  Scilly 

Halichoerus  grypus  Fabricius,  1791 

1791.   Phoca  grypus  Fabricius,  Skrlvter  af  Xaturhist.  Selskabet,  Copenhagen,   /,  2: 

167,  pi.  13,  fig.  4.  Greenland. 
1820.  Halichoerus  griseus  Xilsson,  Skand.  Fauna,  Dagg.  Djur.  /.■  377.  Greenland. 
1824.  Phoca  halichoerus  Tliicncmann,   Xat.   Bemrrk.  nordl.   Reise   Europa,    /:    142. 

1 85 1.  Halichoerus  macrorhynchus  Hornschuch  &  Schilling,  Arch.  Naturgesch.  ly,  2: 

28.  Baltic  Sea. 
1 85 1.  Halichoerus  pachvrhvnchus  Hornschuch  &  Schilling,  loc.  cit.  Baltic  Sea. 
1886.   Halichoerus  grypus  var.  atlantica  Xehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  122.  \Vest 

coast  of  Norway. 
1886.   Halichoerus  grypus  var.  tallica  Nehring,  loc.  cit.  Baltic. 

SuBF.»iMiLY     M  o  n  a  c  h  i  n  a  e 

Genus  MONACHUS  Fleming,  1822 

1822.   Monachus  Fleming,  Philos.  Zool.  2:  187  (footnote).  Phoca  monachus  Hermann. 

1824.  Pelagios  F.  Cuvicr,  Mem.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  //.■  196.  Phoca  monachus  Her- 

1841.  Pelagocvon  Gloger,  Gemeinn.  Naturgesch.  /,  xx.\iv,  163.  Pelagocyon  monachus  = 
Phoca  monachus  Hermann. 

1848.  Rigoon  Gistl,  Xat.  Thierr.  lur  hohcrc  Schulen,  x.  Xew  name  for  Pelagios  F. 

1854.  Heliophoca  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  X.H.  13:  201.  Heliophoca  atlantica  Gray  =  Phoca 
monachus  Hermann. 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Monachus  monachus,  page  333 



Monachus  monachus  Hermann,  1779  Monk  Seal 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Atlantic  (Madeira,  Canaries  and  Southern 
Rio  de  Ore);  Mediterranean,  formerly  most  coasts  but  now  restricted  to  parts  of 
Morocco,  Cyrenaica,  Corsica,  islands  in  the  Southern  Adriatic  and  off  Greece,  Crete, 
?  Egypt,  Palestine  and  the  Lebanon;  Black  Sea  fCape  Kaliakra  in  Rumania  and 
Sosopolis  in  Bulgaria,  and  perhaps  the  eastern  shore). 

Monachus  monachus  Hermann,  1779 

1779.  Phoca  monachus  Hermann,  Beschaf.  Berlin  Ges.  Naturf  Freunde,  ^;  501,  pis. 

12,  13.  Mediterranean  Sea. 
1785.  Phoca  alhiventer  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  170.  Adriatic  Sea. 
1800.  Phoca  bicolor  Shaw,  Gen.  Zool.  /,  2:  254.  Adriatic  Sea. 
1816.  Phoca  leucogaster  Peron  &  Lesueur,  Voy.  aux  Terres  Austr.  2:  47  (footnote). 

Nimes,  Southern  France. 
1828.  Phoca  hermannii  Lesson,  Diet.  Class.  H.N.  i^:  416.  Adriatic  Sea. 
1838.  Monachus   mediterraneiis   Xilsson,    K.    Svenska   Vet.   Ak.    Handl.    183J:    238. 

Adriatic  Sea  and  Greek  Archipelago. 
(?)  1843.  Phoca  isidorei  Lesson,  Echo  ^Iondc  Sa\ant,  6  August,    10:  228.  Isle  of 

Oleron,    ^S'estern  France. 
1854.  Heliophoca  allantica  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /j.-  202.  Deserta  Grande  Island, 

Madeira  group. 

Subfamily     Cystophorinae 

Genus  CYSTOPHORA  Nilsson,  1820 

1820.  Cystophora  Nilsson,   Skand.   Fauna,   Dagg.   Djur.    /.•   382.   Cvstophora   borealis 

Nilsson  =  Phoca  cristata  Erxleben. 
1826.  Stemmatopus  F.  Cuvier,  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  ^g:  550.  Stemmatopus  cristatus  Cuvier  = 

Phoca  cristata  Erxleben. 
191 1.  Cystophoca  Brass,  Aus  dem  Reiche  der  Pelze,  668.  Renaming  oi  Cystophora. 

I  species:   Cystophora  cristata,  page  333 

Cystophora  cristata  Erxleben,  1777  Hooded  Seal  ,  Bladdernose) 

Approximate  distribution  ol" species:  .\rctic  Europe,  .\sia  and  North  America  (see 
Anderson,  1947,  Canadian  Recent  Mammals,  80,  for  Nearctic  range).  ".  .  .  the  deep  part 
of  the  North-\Vestern  Atlantic  where  it  is  commonest)  and  adjoining  areas  of  the 
Arctic  Ocean,  i.e.  it  extends  from  Newfoundland,  Labrador  and  Greenland  to 
Spitzbergen  and  Bear  Island,  east  of  which — in  the  shallower  part  of  Barents  Sea — it 
only  occurs  in  certain  years  and  in  small  numbers.  Separate  individuals,  however, 
sometimes  swim  great  distances:  one  specimen  was  caught  in  the  Yenesei,  near 
Yeneseisk"  (Bobrinskii).  Has  been  recorded  also  from  Norway,  France,  British  Isles, 
Portugal  I'Santos,  1936),  and  during  migrations  to  Danish  Straits. 


i\\LAEARt;TIC  AND  INDIAN  MAMMALS   1 758-1946 

Cystophora  cristata  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.  Phoca  cristata  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Aiiim.   /;  590.  Southern  Greenland  and 

1820.   Cystophora  borealis  Xilsson,   Skand.   Fauna.  Dagg.   Djur.    /.•   383.   Locality  as 

above,  based  on  Gmelin,  1788  cristata,  and  in  turn  Erxleben,  1777. 
1823.   Phoca  mitrata  G.  Cuvier,  Oss.  Foss.  5.'  210. 

FAMILY':   Procaviidae,  page  334 


Genus:   Procaria,  page  334 

On  this  family,  see  particularly  Hahn,  1934,  Die  Familic  der  Procaviidae,  ^. 
Sauget.  g:  207-358.  Flower  and  Lydekker  recognized  two  genera  in  this  family, 
Procavia  and  Dcndrohyrax,  characterized  by  differences  in  dentition.  Although  some 
authors  refer  all  Hyraxes  to  one  genus  Procavia,  there  is  considerable  evidence  in  the 
material  examined  that  Dcndrohyrax  is  valid.  It  has  brachyodont  cheekteeth,  and  in 
fully  adult  skulls  the  three  upper  molars  are  normally  a  little  shorter  than,  or  sub- 
equal  to,  the  four  premolars.  Procavia  has  hypsodont  cheekteeth,  and  in  fully  adult 
skulls  the  three  upper  molars  are  normally  clearly  longer  than  the  four  premolars. 
Hahn  and  other  authors  recognize  a  third  genus,  Heterohyrax,  which  does  not  differ 
from  Dcndrohyrax  in  dentition,  but  which  has  the  orbit  not  ringed  by  bone,  whereas 
Dcndrohyrax  usually  has  it  ringed  by  bone.  But  as  the  character  is  not  strictly  constant 
in  South  African  Dcndrohyrax,  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  Heterohyrax  could  be  more  than  a 
subgenus  of  Dcndrohyrax.  Hahn  retained  four  species  in  Procavia,  two  of  which, 
habessinica  and  rujiceps,  are  supposed  to  occur  in  the  Palaearctic  region.  He  gives  very 
little  evidence  that  these  two  species  are  in  reality  morphologically  definable  when 
compared  with  the  earliest  named  Procavia  capensis  from  the  Cape.  One  of  us 
(T.  C.  S.  ^L-S.)  has  not  found  his  characters  of  the  first  lower  premolar  constant  in 
habessinica  races;  his  measurements  of  the  skulls  and  teeth  for  the  three  species  over- 
lap; and  until  the  contrary  is  proved,  we  prefer  to  regard  both  the  supposed  northern 
species  as  further  races  of  P.  capensis. 

Genus  PROCAVIA  Storr,  1780 

1780.  Procavia  Storr,  Prodr.  Meth.  Mamm.  40,  pi.  B.  Cavia  capensis  Pallas. 
1783.  Hyrax  Hermann,  Tabl.  Affin.  Anim.  115.  Cavia  capensis  Pallas. 
1868.  Euhyrax  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.•  46.  Hyrax  hahessintcus  Hcmprich  &  Ehren- 

I  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Procavia  capensis,  page  335 



Procavia  capensis  Pallas,  1766  Hyrax,  "Cony"  or  Dassie 

Approximate  distribution  of  species  (as  here  understood) :  Arabia,  Palestine,  Sinai, 
Syria;  Algeria;  Libya.  From  Somaliland,  Sudan,  Northern  Nigeria,  Asben  and 
Senegal  southwards  to  Cape  Town,  George  and  Albany  districts  in  Cape  Province, 
where  it  is  very  common. 

(Procavia  capensis  capensis  Pallas,  1766.  Extralimital) 

1766.  Cavia  capensis  Pallas,  Zool.  Misc.  30,  pi.  3.  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

Procavia  capensis  syriaca  Schreber,  1784 

1784.  Hyrax  syriacus  Schreber,   Saugeth.   pi.   240B:    1792,   4:   923.   Mt.   Lebanon, 

Syria.  (See  Moreau,  Hopkins  &  Hayman,  1946,  P.Z.S.  ii§:  431.) 
1868.  Hyrax  sinaitkus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /.■  45.  Locality  not  given;  probably  Mt. 

Sinai,  Sinai  Peninsula. 
1917.  Procavia  sinailica  ehrenbergi  Brauer,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  301.  El  Tor,  near 

\Vadi  Timar,  Sinai. 
19 1 7.  Procavia  sinailica  schmidtzi  Brauer,  loc.  cit.  302.  Mountain  of  Bteha  Plain,  north 

of  Lake  Galilee,  Palestine. 

Hahn  (1934)  restricted  syriacus  Schreber  to  Abyssinia,  for  the  same  reason  that 
Gray  had  done,  namely  because  Schreber  quotes  largely  from  Bruce  in  describing 
this  hyrax  and  also  having  regard  to  their  interpretation  of  Schreber's  plate.  But  we 
agree  with  Thomas  (1892)  that  Schreber  clearly  intended  the  Syrian  form  as  well  as 
the  Abyssinian  form,  and  that  both  from  the  text  and  from  the  title  "  Der  syrische 
Klippschliefer"  there  is  every  ground  for  including  the  Syrian  form  under  syriacus 
rather  than  excluding  it,  and  we  agree  that  Mt.  Lebanon  was  rightly  selected  as  the 
type  locality.  As  no  member  of  the  subgenus  Heterohyrax  is  known  to  occur  in  Asia,  the 
earliest  name  for  that  wholly  African  group  will  be  Hyrax  brucei  Gray,  1868,  from 
Abyssinia.  The  type  oi  Heterohyrax  should  be  quoted  as  Dendrohyrax  blainvillii  Gray  = 
Hyrax  brucei  Gray. 

Procavia  capensis  burtoni  Gray,  1868 

1868.  Hyrax  burtonii  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  /;  43.  "Egypt."  Probably  extralimital 
(Sudanese)  but  might  occur  in  extreme  Southern  Egypt. 

Procavia  capensis  jayakari  Thomas,  1892 

1892.  Procavia  syriaca  jayakari  Thomas,  P.Z.S.  63.  Dofar,  Southern  Arabia. 

Procavia  capensis  bounhioli  Kollman,  191 2 

1912.  Procavia  bounhioli  Kollman,  Bull.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  18:  281.  Ahaggar,  Sahara 

Desert,  Algeria. 
1932.  Procavia  {Heterohyrax)  antineae  Heim  de  Balsac  &  Begouen,  Bull.  Mus.  H.N. 

Paris,  2,  4:  479.  Ahaggar,  Algeria. 

(G.  Allen  (1939)  follows  Hahn  in  listing  the  last  form  as  a  synonym  oi  bounhioli  on 
p.  451,  but  lists  it  as  a  distinct  species  oi  Heterohyrax  on  p.  445.) 


PALAEARC:T1C  and  INDIAN  MAMMALS   1758- 1946 

ORDER     P  R  O  B  O  S  C;  I  D  E  A 

FAMII.V:   Elcphanlidae,  page  336 

FAMl LV     E  L  E  P  H  A  N  T  I  D  A  E 

Genus:   Elcphas,  page  336 

Genus  ELEPHAS  Einnacus,  1758 
1758.   Elephas  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /;  33.  Elephas  maximui  Linnaeus. 
I  species:  Elephas  maximia,  page  33G 

Elephas  tnaximus  Linnaeus,  1758  Indian  Elephant 

Approximate  distributicin  of  species:  Ceylon,  India  (range  modified  by  human 
agency  and  domestication);  Blanford  (i8gi)  stated  that  elephants  occurred  wild 
along  the  base  of  the  Himalayas  as  lar  west  as  Dehra  Dun  and  in  places  in  the  great 
forest  country  between  the  Ganges  and  Kistna,  in  the  Western  Ghats  and  Mysore. 
Assam,  Burma,  Siam,  Cochin-China.  Malay  States,  .Sumatra.  (Introduced  in  Borneo. 
Deraniyagala,  1950,  Proc.  ^th  Ann.  Session  Ceylon  Assoc.  Sci.  10,  quotes  Laufer  (1925) 
as  evidence  for  the  elephant  being  certainly  indigenous  in  Bcirnco,  but  an  examina- 
tion of  Laufer  does  not  bear  this  out.) 

On  the  races,  see  Pocock,  1943,  .1"".  Mag.  .N'.H.  10:  273,  and  Chasen,  1940, 
Handlist  Malaysian  Mammals,  190  (footnote). 

Elephas  maximus  maximus  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.   Elephas  maximus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  33.  Ceylon. 

i()40.  Elephas  maximus  vilaliya  Deraniyagala,  J.  Roy.  Asiat.  Soc.  Ceylon  Branch,  jj^, 

91:    130,  fig.    I,   6.   Manampitiya,  in  the  flood  plain  of  Mahavili   River, 

Eastern  Ceylon.  Status^(/f-  Pocock. 

ElEPH.\S    M.XXIMLS    INDK.IS    G.   Cuvicr,    I  797 

17117.  Elejihas  iniiicus  Cu\ier,  Tabl.  Elem.  H.N.  148.  Ceylon.  Slierborn  dates  indicus 
Cuvier  from  Mem.  Inst.  Paris,  i',-  21,  of  1798  (27  September),  but  this  is 
antedated  hy  indicus  Cu\ier,  Tabl.  Elem.  H.N.  148,  which  was  noticed  on 
24  December  171)7,  and  therefoic  published  some  time  before  that  date. 

(?)  1797.  Elephas  aualicus  Blumeiih.K  li,  Hand.  Naturg.  ed.  5,  124.  "Asia,  chiefly 

184 -).   Elephas  nidicui  liengahnsis  Blain\ille,  Osteogr.  .M.imm.  3-,;;,  pi.  iii.  Bengal. 

1916.  F.leptuts  mnxmnn  maximus  of  L\(lckker,  Lngulates  B.M.  5.'  82;  not  ol 
LiniKiciis,  I  7-,;!. 

Range:  the  mainl.ind  i-.mge  of  the  species.  Pcxdck  i  alK  the  mainland  elephants 
A",  m.  hengalensis  .md  it  is  not  clear  why  he  discards  the  rarlii  1   n.ime  indicus. 

Elephas  maximius  cievianicis  Blaiii\ill<-,  1845 

1845.   Elephas  1)1, Inns  cevhinieiis  Blaiinillc,  Osteogr.  .Nfuniii.  3-1",,  pi.  iii.  Ceylon. 


FAMILY:  Dugongidae,  page  337 
There  are  two  living  families,  but  only  one  of  them  comes  into  our  region. 

See  Pocock,  1940,  Some  Notes  on  the  Dugong,  Ann.  Mag.  M.H.  5;  329. 
Genus:  Dugong,  page  337 

Genus  DUGONG  Lacepede,  1799 

1799.  Dugong  Lacepede,  Tabl.  Mamm.  17.  Dugong  indicus  Lacepede. 

1803.  Platystomus  Fischer,  Nat.  Mus.  Paris,  2:  353.  Platjstomus  dugong  Gmelin  = 

Trichechus  dugon  Muller.  Not  Platystoma  Meigen,  1803,  an  insect. 
1808.  Dugungus  Tiedemann,  Zoologie,  /.•  554.  Emendation. 
181 1.  Halicore  Illiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  et  Avium,  140.  Trichechus  dugong  Gmelin 

=  Trichechus  dugon  Miiller. 
182 1.  Dugongidus  Gray,  London  Med.  Repos.  /j;  309.  Trichechus  dugon  Muller. 

I  species:  Dugong  dugon,  page  337 

Dugong  dugon  Muller,  1776  Dugong 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  has  been  recorded  from  seas  of  Portuguese 
East  Africa,  Madagascar,  Mafia  Island  (off  Tanganyika),  Kenya,  the  Red  Sea, 
coasts  of  Malabar,  India,  Ceylon,  the  Andaman  Islands  and  Mergui  Archipelago, 
Liukiu  Is.,  Formosa,  Malaysian  Seas,  Philippine  Islands,  and  to  Northern  Australia. 
Doubtless  exterminated  in  some  of  these  places. 

Dugong  dugon  Miiller,  1776 

1776.  Trichecus  (sic)   dugon  Muller,  Linne's  Vollstandingen  Natursyst.  Suppl.   21. 

Cape  of  Good  Hope  to  the  Philippines. 

1777.  Trichechus  dugung  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.  599. 

1799.  Dugong  indicus  Lacepede,  Tabl.  Mamm.  17.  Indian  Ocean. 
181 1.  Halicore  dugong  Illiger,  Prodr.  Syst.  Mamm.  et  Avium,  141. 
1833.  Halicore  hemprichii  Ehrenberg,  in  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  Symb.  Phys.  Mamm. 
2:  folio  k  (footnote).  Barkan  Island,  Red  Sea. 

1833.  Halicore  lottum  Ehrenberg,  in  Hemprich  &  Ehrenberg,  loc.  cit.  Hauakal  Island, 

southern  part  of  Red  Sea. 

1834.  Halicore  tabernaculi  Ruppell,  Mus.  Senckenburgianum,  /;  113,  pi.  6.  Red  Sea 

(based  on  a  skeleton  found  on  Maxud  Island). 
1877.  Halicore  cetacea  Heuglin,  Reise  in  Nordost.  Afr.  2:  135.  Red  Sea. 

The  name  hemprichii  is  available  if  the  Red  Sea  race  can  be  proved  distinct  from 
that  of  the  Indian  Ocean.  G.  Allen  lists  it  as  a  synonym  oi  dugon;  but  Pocock,  (1940, 
330)  does  not  feel  justified  in  adding  hemprichi  definitely  to  the  synonymy  oi dugon. 




FAMILIES:   Equidae,  page  340 

Rhinocerotidae,  page  339 
Tapiridae,  page  338 

This  is  a  relict  order,  with  many  fossil  families  and  genera  but  only  a  handful  of 
surviving  species.  Simpson  (1945)  divided  the  existing  Perissodactyla  into  two  sub- 
orders, the  Hippomorpha  for  the  Ecjuidae,  and  the  Gcratomorpha  for  the  Tapiridae 
and  Rhinocerotidae.  Each  of  the  last-named  families  is  the  type  of  a  distinct  super- 
family.  Blanford,  1891,  Fauna  of  British  India,  468-479,  gives  short  summaries  of  the 
main  diflercnces  between  the  families  and  most  of  the  species  of  Asiatic  Perissodactyla. 



Genus:   Tapirus,  page  338 

Genus  TAPIRUS  Brisson,  1762 

1762.  Tapirus  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  81-82.  Tapirus  terrestris  Brisson  =  Hippopotamus 
terrcstris  Linnaeus,  from  Brazil.  Hopwood,  1947,  P.Z.S.  1  ly,  533-536,  would 
disregard  Brisson  and  date  Tapirus  IVom  Brunnich,  1771,  Zool.  Fundamenta, 
44,  45,  with  type  Hippopotamus  terrestris  Linnaeus. 

1779.    Tapir  Blumenbach,  Handbuch  Naturg.  /.'   129. 

1830.  Rfiinoc/werus  VVagler,  Syst.  Nat.  Amphib.  17.  Substitute  for  Tapirus  Brisson. 

1872.   Tapvra  Liais,  Climats  Geol.  397.  Emendation  oi' Tapirus. 

1 91 3.  Acrocodia  Goldman,  Proc.  I5iol.  Soc.  Washington,  26:  65.  Tapirus  indicus 
Desmarcst.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 

I  species  in  Asia: 

Tapirus  indicus,  page  338 

We  follow  Simpson  in  referring  all  living  tapirs  to  one  genus,  but  differences  in 
the  cranium,  and  in  the  colour  pattern  of  the  adults,  seem  to  justify  subgeneric 
distinction  between  the  Asiatic  species  and  its  South  American  allies. 

Subgenus  ACROCODLi  Goldman,  191 3 

Tapirus  indicus   Desmarest,  181 9  Malayan  Tapir 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Sumatra  and  Malay  Peninsula,  as  far  north 
as  the  Burmo-Siamcse  borders  in  latitude  18°  N. 

Tapirus  indicus  Desmarest,  1819 

1 81 9.  Tapirus  indicus  Desmarest,  Nouv.  Diet.  H.N.  J2:  458.  Malay  Peninsula.  Range: 
as  above. 




Genera:  Didermocerus,  page  340 
Rhinoceros,  page  339 

The  prior  generic  name  for  the  Asiatic  Two-horned  Rhinoceros  is  Didermocerus 
Brookes,  1828.  Simpson  (1945)  calls  this  Dicerorhinus,  and  suggests,  somewhat  half- 
heartedly, that  the  name  Didermocerus  may  conveniently  be  dropped,  on  the  ground 
of  its  publication  in  a  sale  catalogue.  This  in  itself  is  no  bar  to  "publication"  within 
the  meaning  of  the  Regies,  and  the  catalogue  was  on  sale  to  the  public  for  half  a 
crown.  Moreover,  Simpson  adopts  Acinonyx,  which  appears  in  the  same  publication. 

Simpson  (1945)  lists  the  living  rhinoceroses  in  two  subfamilies:  the  "Dicero- 
rhininae"  with  Dicerorhinus  {=  Didermocerus),  Ceratotherium  and  Diceros;  and  the 
Rhinocerotinae  with  Rhinoceros.  But  this  arrangement,  as  Pocock,  1945,  P-Z-S-  114: 
437,  points  out,  gives  undue  importance  to  the  possession  of  two  horns  or  one,  and 
obscures  the  fact  that  in  cranial  and  dental  characters  the  Asiatic  rhinoceroses  clearly 
form  one  group  and  the  African  ones  another.  We  therefore  follow  Pocock  in  dividing 
the  living  rhinoceroses  into  the  Rhinocerinae  (or  Rhinocerotinae,  as  the  word  should 
have  been  formed)  with  Rhinoceros  and  Didermocerus,  and  the  Dicerinae  (or  Dicero- 
tinae)  with  Diceros  and  Ceratotherium.  Pocock  (1945,  449)  gives  a  key  based  on  this 

Subfamily     Rhinocerotinae 

Genus  RHINOCEROS  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Rhinoceros  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  56.  Rhinoceros  unicornis  Linnaeus. 
1867.  Eurhinoceros  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1009.  Rhinoceros  unicornis  Linnaeus. 

2  species :  Rhinoceros  sondaicus,  page  340 
Rhinoceros  unicornis,  page  339 

For  key  to  these  species,  see  Blanford  (1891,  472). 

Rhinoceros  imlcornis  Linnaeus,  1758  Great  One-horned  Rhinoceros 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Nepal,  Bihar,  Bengal  Duars,  Cooch  Behar, 
Assam.  Becoming  rare. 

Rhinoceros  unicornis  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Rhinoceros  unicornis  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  56.  Probably  the  sub- 
Himalayan  Terai  of  Assam  (Lydekker). 

1817.  Rhinoceros  indicus  Cuvier,  Regn.  Anim.  /;  239. 

1830.  Rhinoceros  asiaticus  Blumenbach,  Hand.  Naturg.  ed.  12,  107.  No  locality 

1867.  Rhinoceros  stenocephalus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1018.  Asia. 


PALAEARCrnt;  and   INDIAN  MAMMALS   1758-1946 

Rhinoceros  sondaicus  Desmarest,  1822  Lesser  One-horned  Rhinoceros 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Burma,  Siam,  Cochin-China,  Malay  States, 
Sumatra,  Java.  Now  a  rare  animal. 

Rhinoceros  sond.mcus  Desmarest,  1822 

1822.  Rhinoceros  sondaicus  Desmarest,  Mammalogie,  2:  399.  Java. 

1840.  Rhinoceros  inermis  Lesson,  Compl.  de  Buflbn,  /.■  514.  Sunderbans,  mouths  of 

the  Gan,s;es,  India,  nom.  nud.,fide  Sherborn. 
1 868.   Rhinoceros foiveri  Gray,  V.Z.i.  1867;  loi 5.  Sumatra  (not  in  Chasen's  list,  1940). 

.See  Loch,  1937,  The  Ja\an  or  Lesser  One-horned  Rhinoceros  and  its  geographical 
distribution,  J.  Malayan  Branch  R.  Asiat.  Soc.  /j,  2:  130. 

Genus  DIDERMOCERUS  Brookes,  1828 

1828.  Didermocerus  Brookes,  Cat.  Anat.  Zool.  Museum  of  J.  Brookes,  London,  75. 
Diderrnocerus  sumalrensis  =  Rhinoceros  sumalrensis  Fischer. 

1 84 1.  Diccrorhinus  Gloger,  Handbuch  Naturgesch.  125.  Rhinoceros  sumalrensis  Cuvier. 
1868.  Cerntnrhinus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  1867:  1021.  Rhinoceros  sumalrensis  Guvier. 

I  species:  Didermoceru\  sumalrensis,  page  340 

Didermocerus  sumatrensis  Fischer,  1814  Asiatic  Two-horned  Rhinoceros 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  ?  Assam,  Burma,  Siam,  ?  Indo-China,  Malay 
States,  Sumatra,  Borneo.  Becoming  a  rare  animal. 

(Didermocerus  sumatrensis  sumatrensis  Fischer,  1814.  Extralimital) 
1814.  Rhinoceros  sumalrensis  Fischer,  Zoogn.  j:  301.  Sumatra.  Range:  Sumatra  and 

Didermocerus  sumatrensis  lasiotis  Buckland,  1872 

1872.  Rhinoceros  lasiolis  Buckland,  Land  and  \Vater,   10  August.  See  Harper,   1940, 

J.  Mammal.  21:  201.  South  of  Chittagong,  Eastern  Bengal. 
(?)  1854.  Rhinoceros  crossii  Gray,  P.Z.S.  251.  Locality  unknown.   (Based  on  a  horn 
which  could  equally  well  have  come  from  an  African  rhinoceros.) 

1873.  Ceralorhinus  niger  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.   //.•   357,  pi.    11.   Malacca.  Not  of 

Schinz,  1845. 
1873.   Ceralorhinus  blvlhii  Gray,  Ann.  NLig.  N.H.  //.•  3G0.  Tenasserim. 
Range:  ?  Assam,  Burma,  .Siam,  ?  Indo-China,  Malay  States. 


FAMILY     E  Q.U  I  D  A  E 

Genus:   Equus,  page  341 


Genus  EQUUS  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  is^i/w  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  lothed.  /.■  y^.  Equus  caballus  hinnaeus,  the  domestic 

1762.  Asinus  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  70.  Equus  asinus  Linnaeus.  Valid  as  a  subgenus. 
1762.   Onager  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  72.  Equus  asinus  Linnaeus. 
1824.  Asinus  Gray,  Zool.  Journ.  /.•  244.  Equus  asinus  Linnaeus. 
1924.  Mitroluppus  Matschie,  S.B.  Gcs.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  n)22:  68.  Microhippus  lafeli 

Matschie  =  Equus  kiang  Moorcroft. 

Simpson  also  quotes  a  name,  Hemionus  Cuvier,  1823.  The  only  reference  we  have  so 
far  traced  is  Hemionus  Cuvier,  1821,  Diet.  Sci.  Nat.  555,  which  seems  to  be  a  trivial, 
not  a  generic  name. 

There  are  other,  extralimital  (African)  subgeneric  names. 

For  the  geographical  distribution  of  recent  Equidae  see  Antonius,  1938,  P.^.S. 
107B:  557. 

2  species  in  Asia: 

Equus  hemionus,  page  341 
Equus  przewalskii,  page  '^/^i 

For  key  to  these  species,  see  G.  Allen,  1940,  Mammals  of  China  and  Mongolia,  2: 
1 28 1.  Bobrinskii  (1944)  refers  hemionus  to  the  subgenus  Asinus,  but  this  is  more 
usually  restricted  to  Equus  asinus  Linnaeus  which  now  occurs  as  a  wild  animal  only 
in  Eastern  Africa  (Sudan,  Somaliland). 

Equus  przewalskii  Poliakov,  1881  Przewalski's  Horse,  Tarpan 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Mongolia,  Chinese  Turkestan. 

Equus  PRZEWALSKII  Poliakov,  1 88 1 

1 88 1.  Equus  przewalskii  Poliakov,  Proc.  Imp.  Russian  Geogr.  Soc.  ly,  i :  pis.  i  and  2. 
See  also  1881,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  8:  16.  Oasis  of  Gashun  (44°30'  N.,  90°  E.), 
steppe  country  of  Eastern  Zungaria.  (Harper,  1940,  J.  Mammal,  21:  196.) 

1903.  Equus  hagenbecki  Matschie,  Naturwiss.  Wochenschrift,  18,  49:  583.  Ebi  Spring, 
Gobi  Desert,  Mongolia. 

Lydekker  considered  this  to  be  a  subspecies  of  Equus  caballus  Linnaeus,  the 
domestic  Horse. 

Equus  hemionus  Pallas,  1775  Asiatic  Wild  Ass 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Southern  and  Eastern  Russian  Turkestan 
(now  surviving  round  Kushka,  and  in  the  south-west  of  the  Balkash  basin;  single 
arrivals  from  China  have  recently  occurred  in  frontier  area  of  Hi  Valley  (Bobrinskii)  ), 
Mongolia,  Chinese  Turkestan,  Tibet;  Persia,  Iraq,  Syria;  Ladak,  Baluchistan,  Nepal, 
Sind  and  Cutch;  Afghanistan. 

For  a  discussion  of  the  type  localities,  status,  etc.  of  these  Asses,  see  Harper,  1940, 
J.  Mammal.  21:  197;  also  Pocock,  1948,  P.^.S.  iiy:  764. 



Eqi'L'S  HEMiONUS  HEMiONUs  Pallas,  1 775    Chigetai,  Kulan,  or  Mongolian  Wild  Ass 

1775.  Equus  hemionus  Pallas,  Nov.  Comm.  Ac.  Sci.  Petrop.  ig:  394,  pi.  7.  Tarei- 

Nor,  Dauria,  Transbaikalia  (50°  N.,  ii5°E.). 
1891.  Equus  hemionus  var.  typtcus  Sclater,  Cat.  Mamm.  Ind.  Mus.  2:  198. 
(?)  1904.  Equus  onager  castaneus  Lydekker,  Nov.  Zool.  //.•  590,  pi.  .wiii.  Kirghis  Nor, 

Kobdo,  Western  Mongolia. 
191  I.   Equus   (Asinus)   hemionus  bedfordi  Matschie,   in   Futtcrcr,   Durch  Asien,  j,   5, 

Zoolog.  Nachtrag,  23.  Probably  Kobdo,  Mongolia. 
191 1.  Equus  [Asinus)  hemionus  luteus  Matschie,  loc.  cit.  24.  Western  Gobi. 
Range:  now  apparently  only  found  about  Orok  Nor  and  Zagan  Nor,  in  Central 

Equus  hemionus  onager  Boddaert,  1 785  Persian  Onager  or  Ghor-khar 

1785.  Equus  onager  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.   160.  Kasbin,  North-Western  Persia, 

near  the  Caspian. 
1891.   Equus  onager  var.  typicus  Sclater,  Cat.  Mamm.  Ind.  Mus.  2:  198. 
(?)  191 1.  Equus  (Asinus)  hemionus  Jinschi  Matschie,  in  Futterer,  Durch  Asien,  j,  5, 
Zool.  Nachtrag,  24.  North-east  of  Zaisan  Nor,  Scmipalatinsk,  Russian  Asia. 
Range:    north-eastern   parts   of  Persia   and   North-Western  Afghanistan;    Russian 
Turkestan,  as  abo\e. 

Equus  hemionus  khur  Lesson,  1827  Indian  Wild  Ass  or  Ghor-khar 

1827.  Equus  khur  Lesson,  Mammalogie,  347.  The  Little  Rann  of  Cutch,  India. 
(?)  1841.  Asinus  hamar  H.  Smith,  Jardines  Nat.  Libr.  Mamm.  31:  351,  pi.  19.  Pro- 
vince of  Pars,  Persia,  between  Yezdi  Khast  and  Shulgastan. 
1862.  Asinus  indieus  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  163,  nom.  nud. 
1869.  Equus  indieus  George,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Zool.  12:  35. 
Range:  the  Rann  of  Cutch,  possibly  Baluchistan,  and  South-Eastern  Persia. 

Equus  hemionus  kiang  Moorcroft,  1841  Kiang 

1841.  Equus  kiang  Moorcroft,  Travels  in  the  Himalayan  Provinces,  /.•  312.  Eastern 

parts  of  Ladak,  Kashmir. 

1842.  Asinus  equioidei  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  //,  i  :  287.  Plains  of  Tibet. 
1847.  Asinus  poly 0 don  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J.N. H.  j:  469.  Hundes  district  of  Tibet. 
1869.  Asinus  kyang  Kinloch,  Large  Game  Shooting  in  Thibet,  /.•  13   Tibet. 

191  1.   Equus  (Asinus)  kiang  holdereri  Matschie,  in  Futterer,  Durch  Asien,  j,  5,  Zool. 

Nachtrag,  29.  South-western  shore  of  Lake  Kukunor,  Chinese  Central  Asia. 
1924.   Mierohippus  lafeli  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Fr.  Berlin,  i()22:  68.  Tosson  Nor, 

Range:  Ladak,  Nepal,  Sikkim,  Tibet  to  Kukunor  district. 

Equus  hemionus  hemippus  I.  Geoffroy,  1855 

1855.   Equus  hemippus  I.  Geoffroy,  C.R.  Ac.  Sci.  Paris,  41:  1214,  1220.  Syria. 
1869.   Equus  hemionus  var.  syriacus  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.  Mus.  H.N.  Paris,  5, 

Bull.:  40,  pi.  4.  Damascus,  Syria. 
Range:  Syrian  Desert  and  adjacent  parts.  Possibly  now  extinct. 




Responsibility  for  the  classification  of  this  Order  is  taken  by  T.  C.  S.  M.-S. 

^Vorks  of  reference : 

Allen,  G.  1939.  Checklist  African  Mammals,  Bull.  Mus.  Comp.  ^ool.  Harvard,  83. 

1 940.  Mammals  of  China  and  Mongolia,  2. 

BoBRiNSKii,  KuzNETZOV  &  KuzYAKiN.  1 944.  Mammals  of  the  U.S.S.R. 
Lydekker.  1 91 3-15.  Catalogue  of  Ungulate  Mammals  in  the  British  Museum,  i-^. 

i8g8.  The  Deer  of  all  Lands. 

Miller.   1912.  Catalogue  of  Mammals  of  Western  Europe. 

PococK.   191 1.  On  the  specialized  cutaneous  glands  of  Ruminants,  P.^.S.  igio: 

1 91 8.  On  some  external  characters  of  ruminant  Artiodactyla,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H. 

i:  426-435;  2:  125-144,  214-225,  367-374,  440-459. 

1919-  On  the  external  characters  of  existing  Chevrotains, /'.,<]'.  i?.  I. 

1923.  On  the  external  characters  of  Elaphurus,  Hydropotes,  Pudu  and  other 

Cervidae,  P.Z-S.  181. 

1923.  External  characters  of  the  Pygmy  Hippopotamus,  and  of  the  Suidae  and 

Camelidae,  P.Z-S.  531- 

ScHWARZ.   1937.   Wiss.  Ergeb.  Oldowaj-Exp.  igij,  N.S.  pt.  4;  7-90,  3  pis. 

ScLATER  &  Thomas.   1894-1900.   The  Book  of  Antelopes,  1-4. 

Simpson.   1945.  Principles  of  Classification  and  Classification  of  Mammals,  Bull. 

Amer.  Mus.  N.H.  8§. 
WiNGE.   1924.  Pattedyr-Slaegter,  j. 

Although  his  keys  and  specific  diagnoses  are  not  always  very  clear,  Lydekker's 
Catalogue  of  Ungulate  Alammals  is  one  of  the  most  useful  works  on  this  Order.  Simpson 
(1945)  classified  the  living  Artiodactyla  of  the  Palaearctic  and  Indian  regions  as 
follows : 

Suborder:  SUIFORMES 
Infraorder:  Suina 
Family:  Suidae 

Suborder:  TYLOPODA 
Family:  Camelidae 

Suborder:  RUMINANTIA 
Infraorder:  Tragulina 
Family:  Tragulidae 

Infraorder:  Pecora 

Superfamily:  Cer\'oidea 

Family:  Cervidae 
Superfamily:  Bovoidea 

Family:  Bovidae 


PAI.AF,ARCTK:  and  INMMAM  mammals   1 758-1946 

This  arrangement  is  in  general  agreement  with  most  of  the  earlier  authors  and  is 
here  followed.  Subfamilies  will  be  discussed  below  in  the  appropriate  places. 
FAMILIES:  Bovidae,  page  377 

Camelidae,  page  348 
Cervidae,  page  352 
Suidae,  page  344 
Tragulidae,  page  349 

The  Hippopotamidae  (genus  Hippopotamus)  inhabited  the  Lower  Nile  Valley  till 
about  1 81 5,  but  are  no  longer  found  in  the  Palaearctic  region. 



Genus:   Sus,  page  344 

Genus  SUS  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.  Sus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  49.  Sus  scrofa  Linnaeus.  (Opinion  75  of  the 
International  Commission  on  Zoological  Nomenclature.) 

1847.  Porciila  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  423.  Porcula  salvania  Hodgson.  Valid 
as  a  subgenus. 

1862.   Centuriosus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  17.  Sus  plicireps  Gray  (a  Japanese  domestic  \-ariety). 

1868.  Scrofa  Gray,    P.Z.S.    38.   Domestic   Pig.    [Sus  domrstkus  Brisson  =  Sus  scrofa 


1869.  Euhys  Gray,  Gat.  Carnivora,  etc.  Brit.  Mus.  339.  Sus  barbatus  Miiller,  from 

1873.  Aulacochoerus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  435.  Sus  vittalus  Miiller  =  Sus  vittalus 

Boie,  from  Sumatra. 
1873.  Dasvchoerus  Gray,  Ann.  Mag.  N.H.  //.•  435.  Sus  verrucosus  Muller  &  Schlegel, 

from  Java. 
1892.   Sinisus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Ghinois,  2:   102.  Apparently  based  on  the 

Chinese  forms  of  Sus  scrofa. 

■2  species  in  the  area  covered  by  this  list: 
Sus  salvanius,  page  348 
Sus  scroja,  page  345 
.S>/.*  Milranius  is  separated  subgenerically  as  Porcula  on  account  of  its  small  size,  the 
\ery  short  tail,  and  there  being  only  three  pairs  of  teats  as  opposed  to  six  pairs  in  Sus. 
The  other  wild  pigs  of  the  region  are  here  treated  as  belonging  to  a  single  species, 
.S>/(  Hrofa.  It  may  be  as  well  to  draw  attention  to  the  fact  that  Chasen,  1940,  Handlist 
of  Malaysian  Mammals,  besides  the  species  >S'.  verrucosus  and  .S'.  barbatus  recognized  one 
species  of  wild  pig  in  the  Malaysian  region,  which  he  listed  as  Sus  crrstalui  with 
vittalus  as  a  race.  But  he  should  have  done  it  the  other  way  round,  since  he  correctly 
referred  vittalus  to  Boie,  1828,  Pjijdr.  .Nat.  W'etcnsch.  3,  i  :  240,  which  antedates  crislatus 
by  ele\en  years.  Both  eristatus  and  viltatw.  are  here  regarded  as  representing  S.  scrnja. 

Subgenus  SUS  Linnaeus,  ry^S 

Sus  scrofa  Linnaeus,  1758  Wild  Boar 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Continental  Europe,  known  from  Spain  and 
Portugal,  France,  Belgium  (Holland  and  Denmark,  became  extinct  but  reintroduced 
after  1800),  Germany,  Switzerland,  Italy,  Corsica  and  Sardinia,  Baltic  States  (south 
of  58°N.),  Poland,  Czechoslovakia,  Austria,  Hungary,  Yugoslavia,  Rumania,  Bul- 
garia, Greece.  In  Western  Russia,  roughly  from  Riga  towards  Velikie  Luki,  but 
turning  south  before  reaching  there,  passing  round  west  of  Vitebsk  and  roughly 
along  the  White  Russian  frontier,  Chernigov  district  included,  to  Kiev,  and  a  little 
south  of  Mogilev,  reaching  the  Dniester,  which  it  follows  to  the  Black  Sea  (with 
individual  cases  of  incursions  fairly  far  east  of  this  line)  (Bobrinskii).  Caucasus. 
Widely  distributed  in  Russian  Turkestan,  and  to  as  far  north  as  Pavlodar  on  Irtish 
River.  Far  East  of  Siberia  from  eastern  Sayan  Mountains,  through  Transbaikalia 
and  Amur  regions  to  Ussuri  region.  Japan,  Formosa,  Manchuria;  Mongolia,  Chinese 
Turkestan;  all  the  larger  states  of  China  (perhaps  excepting  Yunnan).  Asia  Minor, 
Persia,  Afghanistan,  Palestine.  India,  from  Baluchistan,  Kashmir,  Nepal  south- 
wards through  the  Peninsula  to  Ceylon,  east  to  Burma.  Indo-China,  Siam,  Malay 
States,  Sumatra,  Java  and  various  small  islands,  Flores.  Rio  de  Oro,  Morocco, 
Algeria,  the  Sudan,  and  formerly  Egypt  where  it  became  extinct  about  1900  (Flower, 

Sus  SCROFA  SCROFA  Linnaeus,  1758 

1758.  Sus  scrofa  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  49.  Germany. 

1785.  Sus  setosus  Boddaert,  Elench.  Anim.  /.•  157.  Substitute  for  scrofa. 

1 785.   [Sus  setosus)  aper  Boddaert,  loc.  cit. 

1788.  Sus  scrofa  ferus  Gmelin,  Linn.  Syst.  Nat.  /.•  217. 

181 1.  Sus  europaeus  Pallas,  Ross.  Asiat.  /.•  265.  Substitute  for  scrofa. 

1836.  Sus  scropha  ]-a.rAint,  Nat.  Libr.  Mamm.  5.-  205.  Substitute  for  scrofa. 

1882.  Sus  scrofa  var.  celtica  Strobel,   Atti   Soc.    Ital.    Sci.   Nat.    Milano,    25.-    79. 

Range:  from  France  and  Germany  eastwards  into  Western  White  Russia. 

Sus  SCROFA  CRiSTATUS  Wagner,  1839 

1839.  '^"^  cristatus  Wagner,  Munch.  Gelehrt.  Anz.  g:  435  (misprinted  as  "535"). 

Probably  the  Malabar  coast,  India. 
1842.  Sus  aper  var.  aipomus  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  10:  911.  Nepal. 

1842.  Sus  aper  var.  tsonotus  Hodgson,  loc.  cit.  Nepal. 

1843.  Sus  indicus  Gray,  List.  Mamm.  B.M.  185. 

1847.  Sus  affinis  Gray,  Cat.  Osteol.  B.M.  71.  Nilgiri  Hills,  India. 
1851.  Sus  zeylonensis  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  20:  173.  Ceylon. 
i860.  Sus  bengalensis  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  2g:  105.  Bengal. 
1900.  Sus  cristatus  typicus  Lydekker,  Great  &  .Small  Game  India,  261. 
Range:  Ceylon  and  Indian  range  of  species  above. 



Sus  scROFA  LEUCOMYSTAX  TeiTiminck,  1842 

1842.   Sus  leucomvstax  Tcmminck,  Siebolds  Fauna  Japon.  Mamm.  6.  Japan. 
1885.   Sus  vittatus  japomca  Nehring,  Zool.  Garten,  26:  336. 
Range  includes  Islands  of  Hondo,  Shikoku,  Kiushiu,  Japan. 

Sus    SCROFA    ANDAMANENSIS    Blyth,    1858 

1858.   Sus  andamanensis  Blyth,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  2j:  267.  Port  Blair,  Andaman 
Islands,  Bay  of  Bengal. 

Sus  scROF.A.  BARBARUS  Sclater,  i860 

i860.   Sus  saofa  var.  harharus  Sclater,  P.Z.S.  443.  North  Africa. 

1867.  Sus  scrofa  var.  alajra  Loche,  E.xpl.  Sci.  dc  PAlgcrie,  Zool.  Mamm.  59.  Country 

of  Beni  Sliman,  Algeria. 
(?)  1937.   Sus  scrofa  sahariensii  Heim  de  Balsac,   Bull.   Soc.   Zool.   France,   G2:   333. 

Jebel  Guettar,  north-west  of  Ain  Sefra,  Northern  Algeria. 
Range:   Morocco,  Rio  de  Oro,  Algeria. 

Sus    SCROFA    TAIVANUS    SwiuhoC,    1 863 

1863.  Ponula  taivana  Swinhoe,  P.Z.S.  1862:  360.  Formosa. 

Sus  SCROFA  LiBYCUS  Gray,  1868 

1868.  Sus  libycus  Gray,  P.Z.S.  31.  Xanthus,  near  GUnek,  South-Western  Asia  Minor. 

Sus  scROF,*!  MOUPiNENsis  Milnc-Edwards,  1872 

1872.   Sus  moupinensis  Milne-Edwards,  Nouv.  Arch.   Mus.  H.N.  Paris,   7,  Bull.:  93 

(footnote).  Moupin,  Szechuan,  China. 
1888.   Sus  oxjodontus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  2:  54,  mm.  nud.  Upper  Han 

River,  Shensi,  China. 
1888.   Sus  dicrurus  Heude,   loc.  cit.   55.   Divide   between   Han  and   Kincha   Rivers, 

Shensi,  China. 
1892.   Sus  curtidens,  Sus  laticeps,  Sus  collinus  and  Sui  acrocraniui  Heude,  Mem.  H.N. 

Emp.  Chin.  2:  1 14. 
1899.  Sus planiceps  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  4:  132.  Ho  Shan,  Anhwei,  Clhina. 
Range:  Szechuan,  eastwards  to  Chihli,  Northern  China. 

Sus  SCROFA  NiGRiPES  Blanford,  1875 

1875.   Sus  scrofa  var.  ruaripes  Blanford,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  44,  2:    112.   Kashgar 

district,   Chinese  Tianshan.   Ranges   throughout   Russian   Turkestan,   and 

probably  Afghanistan. 

Sus  SCROFA  MERiDioN'ALis  Forsyth  Major,  1882 

1882.   Sus  scrofa  nuridionalis  Forsyth   Major,  Atti  Soc.  Tosc.   Sci.  Nat.   Pisa,   Proc. 

\'erb.  3:  119  (May).  Sardinia. 
1882.   Sus  scrofa   var!   sardous   Strobel,   Atti   Soc.    Ital.   Sci.   Nat.    Milano,    2j:    221 

(September).  Sardinia. 



Sus  SCROFA  ussuRicus  Heude,  1888 

1888.  Sus  ussuricus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  2:  54.  Ussuri  Valley,  Eastern 


1889.  Sus  leticomystax  var.  continentalis  Nehring,  S.B.  Ges.  Nat.  Freunde  Berlin,  141. 

Vladivostock,  Eastern  Siberia. 
1892.  Sus  gigas  Heude,   Mem.  H.N.   Emp.   Chin,   2:    114.  Vladivostock,   Eastern 

1897.  Sus  songaricus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin,  j.-  191.  Valley  of  Sungari  River, 

(?)  1897.  Sus  canescens  Heude,  loc.  cit.  192.  Pekin,  China. 
1897.  Sus  mandchuricus  Heude,  loc.  cit.  192.  Mukden,  Manchuria. 

Sus  SCROFA  CHiRODONTUs  Hcudc,  1 888 

1888.  Sus  chirodontus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  2:  54.  Poyang  Lake,  Kiangsi, 

Southern  China. 
1888.  Sus  palustris  Heude,  loc.  cit.   (footnote).  Not  of  Riitimeyer,   1861.  Valley  of 

Yangtze,  China. 
1892.  Sus  leucorhinus,  Sus  paludosus,  Sus  melas  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  2:  1 14. 
1899.  Sus  flavescens  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  4:   130.  Yangtze  and  Taihu, 

Kiangsu,  China. 
1899.  Sus  chirodonticus  Heude,  loc.  cit.  Poyang  Lake,  Kiangsi,  China. 
Range:  Southern  China  and  Hainan. 

Sus  SCROFA  coREANUS  Heude,  1897 

1897.  Sus  coreanus  Heude,  Mem.  H.N.  Emp.  Chin.  5.-  191.  Fusan,  Korea. 

Sus  SCROFA  NicoBARicus  Miller,  1902 

1902.  Sus  nicobaricus  Miller,  Proc    U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  24:  755.  Great  Nicobar  Island, 
Bay  of  Bengal. 

Sus  SCROFA  juBATUS  Miller,  1906 

1906.  Sus  jubatus  Miller,  Proc.  U.S.  Nat.  Mus.  jo.-  745.  Trang,  Lower  Siam.  Ranges 
north  into  Indo-China. 

Sus  SCROFA  ATTiLA  Thomas,  191 2 

191 2.  Sus  attila  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.   13;  P.Z.S.  393.  Kolozsvar,  Transylvania. 
Ranges  eastwards  to  the  Caucasus  and.  Northern  Persia. 

Sus  SCROFA  CASTiLiANUs  Thomas,  1912 

191 2.  Sus  scrofa  castilianus  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.  13;  P.Z.S.  392.  Quintanar  de  la 

Sierra,  near  Burgos,  Northern  Spain. 
(?)  1912.  Sus  scrofa  baeticus  Thomas,  Abstr.  P.Z.S.   14;  P.Z.S.  393.  Coto  Donana, 

Huelva,  Southern  Spain. 

Sus    SCROFA    FALZFEINI    MatSChic,    I918 

1 91 8.  Susfalzfeini  Matschie,  S.B.  Ges.  Naturf.  Fr.  Berlin,  No.  8,  5.  Naliboki,  North- 
Eastern  Poland. 

2  347 


Sus  scROFA  RiuKiuANUs  Kuroda,  1924 

1924.  Sus  leucomystax  riukiuanus  Kuroda,  on  New  Mammals  from  Riu  Kiu  Islands 

(Tokyo),  II.  Kabira,  Ishigakijima,  Riukiu  Islands. 

Sus  SCROFA  REisFRi   Bolkay,  1925 

1925.  Sui  atlila  tfisfii  Bolkay,  Nov.  Mus.  Sarajevo,  /.■  13.  Bosnia,  Yugoslavia. 

Sus  sc.ROF.\  MAjoRi  dc  Beaux  &  Festa,  1927 

1927.  Sus  scrofa  majori  de  Beaux  &  Festa,  Mem.  Soc.  Ital.  Sci.  Nat.  Milano,  9.-  270. 
Mt.  Pescali,  Tuscany  Maremma,  Italy. 

Sus  SCROFA  R.-\DDE.-\Nus  Adlerberg,  1930 

1930.  Sus  scrofa  raddeanus  Adlerberg,  C.R.  Acad.  Sci.  U.R.S.S.  95,  figs.  2,  3.  Sugu 
Nor,  southern  Kentai  Mountains,  Mongolia.  Ranges  to  Southern  Trans- 

Subgenus  PORCULA  Hodgson,  1847 

Sus  salvanius  Hodgson,  1847  Pygmy  Hog 

Approximate  distribution:  the  Terai  of  Sikkim,  Nepal  and  Bhutan,  India. 

Sus  S.A.LVANIUS  Hodgson,  1847 

1847.  Porcula  salvania  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  16:  423,  pis.   12,   13.  Sikkim 

Terai,  India. 
1863.   Sus  lilliputensis  Gray,  Cat.  Hodgson's  Cloll.  B.M.,  2nd  ed.  15,  nom.  nud. 

Tate  (1947,  311)  suggests  that  salvanius  may  have  been  based  on  young  specimens 
of  the  Indian  wild  boar.  This  was  not  so,  and  the  species  is  valid.  The  adult  skulls  in 
the  British  Museum  have  an  overall  length  of  only  150-160  mm. 


FAMILY     C  A  M  E  L  I  D  A  E 

Genus:   Camdus,  page  348 

Genus  CAMELUS  Linnaeus,  1 758 

1758.   Camelus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.   loth  ed.  /.•  65.  Camehn  bactrianus  Linnaeus  (see 
Opinion  16  of  International  Commission  on  Zoological  Nomenclature). 

I  species  known  in  the  wild  state: 

( Ml/hi u\   haclnanus,  page  349 



Camelus  bactrianus  Linnaeus,  1758  Bactrian,  or  Two-hum  ed  Camel 

Approximate  distribution  of  species:  According  to  Allen  (1940)  it  is  nit  possible 
to  say  whether  the  camels  found  in  Central  Asia  are  truly  wild  or  are  descf  nded  from 
escaped  domesticated  stock.  Harper  (1945)  says  that  the  wild  Bactrian  camel  still 
exists  in  restricted  numbers  in  Chinese  Turkestan  and  in  Mongolia.  The  same 
author  quotes  Leche  (1904)  and  Lattimore  (1929)  on  the  anatomical  differences 
between  Camelus  bactrianus  bactrianus  and  C.  b.  ferus  which  support  the  \iew  that  the 
latter  is  a  genuinely  wild  animal,  not  contaminated  to  any  appreciable  extent  with 
the  blood  of  the  domestic  animal.  According  to  Bannikov,  1945,  \,ool.  J.  Moscow,  24: 
200,  there  are  wild  Bactrian  camels  in  the  Gobi  in  an  area  bounded  by  the  parallels 
of  42-45°  and  by  longitudes  96-99°.  The  only  camels  in  the  U.S.S.R.  are  domestic 
ones  (Bobrinskii,  1944).  The  domestic  Bactrian  camel  has  a  wide  distribution  in 
Asia.  The  Dromedary,  or  One-humped  Camel  {Camelus  dromedarius  Linnaeus),  is  not 
known  in  the  wild  state. 

Camelus  bactrianus  bactrianus  Linnaeus,  1758  (Domestic  Bactrian  Camel) 
1758.  Camelus  bactrianus  Linnaeus,  Syst.  Nat.  loth  ed.  /.•  65.  "Bactria"  =  Bokhara. 

Camelus  bactrianus  ferus  Przewalski,  1883  (Wild  Bactrian  Camel) 

1883.  Camelus  bactrianus  ferus  Przewalski,  Third  Journey  into  Central  Asia,  43.  Border 

of  the  Kum-tagh,  east  of  Lob-Nor  and  north  of  the  Altyn-tagh,  Chinese 

Turkestan  (Harper,  1940). 



Genus:   Tragulus,  page  349 

Genus  TRAGULUS  Brisson,  1 762 

1762.  Tragulus  Brisson,  Regn.  Anim.  65.  Tragulus  indicus  Brisson  ?=Cen!us  javanicus 

1843.  Moschiola  Hodgson,  Calcutta  J. N.H.  4:  292.  Tragulus  mimenoides  Hodgson  = 
Tragulus  meminna  Erxleben.  Valid  as  a  subgenus.  (Thomas,  1916,  Ann.  Mao-. 
N.H.  18:  72,  says  that  Moschiola  Hodgson  is  invalid  because  it  was  published 
in  conjunction  with  a  nomen  nudum  (i.e.  mimenoides).  But  Thomas  was  mis- 
taken in  thinking  this  was  a  nomen  nudum.  The  name  mimenoides  was  published 
in  proper  form  by  Hodgson  in  the  previous  year  (see  belowj.i 

Hopwood,  1947,  P.Z-S.  117:  534,  considers  Brisson,  1762,  an  unavailable  work 
and  holds,  further,  that  the  name  Tragulus  Pallas,  1779,  Spicilegia  ^ooloiiica,  ij:  27,  is 
also  unavailable.  He  proposes  dating  Tragulus  from  Boddaert,  1785,  Elenchus  Anima- 
lium,  with  type  species  T.  pygmaeus  Boddaert  =  Capra  pygmaeus  (sic)  Linnaeus,  1758. 
This  selection  of  type  species  is,  however,  most  unfortunate,  since  Capra  pygmaeus 
Linnaeus,  1758,  is  the  Royal  Antelope  of  West  Africa,  a  member  of  the  Bo\-idae. 



An  examination  of  Boddacrt  shows,  however,  that  Boddaert  should  not,  by  his 
own  definition,  have  included  pygmaeus  in  his  Tragt/ltis,  since  the  latter  is  defined  as 
being  hornless  whereas  Moschus  pygmaeus  Linnaeus,  1766,  which  is  what  Boddaert 
definitely  quotes,  and  which  is  the  same  thing  as  Capra  pygmaea  Linnaeus,  1 758,  has 

The  only  hornless  species  included  by  Boddaert  in  Tragulus  are  T.  moschus 
(=  Moschus  moschiferus  Linnaeus,  1758)  and  T.  mcminna  Erxleben,  1777,  and  in  his 
index  on  p.  49,  he  writes:  "Tragulus  {Moschus  Linn.)".  The  type  species  of  Tragulus 
Boddaert,  1785,  is  therefore  Moschus  moschiferus  Linnaeus,  1758,  the  Musk  Deer.  So 
irrespective  of  Hopwood's  curious  selection  of  type  species  the  dating  of  Tragulus 
from  Boddaert,  1785,  would  be  a  most  unfortunate  affair,  involving,  as  it  would,  the 
transferring  of  Tragulus  away  from  the  Tragulines,  with  all  the  resulting  confusion. 

Therefore,  pending  a  decision  by  the  International  Commission  on  Zoological 
Nomenclature,  we  propose  to  continue  dating  Tragulus  from  Brisson,   1762. 

The  classification  of  this  genus  presents  no  great  difficulties,  thanks  to  the  work  of 
Lydekker,  Chasen  and  others.  Two  species  of  the  typical  subgenus  occur  side  by  side 
more  or  less  from  Tenasserim  to  Borneo.  T.  meminna,  from  Western  India,  is  separated 
subgenerically  as  Moschiola.  Pocock  gave  it  generic  rank,  but  we  prefer  to  follow 
Simpson  and  regard  it  as  a  subgenus.  See  Pocock,  iqig,  P.^-^-  ';  ^ind  Lydekker, 
191 5,  Cat.  Ung.  Mamrn.  B.M.  4:  260,  for  specific  characters. 

3  species :  Tragulus  javanicus,  page  35 1 
Tragulus  meminna,  page  350 
Tragulus  napu,  page  351 

Subgenus  MOSCHIOLA  Hodgson,  1843 

Tragulus  meminna  Erxleben,  1777        Indian  Spotted  Chevrotain  (Mouse-deer) 
Approximate  distribution  of  species:  Ceylon  and  Peninsular  India.  (See  Cham- 
pion,   1929,  J.  Bombay  N.H.  Soc.  23-    985,  for  Indian  details);  in  India,  north 
approximately  to  Central  Provinces. 

Tragulus  meminna  Erxleben,  1777 

1777.   Moschus  meminna  Erxleben,  Syst.  Regn.  Anim.,  Mamni.  322.  Ceylon. 

(?)  1842.    Tragulus  mimenoidcs  Hodgson,  J.  Asiat.  Soc.  Bengal,  10:  914.  Nepal  Terai. 

1843.  Meminna  indica  Gray,  List.  Mamm.  B.M.  i72.  Not  of  Brisson,  1762,  but  based 

on  meminna  Erxleben. 
1843.   Meminna  tnalaccensis  Gray,  List.  Mamm.  B.M.  172.  Locality  unknown.  (Gray 

gives  "Singapore.") 

Subgenus  TRAGULUS  Brisson,  1762 

See  Kloss,  19 18,  J.  Fed.  Malay  Stales  Mus.  y:  245;  Notes  on  Malayan  and  other 



A.  van  Bemmel,  1949,  Treubia,  20,  2:  378,  points  out  the  necessity  for  "a  rather 
disagreeable  change  of  nomenclature"  in  this  subgenus.  For  years  the  Larger 
Mouse-deer  has  been  called  Tragulus  javanicus  Osbeck,  and  the  Lesser  Mouse-deer 
T.  kanchil  Raffles.  It  was  not  till  1929  that  Sody  and  Dammerman  began  to  query 
the  existence  of  the  Larger  Mouse-deer  in  Java. 

Now  van  Bemmel  has  investigated  the  problem  thoroughly  and  finds  that  in  no 
collection  can  a  specimen  of  the  Larger  Mouse-deer  be  found  which  is  reliably  known 
to  have  come  from  Java,  and,  further,  that  the  Larger  Mouse-deer  has  never  been 
observed  in  Java.  Furthermore,  a  study  of